Open Access Theses and Dissertations

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OATD.org aims to be the best possible resource for finding open access graduate theses and dissertations published around the world. Metadata (information about the theses) comes from over 1100 colleges, universities, and research institutions . OATD currently indexes 6,912,508 theses and dissertations.

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You may also want to consult these sites to search for other theses:

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  • Proquest Theses and Dissertations (PQDT), a database of dissertations and theses, whether they were published electronically or in print, and mostly available for purchase. Access to PQDT may be limited; consult your local library for access information.

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How To Write A Dissertation Or Thesis

8 straightforward steps to craft an a-grade dissertation.

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) Expert Reviewed By: Dr Eunice Rautenbach | June 2020

Writing a dissertation or thesis is not a simple task. It takes time, energy and a lot of will power to get you across the finish line. It’s not easy – but it doesn’t necessarily need to be a painful process. If you understand the big-picture process of how to write a dissertation or thesis, your research journey will be a lot smoother.  

In this post, I’m going to outline the big-picture process of how to write a high-quality dissertation or thesis, without losing your mind along the way. If you’re just starting your research, this post is perfect for you. Alternatively, if you’ve already submitted your proposal, this article which covers how to structure a dissertation might be more helpful.

How To Write A Dissertation: 8 Steps

  • Clearly understand what a dissertation (or thesis) is
  • Find a unique and valuable research topic
  • Craft a convincing research proposal
  • Write up a strong introduction chapter
  • Review the existing literature and compile a literature review
  • Design a rigorous research strategy and undertake your own research
  • Present the findings of your research
  • Draw a conclusion and discuss the implications

Start writing your dissertation

Step 1: Understand exactly what a dissertation is

This probably sounds like a no-brainer, but all too often, students come to us for help with their research and the underlying issue is that they don’t fully understand what a dissertation (or thesis) actually is.

So, what is a dissertation?

At its simplest, a dissertation or thesis is a formal piece of research , reflecting the standard research process . But what is the standard research process, you ask? The research process involves 4 key steps:

  • Ask a very specific, well-articulated question (s) (your research topic)
  • See what other researchers have said about it (if they’ve already answered it)
  • If they haven’t answered it adequately, undertake your own data collection and analysis in a scientifically rigorous fashion
  • Answer your original question(s), based on your analysis findings

 A dissertation or thesis is a formal piece of research, reflecting the standard four step academic research process.

In short, the research process is simply about asking and answering questions in a systematic fashion . This probably sounds pretty obvious, but people often think they’ve done “research”, when in fact what they have done is:

  • Started with a vague, poorly articulated question
  • Not taken the time to see what research has already been done regarding the question
  • Collected data and opinions that support their gut and undertaken a flimsy analysis
  • Drawn a shaky conclusion, based on that analysis

If you want to see the perfect example of this in action, look out for the next Facebook post where someone claims they’ve done “research”… All too often, people consider reading a few blog posts to constitute research. Its no surprise then that what they end up with is an opinion piece, not research. Okay, okay – I’ll climb off my soapbox now.

The key takeaway here is that a dissertation (or thesis) is a formal piece of research, reflecting the research process. It’s not an opinion piece , nor a place to push your agenda or try to convince someone of your position. Writing a good dissertation involves asking a question and taking a systematic, rigorous approach to answering it.

If you understand this and are comfortable leaving your opinions or preconceived ideas at the door, you’re already off to a good start!

 A dissertation is not an opinion piece, nor a place to push your agenda or try to  convince someone of your position.

Step 2: Find a unique, valuable research topic

As we saw, the first step of the research process is to ask a specific, well-articulated question. In other words, you need to find a research topic that asks a specific question or set of questions (these are called research questions ). Sounds easy enough, right? All you’ve got to do is identify a question or two and you’ve got a winning research topic. Well, not quite…

A good dissertation or thesis topic has a few important attributes. Specifically, a solid research topic should be:

Let’s take a closer look at these:

Attribute #1: Clear

Your research topic needs to be crystal clear about what you’re planning to research, what you want to know, and within what context. There shouldn’t be any ambiguity or vagueness about what you’ll research.

Here’s an example of a clearly articulated research topic:

An analysis of consumer-based factors influencing organisational trust in British low-cost online equity brokerage firms.

As you can see in the example, its crystal clear what will be analysed (factors impacting organisational trust), amongst who (consumers) and in what context (British low-cost equity brokerage firms, based online).

Need a helping hand?

best looking thesis

Attribute #2:   Unique

Your research should be asking a question(s) that hasn’t been asked before, or that hasn’t been asked in a specific context (for example, in a specific country or industry).

For example, sticking organisational trust topic above, it’s quite likely that organisational trust factors in the UK have been investigated before, but the context (online low-cost equity brokerages) could make this research unique. Therefore, the context makes this research original.

One caveat when using context as the basis for originality – you need to have a good reason to suspect that your findings in this context might be different from the existing research – otherwise, there’s no reason to warrant researching it.

Attribute #3: Important

Simply asking a unique or original question is not enough – the question needs to create value. In other words, successfully answering your research questions should provide some value to the field of research or the industry. You can’t research something just to satisfy your curiosity. It needs to make some form of contribution either to research or industry.

For example, researching the factors influencing consumer trust would create value by enabling businesses to tailor their operations and marketing to leverage factors that promote trust. In other words, it would have a clear benefit to industry.

So, how do you go about finding a unique and valuable research topic? We explain that in detail in this video post – How To Find A Research Topic . Yeah, we’ve got you covered 😊

Step 3: Write a convincing research proposal

Once you’ve pinned down a high-quality research topic, the next step is to convince your university to let you research it. No matter how awesome you think your topic is, it still needs to get the rubber stamp before you can move forward with your research. The research proposal is the tool you’ll use for this job.

So, what’s in a research proposal?

The main “job” of a research proposal is to convince your university, advisor or committee that your research topic is worthy of approval. But convince them of what? Well, this varies from university to university, but generally, they want to see that:

  • You have a clearly articulated, unique and important topic (this might sound familiar…)
  • You’ve done some initial reading of the existing literature relevant to your topic (i.e. a literature review)
  • You have a provisional plan in terms of how you will collect data and analyse it (i.e. a methodology)

At the proposal stage, it’s (generally) not expected that you’ve extensively reviewed the existing literature , but you will need to show that you’ve done enough reading to identify a clear gap for original (unique) research. Similarly, they generally don’t expect that you have a rock-solid research methodology mapped out, but you should have an idea of whether you’ll be undertaking qualitative or quantitative analysis , and how you’ll collect your data (we’ll discuss this in more detail later).

Long story short – don’t stress about having every detail of your research meticulously thought out at the proposal stage – this will develop as you progress through your research. However, you do need to show that you’ve “done your homework” and that your research is worthy of approval .

So, how do you go about crafting a high-quality, convincing proposal? We cover that in detail in this video post – How To Write A Top-Class Research Proposal . We’ve also got a video walkthrough of two proposal examples here .

Step 4: Craft a strong introduction chapter

Once your proposal’s been approved, its time to get writing your actual dissertation or thesis! The good news is that if you put the time into crafting a high-quality proposal, you’ve already got a head start on your first three chapters – introduction, literature review and methodology – as you can use your proposal as the basis for these.

Handy sidenote – our free dissertation & thesis template is a great way to speed up your dissertation writing journey.

What’s the introduction chapter all about?

The purpose of the introduction chapter is to set the scene for your research (dare I say, to introduce it…) so that the reader understands what you’ll be researching and why it’s important. In other words, it covers the same ground as the research proposal in that it justifies your research topic.

What goes into the introduction chapter?

This can vary slightly between universities and degrees, but generally, the introduction chapter will include the following:

  • A brief background to the study, explaining the overall area of research
  • A problem statement , explaining what the problem is with the current state of research (in other words, where the knowledge gap exists)
  • Your research questions – in other words, the specific questions your study will seek to answer (based on the knowledge gap)
  • The significance of your study – in other words, why it’s important and how its findings will be useful in the world

As you can see, this all about explaining the “what” and the “why” of your research (as opposed to the “how”). So, your introduction chapter is basically the salesman of your study, “selling” your research to the first-time reader and (hopefully) getting them interested to read more.

How do I write the introduction chapter, you ask? We cover that in detail in this post .

The introduction chapter is where you set the scene for your research, detailing exactly what you’ll be researching and why it’s important.

Step 5: Undertake an in-depth literature review

As I mentioned earlier, you’ll need to do some initial review of the literature in Steps 2 and 3 to find your research gap and craft a convincing research proposal – but that’s just scratching the surface. Once you reach the literature review stage of your dissertation or thesis, you need to dig a lot deeper into the existing research and write up a comprehensive literature review chapter.

What’s the literature review all about?

There are two main stages in the literature review process:

Literature Review Step 1: Reading up

The first stage is for you to deep dive into the existing literature (journal articles, textbook chapters, industry reports, etc) to gain an in-depth understanding of the current state of research regarding your topic. While you don’t need to read every single article, you do need to ensure that you cover all literature that is related to your core research questions, and create a comprehensive catalogue of that literature , which you’ll use in the next step.

Reading and digesting all the relevant literature is a time consuming and intellectually demanding process. Many students underestimate just how much work goes into this step, so make sure that you allocate a good amount of time for this when planning out your research. Thankfully, there are ways to fast track the process – be sure to check out this article covering how to read journal articles quickly .

Dissertation Coaching

Literature Review Step 2: Writing up

Once you’ve worked through the literature and digested it all, you’ll need to write up your literature review chapter. Many students make the mistake of thinking that the literature review chapter is simply a summary of what other researchers have said. While this is partly true, a literature review is much more than just a summary. To pull off a good literature review chapter, you’ll need to achieve at least 3 things:

  • You need to synthesise the existing research , not just summarise it. In other words, you need to show how different pieces of theory fit together, what’s agreed on by researchers, what’s not.
  • You need to highlight a research gap that your research is going to fill. In other words, you’ve got to outline the problem so that your research topic can provide a solution.
  • You need to use the existing research to inform your methodology and approach to your own research design. For example, you might use questions or Likert scales from previous studies in your your own survey design .

As you can see, a good literature review is more than just a summary of the published research. It’s the foundation on which your own research is built, so it deserves a lot of love and attention. Take the time to craft a comprehensive literature review with a suitable structure .

But, how do I actually write the literature review chapter, you ask? We cover that in detail in this video post .

Step 6: Carry out your own research

Once you’ve completed your literature review and have a sound understanding of the existing research, its time to develop your own research (finally!). You’ll design this research specifically so that you can find the answers to your unique research question.

There are two steps here – designing your research strategy and executing on it:

1 – Design your research strategy

The first step is to design your research strategy and craft a methodology chapter . I won’t get into the technicalities of the methodology chapter here, but in simple terms, this chapter is about explaining the “how” of your research. If you recall, the introduction and literature review chapters discussed the “what” and the “why”, so it makes sense that the next point to cover is the “how” –that’s what the methodology chapter is all about.

In this section, you’ll need to make firm decisions about your research design. This includes things like:

  • Your research philosophy (e.g. positivism or interpretivism )
  • Your overall methodology (e.g. qualitative , quantitative or mixed methods)
  • Your data collection strategy (e.g. interviews , focus groups, surveys)
  • Your data analysis strategy (e.g. content analysis , correlation analysis, regression)

If these words have got your head spinning, don’t worry! We’ll explain these in plain language in other posts. It’s not essential that you understand the intricacies of research design (yet!). The key takeaway here is that you’ll need to make decisions about how you’ll design your own research, and you’ll need to describe (and justify) your decisions in your methodology chapter.

2 – Execute: Collect and analyse your data

Once you’ve worked out your research design, you’ll put it into action and start collecting your data. This might mean undertaking interviews, hosting an online survey or any other data collection method. Data collection can take quite a bit of time (especially if you host in-person interviews), so be sure to factor sufficient time into your project plan for this. Oftentimes, things don’t go 100% to plan (for example, you don’t get as many survey responses as you hoped for), so bake a little extra time into your budget here.

Once you’ve collected your data, you’ll need to do some data preparation before you can sink your teeth into the analysis. For example:

  • If you carry out interviews or focus groups, you’ll need to transcribe your audio data to text (i.e. a Word document).
  • If you collect quantitative survey data, you’ll need to clean up your data and get it into the right format for whichever analysis software you use (for example, SPSS, R or STATA).

Once you’ve completed your data prep, you’ll undertake your analysis, using the techniques that you described in your methodology. Depending on what you find in your analysis, you might also do some additional forms of analysis that you hadn’t planned for. For example, you might see something in the data that raises new questions or that requires clarification with further analysis.

The type(s) of analysis that you’ll use depend entirely on the nature of your research and your research questions. For example:

  • If your research if exploratory in nature, you’ll often use qualitative analysis techniques .
  • If your research is confirmatory in nature, you’ll often use quantitative analysis techniques
  • If your research involves a mix of both, you might use a mixed methods approach

Again, if these words have got your head spinning, don’t worry! We’ll explain these concepts and techniques in other posts. The key takeaway is simply that there’s no “one size fits all” for research design and methodology – it all depends on your topic, your research questions and your data. So, don’t be surprised if your study colleagues take a completely different approach to yours.

The research philosophy is at the core of the methodology chapter

Step 7: Present your findings

Once you’ve completed your analysis, it’s time to present your findings (finally!). In a dissertation or thesis, you’ll typically present your findings in two chapters – the results chapter and the discussion chapter .

What’s the difference between the results chapter and the discussion chapter?

While these two chapters are similar, the results chapter generally just presents the processed data neatly and clearly without interpretation, while the discussion chapter explains the story the data are telling  – in other words, it provides your interpretation of the results.

For example, if you were researching the factors that influence consumer trust, you might have used a quantitative approach to identify the relationship between potential factors (e.g. perceived integrity and competence of the organisation) and consumer trust. In this case:

  • Your results chapter would just present the results of the statistical tests. For example, correlation results or differences between groups. In other words, the processed numbers.
  • Your discussion chapter would explain what the numbers mean in relation to your research question(s). For example, Factor 1 has a weak relationship with consumer trust, while Factor 2 has a strong relationship.

Depending on the university and degree, these two chapters (results and discussion) are sometimes merged into one , so be sure to check with your institution what their preference is. Regardless of the chapter structure, this section is about presenting the findings of your research in a clear, easy to understand fashion.

Importantly, your discussion here needs to link back to your research questions (which you outlined in the introduction or literature review chapter). In other words, it needs to answer the key questions you asked (or at least attempt to answer them).

For example, if we look at the sample research topic:

In this case, the discussion section would clearly outline which factors seem to have a noteworthy influence on organisational trust. By doing so, they are answering the overarching question and fulfilling the purpose of the research .

Your discussion here needs to link back to your research questions. It needs to answer the key questions you asked in your introduction.

For more information about the results chapter , check out this post for qualitative studies and this post for quantitative studies .

Step 8: The Final Step Draw a conclusion and discuss the implications

Last but not least, you’ll need to wrap up your research with the conclusion chapter . In this chapter, you’ll bring your research full circle by highlighting the key findings of your study and explaining what the implications of these findings are.

What exactly are key findings? The key findings are those findings which directly relate to your original research questions and overall research objectives (which you discussed in your introduction chapter). The implications, on the other hand, explain what your findings mean for industry, or for research in your area.

Sticking with the consumer trust topic example, the conclusion might look something like this:

Key findings

This study set out to identify which factors influence consumer-based trust in British low-cost online equity brokerage firms. The results suggest that the following factors have a large impact on consumer trust:

While the following factors have a very limited impact on consumer trust:

Notably, within the 25-30 age groups, Factors E had a noticeably larger impact, which may be explained by…

Implications

The findings having noteworthy implications for British low-cost online equity brokers. Specifically:

The large impact of Factors X and Y implies that brokers need to consider….

The limited impact of Factor E implies that brokers need to…

As you can see, the conclusion chapter is basically explaining the “what” (what your study found) and the “so what?” (what the findings mean for the industry or research). This brings the study full circle and closes off the document.

In the final chapter, you’ll bring your research full circle by highlighting the key findings of your study and the implications thereof.

Let’s recap – how to write a dissertation or thesis

You’re still with me? Impressive! I know that this post was a long one, but hopefully you’ve learnt a thing or two about how to write a dissertation or thesis, and are now better equipped to start your own research.

To recap, the 8 steps to writing a quality dissertation (or thesis) are as follows:

  • Understand what a dissertation (or thesis) is – a research project that follows the research process.
  • Find a unique (original) and important research topic
  • Craft a convincing dissertation or thesis research proposal
  • Write a clear, compelling introduction chapter
  • Undertake a thorough review of the existing research and write up a literature review
  • Undertake your own research
  • Present and interpret your findings

Once you’ve wrapped up the core chapters, all that’s typically left is the abstract , reference list and appendices. As always, be sure to check with your university if they have any additional requirements in terms of structure or content.  

best looking thesis

Psst... there’s more!

This post was based on one of our popular Research Bootcamps . If you're working on a research project, you'll definitely want to check this out ...

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20 Comments

Romia

thankfull >>>this is very useful

Madhu

Thank you, it was really helpful

Elhadi Abdelrahim

unquestionably, this amazing simplified way of teaching. Really , I couldn’t find in the literature words that fully explicit my great thanks to you. However, I could only say thanks a-lot.

Derek Jansen

Great to hear that – thanks for the feedback. Good luck writing your dissertation/thesis.

Writer

This is the most comprehensive explanation of how to write a dissertation. Many thanks for sharing it free of charge.

Sam

Very rich presentation. Thank you

Hailu

Thanks Derek Jansen|GRADCOACH, I find it very useful guide to arrange my activities and proceed to research!

Nunurayi Tambala

Thank you so much for such a marvelous teaching .I am so convinced that am going to write a comprehensive and a distinct masters dissertation

Hussein Huwail

It is an amazing comprehensive explanation

Eva

This was straightforward. Thank you!

Ken

I can say that your explanations are simple and enlightening – understanding what you have done here is easy for me. Could you write more about the different types of research methods specific to the three methodologies: quan, qual and MM. I look forward to interacting with this website more in the future.

Thanks for the feedback and suggestions 🙂

Osasuyi Blessing

Hello, your write ups is quite educative. However, l have challenges in going about my research questions which is below; *Building the enablers of organisational growth through effective governance and purposeful leadership.*

Dung Doh

Very educating.

Ezra Daniel

Just listening to the name of the dissertation makes the student nervous. As writing a top-quality dissertation is a difficult task as it is a lengthy topic, requires a lot of research and understanding and is usually around 10,000 to 15000 words. Sometimes due to studies, unbalanced workload or lack of research and writing skill students look for dissertation submission from professional writers.

Nice Edinam Hoyah

Thank you 💕😊 very much. I was confused but your comprehensive explanation has cleared my doubts of ever presenting a good thesis. Thank you.

Sehauli

thank you so much, that was so useful

Daniel Madsen

Hi. Where is the excel spread sheet ark?

Emmanuel kKoko

could you please help me look at your thesis paper to enable me to do the portion that has to do with the specification

my topic is “the impact of domestic revenue mobilization.

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While Sandel argues that pursuing perfection through genetic engineering would decrease our sense of humility, he claims that the sense of solidarity we would lose is also important.

This thesis summarizes several points in Sandel’s argument, but it does not make a claim about how we should understand his argument. A reader who read Sandel’s argument would not also need to read an essay based on this descriptive thesis.  

Broad thesis (arguable, but difficult to support with evidence) 

Michael Sandel’s arguments about genetic engineering do not take into consideration all the relevant issues.

This is an arguable claim because it would be possible to argue against it by saying that Michael Sandel’s arguments do take all of the relevant issues into consideration. But the claim is too broad. Because the thesis does not specify which “issues” it is focused on—or why it matters if they are considered—readers won’t know what the rest of the essay will argue, and the writer won’t know what to focus on. If there is a particular issue that Sandel does not address, then a more specific version of the thesis would include that issue—hand an explanation of why it is important.  

Arguable thesis with analytical claim 

While Sandel argues persuasively that our instinct to “remake” (54) ourselves into something ever more perfect is a problem, his belief that we can always draw a line between what is medically necessary and what makes us simply “better than well” (51) is less convincing.

This is an arguable analytical claim. To argue for this claim, the essay writer will need to show how evidence from the article itself points to this interpretation. It’s also a reasonable scope for a thesis because it can be supported with evidence available in the text and is neither too broad nor too narrow.  

Arguable thesis with normative claim 

Given Sandel’s argument against genetic enhancement, we should not allow parents to decide on using Human Growth Hormone for their children.

This thesis tells us what we should do about a particular issue discussed in Sandel’s article, but it does not tell us how we should understand Sandel’s argument.  

Questions to ask about your thesis 

  • Is the thesis truly arguable? Does it speak to a genuine dilemma in the source, or would most readers automatically agree with it?  
  • Is the thesis too obvious? Again, would most or all readers agree with it without needing to see your argument?  
  • Is the thesis complex enough to require a whole essay's worth of argument?  
  • Is the thesis supportable with evidence from the text rather than with generalizations or outside research?  
  • Would anyone want to read a paper in which this thesis was developed? That is, can you explain what this paper is adding to our understanding of a problem, question, or topic?
  • picture_as_pdf Thesis

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How to write a PhD thesis: a step-by-step guide

A draft isn’t a perfect, finished product; it is your opportunity to start getting words down on paper, writes Kelly Louise Preece

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Congratulations; you’ve finished your research! Time to write your PhD thesis. This resource will take you through an eight-step plan for drafting your chapters and your thesis as a whole. 

Infographic with steps on how to draft your PhD thesis

Organise your material

Before you start, it’s important to get organised. Take a step back and look at the data you have, then reorganise your research. Which parts of it are central to your thesis and which bits need putting to one side? Label and organise everything using logical folders – make it easy for yourself! Academic and blogger Pat Thomson calls this  “Clean up to get clearer” . Thomson suggests these questions to ask yourself before you start writing:

  • What data do you have? You might find it useful to write out a list of types of data (your supervisor will find this list useful too.) This list is also an audit document that can go in your thesis. Do you have any for the “cutting room floor”? Take a deep breath and put it in a separate non-thesis file. You can easily retrieve it if it turns out you need it.
  • What do you have already written? What chunks of material have you written so far that could form the basis of pieces of the thesis text? They will most likely need to be revised but they are useful starting points. Do you have any holding text? That is material you already know has to be rewritten but contains information that will be the basis of a new piece of text.
  • What have you read and what do you still need to read? Are there new texts that you need to consult now after your analysis? What readings can you now put to one side, knowing that they aren’t useful for this thesis – although they might be useful at another time?
  • What goes with what? Can you create chunks or themes of materials that are going to form the basis of some chunks of your text, perhaps even chapters?

Once you have assessed and sorted what you have collected and generated you will be in much better shape to approach the big task of composing the dissertation. 

Decide on a key message

A key message is a summary of new information communicated in your thesis. You should have started to map this out already in the section on argument and contribution – an overarching argument with building blocks that you will flesh out in individual chapters.

You have already mapped your argument visually, now you need to begin writing it in prose. Following another of Pat Thomson’s exercises, write a “tiny text” thesis abstract. This doesn’t have to be elegant, or indeed the finished product, but it will help you articulate the argument you want your thesis to make. You create a tiny text using a five-paragraph structure:

  • The first sentence addresses the broad context. This locates the study in a policy, practice or research field.
  • The second sentence establishes a problem related to the broad context you have set out. It often starts with “But”, “Yet” or “However”.
  • The third sentence says what specific research has been done. This often starts with “This research” or “I report…”
  • The fourth sentence reports the results. Don’t try to be too tricky here, just start with something like: “This study shows,” or “Analysis of the data suggests that…”
  • The fifth and final sentence addresses the “So What?” question and makes clear the claim to contribution.

Here’s an example that Thomson provides:

Secondary school arts are in trouble, as the fall in enrolments in arts subjects dramatically attests. However, there is patchy evidence about the benefits of studying arts subjects at school and this makes it hard to argue why the drop in arts enrolments matters. This thesis reports on research which attempts to provide some answers to this problem – a longitudinal study which followed two groups of senior secondary students, one group enrolled in arts subjects and the other not, for three years. The results of the study demonstrate the benefits of young people’s engagement in arts activities, both in and out of school, as well as the connections between the two. The study not only adds to what is known about the benefits of both formal and informal arts education but also provides robust evidence for policymakers and practitioners arguing for the benefits of the arts. You can  find out more about tiny texts and thesis abstracts on Thomson’s blog.

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  • What is your academic writing temperament?

Write a plan

You might not be a planner when it comes to writing. You might prefer to sit, type and think through ideas as you go. That’s OK. Everybody works differently. But one of the benefits of planning your writing is that your plan can help you when you get stuck. It can help with writer’s block (more on this shortly!) but also maintain clarity of intention and purpose in your writing.

You can do this by creating a  thesis skeleton or storyboard , planning the order of your chapters, thinking of potential titles (which may change at a later stage), noting down what each chapter/section will cover and considering how many words you will dedicate to each chapter (make sure the total doesn’t exceed the maximum word limit allowed).

Use your plan to help prompt your writing when you get stuck and to develop clarity in your writing.

Some starting points include:

  • This chapter will argue that…
  • This section illustrates that…
  • This paragraph provides evidence that…

Of course, we wish it werethat easy. But you need to approach your first draft as exactly that: a draft. It isn’t a perfect, finished product; it is your opportunity to start getting words down on paper. Start with whichever chapter you feel you want to write first; you don’t necessarily have to write the introduction first. Depending on your research, you may find it easier to begin with your empirical/data chapters.

Vitae advocates for the “three draft approach” to help with this and to stop you from focusing on finding exactly the right word or transition as part of your first draft.

Infographic of the three draft approach

This resource originally appeared on Researcher Development .

Kelly Louse Preece is head of educator development at the University of Exeter.

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The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Thesis Statements

What this handout is about.

This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft.

Introduction

Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement:

  • tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
  • is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
  • directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
  • makes a claim that others might dispute.
  • is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.

If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft. The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively. (Check out our handout on understanding assignments for more information.)

How do I create a thesis?

A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis” that presents a basic or main idea and an argument that you think you can support with evidence. Both the argument and your thesis are likely to need adjustment along the way.

Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement. For more ideas on how to get started, see our handout on brainstorming .

How do I know if my thesis is strong?

If there’s time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following :

  • Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question. If the prompt isn’t phrased as a question, try to rephrase it. For example, “Discuss the effect of X on Y” can be rephrased as “What is the effect of X on Y?”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is likely to  be “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.
  • Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.

Suppose you are taking a course on contemporary communication, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: “Discuss the impact of social media on public awareness.” Looking back at your notes, you might start with this working thesis:

Social media impacts public awareness in both positive and negative ways.

You can use the questions above to help you revise this general statement into a stronger thesis.

  • Do I answer the question? You can analyze this if you rephrase “discuss the impact” as “what is the impact?” This way, you can see that you’ve answered the question only very generally with the vague “positive and negative ways.”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not likely. Only people who maintain that social media has a solely positive or solely negative impact could disagree.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? No. What are the positive effects? What are the negative effects?
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? No. Why are they positive? How are they positive? What are their causes? Why are they negative? How are they negative? What are their causes?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? No. Why should anyone care about the positive and/or negative impact of social media?

After thinking about your answers to these questions, you decide to focus on the one impact you feel strongly about and have strong evidence for:

Because not every voice on social media is reliable, people have become much more critical consumers of information, and thus, more informed voters.

This version is a much stronger thesis! It answers the question, takes a specific position that others can challenge, and it gives a sense of why it matters.

Let’s try another. Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn. “This will be easy,” you think. “I loved Huckleberry Finn!” You grab a pad of paper and write:

Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel.

You begin to analyze your thesis:

  • Do I answer the question? No. The prompt asks you to analyze some aspect of the novel. Your working thesis is a statement of general appreciation for the entire novel.

Think about aspects of the novel that are important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write:

In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.
  • Do I answer the question? Yes!
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not really. This contrast is well-known and accepted.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? It’s getting there–you have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation. However, it’s still not clear what your analysis will reveal.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? Not yet. Compare scenes from the book and see what you discover. Free write, make lists, jot down Huck’s actions and reactions and anything else that seems interesting.
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? What’s the point of this contrast? What does it signify?”

After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write:

Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain’s Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave “civilized” society and go back to nature.

This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Anson, Chris M., and Robert A. Schwegler. 2010. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers , 6th ed. New York: Longman.

Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Ramage, John D., John C. Bean, and June Johnson. 2018. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing , 8th ed. New York: Pearson.

Ruszkiewicz, John J., Christy Friend, Daniel Seward, and Maxine Hairston. 2010. The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers , 9th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Munich Business School Insights

The Best Final Theses in 2022

March 27, 2023

Collage of the best final theses 2022 submitted at Munich Business School

More than 170 final theses were submitted to the examination office of Munich Business School in 2022. Four of them stood out in particular: They are the best theses of the year and were included in the MBS Outstanding Thesis series. In the blog article, we present the topics of the theses in more detail and let the honorees and their supervisors have their say.

As in the previous year , the best theses of 2022 demonstrate that bachelor’s and master’s theses are not only the icing on the cake on the way to graduation, but can also make a valuable contribution to research on current topics. “Best”, by the way, does not only refer to an outstanding grade; the theses should primarily convince through innovative approaches and methods as well as new findings.

And now, clear the ring for the best theses of 2022!

Mitigating, Managing and Moving Past Burnout: An Organizational Perspective on Mental and Physical Well-Being

Bachelor’s thesis by gavin trudeau.

Gavin Trudeau, graduate of the bachelor’s program International Business at MBS, deals in his bachelor’s thesis with the topic of burnout, which has become more present in society as well as in medicine and the workplace in recent years. On the basis that burnout is not just an isolated feeling of overwhelm, but a syndrome which is experienced after ongoing negative experiences that and poses great dangers to organizations and their employees, Gavin Trudeau discusses causes, symptoms, and prevention strategies. By combining a comprehensive literature review with empirical research consisting of a self-reporting survey and in-depth interviews, the bachelor’s graduate succeeds in painting a “holistic picture” that reveals “not only what causes stress at the workplace but also shows the drivers as well as appropriate measures at the company and their relation to avoid negative impacts” – say the thesis supervisors Prof. Dr. Arnd Albrecht and Evelyn Albrecht-Goepfert.

Portrait Gavin Trudeau

We asked Gavin Trudeau how he came to address the topic of burnout in his bachelor’s thesis:

“I have always been interested in psychology and the importance of mental health so it was important for me to bring those two elements into my thesis and relate it to current issues I had been witnessing in the business landscape. At the time I started thinking about my topic we were still in the depths of the pandemic, and working from home was still mandatory for most people. I was seeing and hearing so many examples of people from my network experiencing abnormal levels of stress at their jobs and having difficulties adapting to the new way of life and working, which ultimately led me to the topic of burnout prevention, stress reduction and health promotion. I thought these topics were extremely relevant and also forward thinking. The importance of mental health in the workplace is on the rise and starting to be seen as equally important as physical health. My motivation for this research was to be able to provide valuable and insightful data and recommendations so that CEO’s, managers, entrepreneurs and employees can integrate these learnings into their lives to create healthier and more positive work environments.”

You can read the full paper here .

Bootstrapping New Networks – Incentivization Strategies to Leverage Network Effects within Digital Platforms by Using Blockchain Technology

Master’s thesis by philipp wohlfart.

Portrait Philipp Wohlfart

Start-ups must deal with the “cold start” problem and especially for platforms that fight the “chicken and egg” dilemma, building an initial user base is a major challenge. Since new emerging technologies such as blockchain technology have so far received only little attention in research on this topic, although they promise attractive solutions, Philipp Wohlfart addresses this issue in his master’s thesis. The Innovation and Entrepreneurship graduate explores the question of how blockchain technology can help to bootstrap new networks by using token incentives when application utility is still missing. To answer the question, Phillip Wohlfart conducted six semi-structured experts interviews – with the result that token incentives can support in many ways.

“From the factual coverage to the method to the results, a truly outstanding work: logically argued, well researched, and very structured and transparently presented. Phillip Wohlfarts findings have both theoretical and practical implications for stakeholder management and alignment within platforms. They also provide insight into how to create, evaluate or analyze sustainable blockchain-based platform designs.” Prof. Dr. Anne Tryba, supervisor of the thesis and former Professor for Entrepreneurship at MBS

Read the full thesis here .

Analysis of the Impact of Customer Experience Management Among B2B Companies in the Construction Industry

Mba master’s thesis by sarim mehtab hasan.

While B2C companies have been firmly incorporating customer experience management (CXM) strategies into their business models for quite some time and there is accordingly sufficient research on the subject, the relevance of CXM in the B2B context has only recently been repeatedly emphasized. To investigate the importance of CXM in the context of his master’s thesis, Sarim Mehtab Hasan chooses the construction industry, for which the requirement of customer experience is even more vital due to diverse stakeholders. Interviews with senior professionals from construction companies show that the construction industry is still traditional, focuses on short-term returns, which doesn’t align with customer’s needs, and overall lacks awareness of CXM and its benefits. Sarim Hasan uses these – rather sobering – results to derive recommendations as well as short- and long-term implementation strategies for the construction industry in terms of customer experience, which earned his thesis the rating “outstanding”.

Portrait Sarim Mehtab

We asked Sarim Hasan what it means to him that his thesis in the MBA General Management was awarded as MBS Outstanding Thesis:

It was my first time writing a thesis and I learnt a lot during the entire process. Not only was I able to get an extensive understanding of the topic of CXM in the B2B environment but also improve my personal & professional skills. This, combined with the experience I gained from the business projects during my studies at MBS, really elevated my capability to manage projects effectively, which is something I currently apply on a daily basis in my full-time job. Getting this award gave a substantial boost to my confidence levels, especially to take on new risks for a higher reward, and validated the importance of CXM in today’s customer-driven business world. After working for almost 8 months in a customer-facing role post-MBA, I can undoubtedly confirm that my thesis has played a major role in my performance as a Customer Experience Manager at A2MAC1 and I hope that other business students find value in my research and take it even further.

Economic Evaluation of Digitized Health Data for the German Health Care System Using the Example of the Electronic Health Record

Mba master’s thesis by dr. sven grösgen.

Portrait Sven Grösgen

Dr. Sven Grösgen dedicates his final thesis to a highly topical and explosively discussed subject: Germany’s plans to introduce of an electronic patient record. Such a digital file promises not only to improve healthcare, but also to have a positive impact on the economy. However, the status quo is that only 1.8% of total annual spending has been devoted to driving digitization in healthcare, while per capita spending continues to rise at the same time. With a general analysis of the electronic patient record and a detailed cost benefit analysis, Sven Grösgen shows that digital storage of health data has potential to counteract inefficiencies in healthcare and that the costs would be offset within the first ten years. In addition, the MBA graduate advocates an “opt-out” instead of an “opt-in” model and provides further impulses on how the implementation of an electronic patient record can be increased and further developed into an electronic health record.

“The author provides a very good and knowledgeable overview of existing literature and discusses all relevant aspects of the topic. At the time of the research, various reservations of both medical practitioners and patients shaped the discourse, so the focus on the economic benefits is particularly enlightening. As the relevance of the topic has recently increased even more, reading this thesis can be recommended to anyone seeking a sound basis on this topic area.” Prof. Dr. Eva Stumpfegger and Prof. Dr. Florian Bartholomae about why they decided to nominate Sven Grösgen’s thesis as MBS Outstanding Thesis
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45 Best Thesis Statement Examples 2024

A thesis statement is a brief description used in professional or academic writing to explain your position on a given issue or topic.

It’s an important part of a paper or document that communicates your perspective and describes what the rest of your document or essay is about.

Thesis statements usually appear at the beginning of a paper and ideally in the first few paragraphs. Understanding how to craft a good thesis statement will help you create a strong guide for your paper and make your document more compelling.

In this post, we are going to walk you through how to write a persuasive thesis statement and provide some of the best thesis statement examples that you can draw from when creating your own.

Also Read : Best Paraphrasing Tools For Thesis & Research

How to write a good thesis statement?

best looking thesis

Photo by Ketut Subiyanto

A well-written thesis statement has to:

Be specific

Your thesis statement should avoid generalizations and include concrete details about the argument you intend to make in the thesis. It shouldn’t just tell people that something happens, it should also tell them how or why it happens.

There is no room for ambiguity in your thesis statement. It should be straightforward and clear.

It has to explain the point you are trying to make in a way that anyone who reads it can easily grasp, so keep your audience in mind when choosing an essay subject or what vocabulary to use in your statement.

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best looking thesis

Photo by Armin Rimoldi

Reveal your position

Can your thesis statement be contested or argued? If the answer is no, then you’ve merely stated the facts of the topic, you have not set out to make an argument in favor or against the topic.

A good thesis statement should show where you stand on the topic. It should be open to debate.

Align with the rest of your paper

Your thesis statement should tell people what to expect from the rest of your paper. So after you are done writing the paper, you need to review it to see if any areas extend beyond the scope of your thesis statement.

You can either rewrite those paragraphs to align with your thesis outline or rewrite your thesis statement to bring it closer to the spirit of your paper.

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Best Thesis Statement Examples

1. Research has shown that the use of medical marijuana has been beneficial to veterans suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

It should be legal to prescribe medical marijuana in all states so the veterans who need it can easily access it without consequences. Additional therapy and medical services should also be implemented alongside this to facilitate their reintegration into civilian society.

2. Space exploration is another excuse to fritter away money; rather than spending billions of dollars trying to colonize Mars, the funds should be used to solve issues that are plaguing our planet such as hunger, poverty, traffic congestion, and global warming.

3. A college degree can have a tremendous impact on a person’s life and career trajectory, but attending university immediately after graduating high school may not be the most suitable option for every student.

Some may benefit more from attending trade schools or taking a gap year to consider what they want to do with the next phase of their lives and how they might achieve that.

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4. People should incorporate daily exercise into their routines because it increases their fitness levels, helps them maintain a healthy weight, and reduces their risk of getting high blood pressure.

best looking thesis

5. The democratization of the internet means that more and more teenagers are using smartphones and accessing social media, which exposes them to cyberbullying.

Cyberbullying is a very stressful experience for many teens and can lead to anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation.

To clamp down on the spread and impact of cyberbullying, parents should monitor their teenager’s online activities, limit their usage of smartphones, and report any incidents of cyberbullying to school officials.

6. Negative health consequences like heart disease, liver complications, and weight gain can result from excessive alcohol consumption.

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7. In a time when physical libraries are going extinct due to the growing influence of digitization, the government should create and fund digital libraries in addition to physical ones to lessen the financial burden of students who are required to purchase pricey e-books.

8. The growing popularity of nationalism and populism in the United States and Europe coincides with the waning of moderate and centrist political parties that have had a stronghold on the corridors of power since World War II.

best looking thesis

Photo by cottonbro

9. For most people in Antarctica, the cost of healthcare services is unaffordable because of the low average incomes, lack of government-funded clinics and hospitals, and the high prices of essential medications.

10. Although including discussions of consensual sex in sex education classes will likely lead to a reduction in sexual assault, parents have a responsibility to teach their children about consent from a young age using age-appropriate language and lessons.

11. Hiring people from diverse educational, religious, and ethnic backgrounds to strategize and execute human development projects can help improve efficiency and refine the planning of development programs focused on marginalized communities for the better.

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12. Despite the good intentions upon which it is predicated, the practice of giving foreign aid to nations on the African continent has done more harm than good because it has left African nations vulnerable to corruption, rising inflation, civil unrest, and currency fluctuations.

best looking thesis

Photo by Andrea Piacquadio

13. The results of recent studies have shown a growing interest in healthy products amongst the general public, and Adam’s Beverages should factor in this consideration when going to market with new products and design advertising campaigns that highlight the healthy nature of its products to boost sales numbers.

14. The massive adoption of digitization in response to quarantines and restrictions of movements brought about by COVID-19 and the continued growth of online shopping in the wake of the pandemic might precipitate the permanent shutdown of millions of brick-and-mortar retail outlets.

15. Any unlawful surveillance is an invasion of people’s right to privacy and a breach of their civil liberties. Government surveillance programs like PRISM should be banned on these grounds because they can result in innocent people suffering undue harm or punishment, and they fail to safeguard the very rights and liberties of the people that they are designed to protect.

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16. What constitutes a good and healthy family arrangement in today’s world is diverse and multifaceted, but the U.S. media continues to depict the traditional family as one that is made up of a father, mother, and children.

This conception of the traditional family arrangement is outmoded and can be harmful to young children who are socialized to see it as the gold standard.

best looking thesis

Photo by Pixabay

17. Although it has been argued that distributing condoms to teenagers means that schools and institutions are encouraging sexual behavior in juveniles, educational institutions should distribute and teach students about birth control in order to reduce sexually transmitted diseases and teen pregnancies.

18. More and more people are choosing to read e-books instead of physical books. The government should allocate funds to digitize libraries and deliver increased resources to support the provision of digital learning devices such as new computers and high-speed internet to enable users to connect remotely and access library books online.

19. Marijuana has a lot of applications in the field of medicine such as the treatment of symptoms of cancer, glaucoma, and epilepsy. The legalization of marijuana use in the United States will be highly beneficial to the medical sector by empowering healthcare professionals to prescribe this lifesaving remedy.

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20. Blue-collar workers whose jobs are disappearing due to global recession, dwindling global demand, the COVID-19 pandemic, and the rise of Chinese manufacturing firms should be retrained to work in the green energy sector to counteract unemployment, minimize environmental pollution, and improve local economies.

best looking thesis

Photo by Anna Nekrashevich

21. The use of casual clothing in place of uniforms in schools promotes unhealthy competition and leaves students from low-income families vulnerable to mocking, discrimination, bullying, and unhealthy expectations.

Students should be mandated to wear uniforms to minimize their focus on physical appearance and redirect their attention to their studies.

22. A linguistic analysis of various metaphors, similes, and epithets used in Sonnet 5 reveals Shakespeare’s impeccable mastery of the English language.

23. The practice of motivating children to study hard and get good results by paying them when they excel academically is a good way of helping them understand how the real world works. It will enable them to see that if they put in their best effort and do good work, they will reap the rewards that come with it.

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24. Findings from recent studies have shown that there are strong links between a company’s management style and its employees’ level of motivation, productivity, and the general financial wellbeing of the organization.

25. There’s no denying that the fashion industry has come a long way from the weight and shape-obsessed industry where being skinny was promoted as the ideal body type.

However, it is yet to completely shed its unhealthy notions of what the female body should be. It still needs to be more deliberate about promoting diversity and a healthy image of the body.

best looking thesis

Photo by Anastasiya Gepp

26. Bullfighting is a barbaric practice that should be banned because it is highly dangerous for both participants and observers and a brutal sport that violates the rights of animals and subjects them to grievous harm simply for entertainment.

27. More companies should embrace the work from home movement to gain access to a bigger and more diverse pipeline of qualified candidates and help their workers increase productivity, achieve better work-life balance, improve happiness and satisfaction, and ultimately generate more value for the business.

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28. University athletes should receive payment for their services to the institution. Many student-athletes tend to hail from lower-income families and are servicing their tuition with the help of scholarships.

Devising a compensation plan for them will improve their mental and physical well-being and enable them to devote more time and effort to their studies and athletic endeavors.

29. People should exercise greater care and diligence when sharing details about their lives online or on social media because their personal information can easily be used inappropriately or handed over to a third party without their knowledge or permission.

30. Adolescents cannot fully appreciate the negative impacts of fast food and sugary drinks on their health. Schools should undertake the responsibility of developing educational programs to help students understand the value of building healthy eating habits.

best looking thesis

Photo by Julia M Cameron

31. Codes of conduct should be created and mandatory for newly established developments and communities as they are instrumental to improving safety, raising community involvement, and increasing the value of homes in the area.

32. Tabitha Stevens and Wendell Mouritz both consider assault to be an unsolicited expression, but this is where the similarities in their viewpoints end. They hold contrasting ideas in several other positions, which causes the scholars to have different outlooks in their examination of sexual assault and harassment cases.

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33. Increasing the taxes of cigarette companies is tantamount to taxing the poorest citizens who will have to pay increased prices for their smokes. It won’t do much to deter them from buying and smoking cigarettes.

The government will see more success from creating educational programs targeting low-income earners and teaching them about the harmful effects of smoking.

34. Standardized tests and examinations are not very effective at measuring the skills and knowledge of students. As such, tests and exams should be banned and institutions of learning should devise alternative methods of evaluating students’ knowledge, abilities, and cognitive skills.

35. This paper shows a correlation between adopting hiring and personality tests in the recruitment process and a reduction in employer turnover using Atika Corporation, Wembley Group of Industries, and Biolot Inc as case studies. It makes a case for why large organizations should incorporate personality tests into their hiring strategies.

best looking thesis

36. To the casual eye, bats and bears do not seem to have much in common, but upon closer examination, these creatures share markedly similar species classifications and hibernation.

37. We live in the golden age of information, where data is more available and accessible than it’s ever been. However, the internet is rife with misinformation so students need to be taught digital literacy skills so they can evaluate the content they are consuming and determine whether it is accurate and reliable or a piece of propaganda or misleading information.

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38. Considering pet breeders routinely engage in unlawful and ethical business practices and the ever-increasing number of homeless animals being kept in shelters, people should not buy pets from breeders. They should consider adopting animals directly from shelters instead.

39. Normal People written by Sally Rooney offers a vivid portrayal of how class differences and social structure can shape a person’s life, stitch the fabric of their insecurities, influence the ways they communicate and interact with others both in and out of their social class, and ultimately inform their actions or inactions.

40. Early education centers are key caregivers and teachers for preschool-age children. They should endeavor to provide them with school preparedness training with a focus on helping them develop letter and number recognition, gross and fine motor skills, and adequate social skills.

best looking thesis

41. Although studying abroad is an expensive option for many, the opportunity to discover a whole new world, interact with various cultures, and experience a different approach to learning makes the prospect worth it for those who can afford it.

42. When it comes to the issue of children having access to social media, there are two sides to the debate. The supporters believe that social media does not harm children but instead exposes them to see the world beyond their corners of the earth.

On the other hand, the dissenters think that children shouldn’t be allowed to use social media because it distorts reality and creates false expectations.

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43. Due to dwindling theater ticket sales and the rise in available streaming platforms, film production companies should adapt to the changing times and adopt techniques that allow for optimal viewing of movies on all platforms.

44. Through a close reading of “Honor” by Elif Shafak and “White Teeth” by Zadie Smith, this paper will examine the similarities and differences in both novels in terms of plot, setting, themes, characters, and points of view to determine whether the resemblances in the novels rise to the point of plagiarism.

45. The airing of beauty pageants on television should be banned because despite their intentions of empowering and supporting women, the practice of parading contestants around in obscene clothes and judging them based on their appearance contradicts their proclaimed motives.

A strong thesis statement means your paper is off to a good start. Not only will it help in improving the content of your essay, it will also allow readers to grasp the core purpose of your paper at a glance and encourage them to keep reading.

These thesis statements should give you an idea of how to better refine the description for your thesis in a way that fully captures the idea you want to express.

best looking thesis

Tom loves to write on technology, e-commerce & internet marketing. I started my first e-commerce company in college, designing and selling t-shirts for my campus bar crawl using print-on-demand. Having successfully established multiple 6 & 7-figure e-commerce businesses (in women’s fashion and hiking gear), I think I can share a tip or 2 to help you succeed.

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Choose a Great Thesis Topic in 4 Easy Steps!

best looking thesis

No matter how much you enjoy the research process, choosing a great thesis topic is always a challenge.

What is a thesis topic anyway?

A thesis topic is just what it sounds like—it is the subject you aim to write your thesis about.

A thesis is a long, in-depth research paper that focuses on one specific subject. A thesis topic is just what it sounds like—it is the subject you aim to write your thesis about.

Theses are usually shorter for undergraduate students and book-length for Ph.D. students. However, one thing is always true. Regardless of whether you are an undergraduate or a graduate student, finding the right thesis topic isn’t easy!

Since you are reading this article, you are clearly wondering how you can choose a great thesis topic. We’ll walk you through some simple steps, give you insider tips to find the right thesis topic, and help you begin your research journey with confidence.

What makes a thesis topic great?

Your thesis topic will need to be clear and address a clearly defined research question. At the same time, the answer should contribute to a broader understanding of the research field.

The search for a good thesis statement begins with a good research question. Your thesis is the answer to that question. As the thesis is a relatively long research paper, a good research question should be sufficiently broad. In general, this will mean avoiding “yes/no” questions or reframing such questions.

For instance, instead of asking 

“Does race influence standardized testing in high schools in the UK?”

Reframe your question as

“How does race influence standardized testing in high schools in the UK?”

This will allow you to explore different aspects, analyze interactions among variables, and write a longer, more substantive paper.

While your thesis topic should be broad enough, it should never be vague. Your thesis topic will need to be clear and address a clearly defined research question. At the same time, the answer should contribute to a broader understanding of the research field.

If you create a thesis based on research questions like “ How many kinds of fungi are there in the world? ” or “ What is love? ,” you are going to end up writing a long, frustrating paper. A good thesis topic will answer a much more specific question, like:

“ What kinds of fungi grow in the vicinity of drainage pipes? ” or
“ How do people in Myanmar express love during courtship rituals? ”

In other words, a great thesis topic is your answer to a:

  • Somewhat broad
  • Very precise and
  • Somewhat open-ended question.

While yes/no questions can be acceptable on rare occasions, you should avoid them or rephrase them, especially in science fields.

Finally, a great thesis topic fills a niche in a research field where research on the topic already exists, but there is still more to be discovered or new aspects to be explored. Alternatively, thesis topics could offer a fresh take on an old topic or rebuttals to a well-known theory. You don’t need to necessarily perform groundbreaking research; however, a great thesis topic will always offer a unique element that could make your thesis stand out.

Step 1: Choosing a thesis topic - Getting started

Although thesis topics should ideally be chosen based on the relevance of the topic and its academic merit, requirements related to your assignment/program should also be taken into consideration before finalizing the topic. While this seems quite basic, it is in fact key to choosing your thesis topic. The requirements of your program or class will determine the scope of what you can research.

Every program differs in its requirements, which is why it is so important to check these details beforehand. Some programs might have a specific list of acceptable topics and a narrow range of allowable methodologies. Other programs might just have a minimum word count and a final deadline. This is why knowing the requirements is so important before you move on to the next step of brainstorming.

Step 2: Brainstorming thesis topic ideas

One of the first places to look for a thesis topic is your own past work, such as papers you have written or assignments you have completed.

Once you know the limitations and requirements for your thesis, it is time to begin brainstorming specific ideas. This is often the hardest part of choosing a thesis topic! Especially if your program or school doesn’t narrow down your topic choices, you may find yourself gazing out the window with a hazy mind. So where should you begin brainstorming?

One of the first places to look for a thesis topic is your own past work, such as papers you have written or assignments you have completed. What courses have you particularly enjoyed that are related to your major field of study? What topics have you written about already?

You must make a list of papers you have written as part of your program and rank them on a scale of most to least interesting. You can do this even if you are in a program that is not very writing intensive. Cross the boring half off your list and focus on the more interesting topics. Do any topics catch your eye? If you aren’t feeling excited about anything you’ve already researched, talk to your classmates or colleagues . What areas in your field are you interested in or passionate about? Do your friends, classmates, or peers have any ideas? You can also skim some articles from popular journals in your field to see the current trending research topics. The more you read, the better the chances of you stumbling on an interesting thesis topic.

Once you have come up with some potential thesis topics, it’s a good idea to rank them in order, so you at least have a list of your top three topics. You then need to do some preliminary research and consultations before you finally settle on one topic, and it’s always important to have backups in case your favorite choice isn’t viable.

Step 3: Preliminary research - Reviewing the literature

Any thesis based on a shorter paper will be longer and more involved than the original version.

Now that you have shortlisted your potential thesis topics, it is time to conduct some preliminary research on each topic by finding out what other research studies have been conducted so far. If you had chosen your potential thesis topics from papers you previously wrote, you might be familiar with the literature already. However, that doesn’t mean you can skip the literature review. Any thesis based on a shorter paper will be longer and more involved than the original version. The thesis is expected to cover new angles, which means you need to do some preliminary research .

Where can you find articles for your preliminary research?

Google Scholar is a great resource, and so is the academic library available at your institution. If you are a student, you may have access to a journal database like JSTOR through your university. Even if you don’t, more and more articles are freely available via open-access journals these days, so a quick Google Scholar search will help you find relevant information. If you find a particularly good article, check out the sources the author(s) have referenced for relevant articles to read.

It’s very possible that you will find yourself completely wanting to change your thesis topic once you start the literature review. That’s ok! If you come across something interesting or inspiring, you should read more about it to see if it would be a good thesis topic. However, you should set yourself some limits. If you take the freedom to simply read what interests you, it is possible you will never be able to decide on a thesis topic. Always remember to limit the time allowed to read about a potential new research interest.

Step 4: Finalizing your choice

Even the most interesting topics can become tortuous after spending enough time reading and writing about them.

Once you feel confident that you have narrowed down your potential thesis topics to a handful of options, it’s time to decide. This choice should not be made lightly—your thesis can take over your life . Even the most interesting topics can become tortuous after spending enough time reading and writing about them. With that in mind, you need to make sure your topic meets the following requirements:

  • Is your proposed research feasible?
  • Can you access all of the necessary research materials? Will you be able to obtain all of the necessary resources for conducting a research study? Will you be able to travel if it was required?
  • Do you find the thesis topic interesting? Do you expect the interest to be sustained over the duration of the study?
  • Is your topic meaningful and relevant in your field?
  • Has anyone already published a paper on your thesis topic from the perspective research question?
  • Do you have a suitable advisor willing to oversee the project?

You will need to extensively consult with your advisor, who will hopefully be able to give you the extra bit of guidance necessary to finalize your choice. If your advisor will be chosen depending on your thesis topic, see if you can consult with your potential advisors. Otherwise, talk to a trusted faculty member or mentor to get feedback on your proposed thesis topic. Your thesis topic will need to be approved by your advisor before it is finalized.

Selecting a thesis topic can be daunting, but once you have made your decision, you are ready for the real work to begin. No matter what topic you choose, you are about to embark on a great endeavor. Check out our site for more tips on how to write a good thesis, where to find the best thesis editing services, and more about thesis editing and proofreading services. 

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Review Checklist

Below is a checklist for you to follow as you go through the process of choosing a thesis topic.

Check the requirements for selecting a thesis topic:

Make a note of the word count requirements and the final deadline before you begin

Check for any preliminary deadlines before the final deadline. For example, if there is a proposal deadline, or individual chapter deadlines.

Discuss with your professor to see if they have any specific requirements or limitations for your research.

Inquire about any requirements for your methodology; if a literature review is acceptable; or if you are required to do fieldwork.

Check to see if there is a minimum acceptable study size in case you are expected to do your own fieldwork.

Look out for any other requirements related to your fieldwork like specific required sources or any possible restrictions.

Review your past work and current trending research for potential topics

Talk to friends and professors about interests

Review relevant journals and publications for inspiration

Rank potential topics in the order of how interesting you find them

Review the literature on potential topics

Discuss the feasibility of your proposed topic with your advisor

Select your thesis topic

How do I begin my search for thesis topic ideas? +

  • Start with your previous writing work.
  • Shortlist topics you have an interest in or are passionate about
  • Talk to your supervisors, peers and colleagues for suggestions
  • Read popular journals for hot research topics
  • Rank your top three thesis topic ideas in order of preference
  • Finally, consult your advisor before seeking approval

How do I know if my thesis topic is promising and unique? +

  • Begin with identifying a strong research question
  • Always avoid yes/no type questions when finalizing a research question
  • Make sure your thesis topic addresses all aspects of your clearly defined research question
  • The topic should be broad never vague and precise
  • It should contribute to a better understanding of the research field

Reference management. Clean and simple.

The top list of academic search engines

academic search engines

1. Google Scholar

4. science.gov, 5. semantic scholar, 6. baidu scholar, get the most out of academic search engines, frequently asked questions about academic search engines, related articles.

Academic search engines have become the number one resource to turn to in order to find research papers and other scholarly sources. While classic academic databases like Web of Science and Scopus are locked behind paywalls, Google Scholar and others can be accessed free of charge. In order to help you get your research done fast, we have compiled the top list of free academic search engines.

Google Scholar is the clear number one when it comes to academic search engines. It's the power of Google searches applied to research papers and patents. It not only lets you find research papers for all academic disciplines for free but also often provides links to full-text PDF files.

  • Coverage: approx. 200 million articles
  • Abstracts: only a snippet of the abstract is available
  • Related articles: ✔
  • References: ✔
  • Cited by: ✔
  • Links to full text: ✔
  • Export formats: APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard, Vancouver, RIS, BibTeX

Search interface of Google Scholar

BASE is hosted at Bielefeld University in Germany. That is also where its name stems from (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine).

  • Coverage: approx. 136 million articles (contains duplicates)
  • Abstracts: ✔
  • Related articles: ✘
  • References: ✘
  • Cited by: ✘
  • Export formats: RIS, BibTeX

Search interface of Bielefeld Academic Search Engine aka BASE

CORE is an academic search engine dedicated to open-access research papers. For each search result, a link to the full-text PDF or full-text web page is provided.

  • Coverage: approx. 136 million articles
  • Links to full text: ✔ (all articles in CORE are open access)
  • Export formats: BibTeX

Search interface of the CORE academic search engine

Science.gov is a fantastic resource as it bundles and offers free access to search results from more than 15 U.S. federal agencies. There is no need anymore to query all those resources separately!

  • Coverage: approx. 200 million articles and reports
  • Links to full text: ✔ (available for some databases)
  • Export formats: APA, MLA, RIS, BibTeX (available for some databases)

Search interface of Science.gov

Semantic Scholar is the new kid on the block. Its mission is to provide more relevant and impactful search results using AI-powered algorithms that find hidden connections and links between research topics.

  • Coverage: approx. 40 million articles
  • Export formats: APA, MLA, Chicago, BibTeX

Search interface of Semantic Scholar

Although Baidu Scholar's interface is in Chinese, its index contains research papers in English as well as Chinese.

  • Coverage: no detailed statistics available, approx. 100 million articles
  • Abstracts: only snippets of the abstract are available
  • Export formats: APA, MLA, RIS, BibTeX

Search interface of Baidu Scholar

RefSeek searches more than one billion documents from academic and organizational websites. Its clean interface makes it especially easy to use for students and new researchers.

  • Coverage: no detailed statistics available, approx. 1 billion documents
  • Abstracts: only snippets of the article are available
  • Export formats: not available

Search interface of RefSeek

Consider using a reference manager like Paperpile to save, organize, and cite your references. Paperpile integrates with Google Scholar and many popular databases, so you can save references and PDFs directly to your library using the Paperpile buttons:

best looking thesis

Google Scholar is an academic search engine, and it is the clear number one when it comes to academic search engines. It's the power of Google searches applied to research papers and patents. It not only let's you find research papers for all academic disciplines for free, but also often provides links to full text PDF file.

Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature developed at the Allen Institute for AI. Sematic Scholar was publicly released in 2015 and uses advances in natural language processing to provide summaries for scholarly papers.

BASE , as its name suggest is an academic search engine. It is hosted at Bielefeld University in Germany and that's where it name stems from (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine).

CORE is an academic search engine dedicated to open access research papers. For each search result a link to the full text PDF or full text web page is provided.

Science.gov is a fantastic resource as it bundles and offers free access to search results from more than 15 U.S. federal agencies. There is no need any more to query all those resources separately!

best looking thesis

  • Note-Taking/Study

43 Helpful Websites And Tools For Thesis Writing

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Welcome to a compilation post on 43 helpful websites and tools for thesis writing, as well as any academic papers, including final year project thesis or dissertation and journal article.

Hi everyone!

My name is Nurul, a part-time master student from Master of Language Studies program that just passed her oral examination for Master Project .

Edit: I got my result last month. I’m happy to announce that I’ve completed my master study!

Congratulations to me!

To celebrate my success completing my master degree, I present to you all the website and tools that have helped me in writing my master thesis and academic writing paper.

1. Finding Journal Articles and Thesis

There are many websites to find peer reviewed journal articles and thesis, but for many students, it can be difficult to judge the journal trust worthiness and ensure that the journal that we’re going to cite in our paper or the journal article that we chose for article review assignment does not fall into the predatory journal category.

You can check the journal you visit and cross-check it with the list of Beall’s List of Predatory Journals , but who got the time to do that every single time you’re looking for an academic paper?

Your best bet is to search the keywords or topics in these following websites, as they’ve a reliable reputation in academic world. If you’re a student, the chance is your universities have already subscribed to some of these journals, which means you can access to these sites for free.

For UiTM students, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Taylor and Francis Online and Emerald can be accessed using our student Email ID.

p/s: Google Scholar is good in terms of QUANTITY, but the QUALITY of certain websites are questionable , so keep it in mind.

  • ScienceDirect
  • Taylor and Francis Online
  • Emerald Publishing
  • SAGE Journals
  • Atlantis Press
  • Project MUSE
  • Open Access Theses and Dissertations (OATD)
  • Research Gate
  • Academia.edu
  • Google Scholar
  • CiNii – Japanese Journal Articles and Theses

2. Malaysian University Thesis and Dissertation Repository

3. reference manager.

For reference manager, I’ve tried EndNote, Zotero, Mendeley and EasyBib and so far I found that Zotero works the best for me. It is open source, free and offers many plugins that will help you to manage your citations better.

Connected Papers is also a cool website as it showed you a graph of related research papers with the paper you’re searching for.

  • Connected Papers
  • Research Rabbit
  • APA Citation Machine

4. Other Useful Sites to Summarize, Paraphrase and Grammar

  • ProWritingAid
  • Academic Phrasebank (a lifesaver)

5. Analyzing Qualitative and Quantitative Data

  • SPSS (Quantitative)
  • Atlas.ti (Qualitative)
  • Nvivo (Qualitative)

6. Writing and Organization Tools

I use Notion to create my literature review matrix because I found that building it on Excel didn’t fit my aesthetic.

GoodNotes is where I annotated my papers on iPad and Obsidian, a fairly new software that I tried on, is for documenting website articles or any Reddit or Twitter posts that I found interesting for my research.

Important reminder, please BACK UP your writings and journal/thesis PDFs . I’ve heard a plethora of horror stories from other postgrads losing their data.

  • Google Doc (backup)
  • Microsoft Word (for writing drafts, mostly written on iCloud)
  • Obsidian (Available on Mac, iPad and iPhone)
  • Notion (Available on Mac, iPad and iPhone)
  • GoodNotes (Available on Mac, iPad and iPhone)
  • Notability (Available on Mac, iPad and iPhone)

That’s all from me, and I hope that this post will be helpful for your thesis writing journey. If you’ve any sites or tools to recommend, please do so in the comment section!

For other postgrads or students writing your thesis, good luck! If I, a student with tonnes of grammatical error, can pass my dissertation, you can do it too!

Related Tags

  • Academic Writing
  • Postgraduate

' src=

Blog on lifestyle, Japanese language study tips, digital note-taking, stationery haul and books. Also love Korean Webtoon and Chinese web novels.

I noticed the fascinating color design on Obsidian and it inspired me to update my own color design. Could you please tell us where you found the color scheme or what influenced you in choosing the colors?

Hi! I used a pre-built theme called Bubble Space and set it to dark theme.

Congrats dear for your very fine achievement! All the best in your future endeavours. I will definitely have a look at the above list when I have mustered enough courage to pursue a masters degree.

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Looking for love? Arizona is one of the worst states for singles. Here's why

best looking thesis

Arizona was named the second-worst state for singles in a recent ranking.

The study, published by Spokeo , analyzed which factors are important for single people in the U.S. and compared them to the resources and assets available in each state.

Analysts included state unemployment ratios, mental health providers in the area, the number of registered voters, the cost of living and the number of romance scams among other data to determine which states align with what singles care about most.

The study found that single people are increasingly more open to discussing mental health, care about being involved in aligned social and political causes, and are sensitive to debt.

Arizona ranked 49th among all U.S. states, particularly due to its high number of romance crimes and its lack of mental health providers, according to Spokeo.

Here's why the ranking considers Arizona one of the worst states for single adults and a roundup of the best and worst states for singles in the U.S.

What can be done? Arizona is in a mental health crisis, but there are ways to improve. Here's what we know

Why is Arizona bad for singles?

Arizona was the state with the most romance and confidence crime victims per 100,000 residents in the United States.

It was also within the top five states with the least mental health providers per capita , according to the ranking.

According to County Health Rankings and Roadmaps, there was one mental health provider per 550 people registered in Arizona in 2023. This ranged from one provider per 2,320 people to one provider per 400 people across counties in the state, placing Arizona 46th among the states for the mental health providers category.

Arizona also ranked as the 43rd state most likely to "ghost" you, the 36th state with the highest average cost of living, and the 32nd state with the highest unemployment rates as of March this year.

The state performed slightly better in other categories. Arizona ranked 14th among the states for the share of people above 15 who have never married, and it ranked 27th and 29th for the number of formal volunteers and the number of registered voters per capita.

Relationships are cringe. Dating apps are even worse. Why burned-out Gen Z is swiping left

The best states for singles

Here are the 10 states named the best for singles, according to Spokeo.

  • Massachusetts
  • Mississippi
  • South Dakota
  • Connecticut

The worst states for singles

Here are the 10 states named the worst for singles, according to Spokeo.

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How to get the best car insurance

  • Published: Jun. 01, 2024, 11:19 a.m.
  • NerdWallet | special to cleveland.com

For a lot of people, buying car insurance is like buying sliced bread. It’s not the most exciting purchase, and the options all seem similar. So thrifty shoppers might simply reach for the cheapest thing on the shelf. But like cheap bread, cheap car insurance may leave you wishing you spent a little more on quality.

“The cheapest is not always the best,” warns Jessica McNally, an agency owner with Goosehead Insurance in Dallas. That’s because there are lots of factors that make up a car insurance company. And while price is one of them, it’s best to look at the bigger picture.

Here’s what to look for when picking the best car insurance company.

1. Choose a financially stable company

The best car insurance companies have plenty of money on hand to pay for customers’ claims. It’s important to check an insurer’s financial stability before buying a policy, especially if it’s a smaller insurer you’ve never heard of.

There are several independent agencies that evaluate the financial strength of insurance companies. One example is A.M. Best. You can use its online search tool to find an insurer’s financial strength rating. Companies with a rating of A or higher are considered to have an excellent ability to pay out customer claims.

2. Check customer satisfaction ratings and reviews

Not every insurer is customer-first. That’s why it’s important to research the customer satisfaction of insurers you’re considering.

You can turn to surveys from companies like J.D. Power to find insurers with the best customer satisfaction scores. Or, if you don’t mind doing a little detective work, you can compare customer complaints against insurers by using the National Association of Insurance Commissioners’ website . But take other people’s emotionally charged comments about companies or agents you might read online with a grain of salt, McNally advises.

3. Look for convenience

A great auto insurer should offer multiple ways to manage a policy. For example, some insurers allow customers to use a mobile app to file and track claims. But it’s hard to tell how simple it’ll be to file a claim or perform other essential tasks, like paying your premium, before becoming a customer.

Some telltale signs that an insurer will be easy to work with are high mobile app ratings, flexible customer service hours and an easy-to-use website with helpful content. Consider asking a company representative to walk you through the claims process to learn what you’ll need to do if you have to file a claim. And pay attention to how the company communicates with you. “If they don’t properly communicate, well, that’s a warning sign,” says Michael DeLong, a research and advocacy associate for the nonprofit Consumer Federation of America.

4. Pick an affordable company

Car insurance premiums are stretching to record-breaking heights, and almost half of U.S. consumers shopped for a new car insurance policy in the past year, according to an April 2024 report by J.D. Power. The best car insurance companies offer competitive rates and a variety of potential discounts.

It’s not hard to get car insurance quotes online from many companies. Make sure you compare the same coverage options throughout the quote-gathering process. And don’t forget to look for car insurance discounts, like breaks for being a good driver, paying your premium in full or driving a new car.

More tips to find the best car insurance

When shopping for the best car insurance, keep the following tips in mind.

  • Assess your needs. Before buying car insurance, take a moment to reflect on what’s important to you and your family. For example, maybe you prioritize affordability and a well-polished mobile app, but don’t need accident forgiveness .
  • Consider small insurers. There are lots of small insurance companies you’ve probably never heard of. These regional insurers may provide lower rates and better customer service than the big companies you see advertised on TV.
  • Work with an independent agent. While it may be easy to get quotes yourself, independent car insurance agents and brokers can streamline the process. These experts vet companies and compile quotes from small and large insurers on your behalf. Independent agents and brokers can especially come in handy if you have a less-than-perfect driving record and can’t find insurance on your own.
  • Do your research. Search online for recent mentions of a company in the news before buying a policy, recommends DeLong. If you find a company has lots of recent lawsuits against it, you may want to think twice about signing on the dotted line. “And if they’ve had to pay out settlements, that’s an even bigger red flag,” DeLong says.
  • Shop around once a year. Make a practice of shopping for car insurance every year — especially if price is important to you. Insurers adjust car insurance rates regularly, so what might have been the most affordable option last year may no longer be a bargain.

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Ryan Brady writes for NerdWallet. Email: [email protected] . Twitter: @reallyryanbrady.

The article How to Get the Best Car Insurance originally appeared on NerdWallet.

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Best NBA Prop Bets Today for Mavericks vs. Celtics in NBA Finals Game 1 (Bet on Jaylen Brown, Dereck Lively II)

Peter dewey | 2 hours ago.

Dallas Mavericks center Dereck Lively II.

Game 1 of the NBA Finals tips off on Thursday night, and there are plenty of ways to bet on the Dallas Mavericks-Boston Celtics matchup. 

One of my favorites for this game is looking at the prop market, as both of these teams have gotten plenty of playoff games under their belt heading into the Finals. 

There are three players I’m looking to target in Game 1, including Eastern Conference Finals MVP Jaylen Brown. 

Mavericks vs. Celtics Best NBA Prop Bets

Jrue holiday over 22.5 points, rebounds and assists (-122), dereck lively ii over 6.5 rebounds (-148).

  • Jaylen Brown OVER 22.5 Points (-115)

Jrue Holiday has arguably been the biggest difference maker for Boston this season, and he’s shown up in a big way over the last few games of the playoffs. 

Holiday’s defensive prowess makes him arguably the most important piece in Joe Mazzulla’s rotation, as he’s going to need to be on the floor to guard Luka Doncic and Kyrie Irving. 

A NBA champion earlier in his career, Holiday is averaging 17.3 points, 6.7 rebounds and 5.3 assists per game over his last seven games, clearing 22.5 PRA in six of those contests. 

I imagine Holiday will play heavy minutes in this series because of his defensive acumen, which is a good sign for him in a PRA prop.

Betting on Boston props is a little volatile since we don’t know what Kristaps Porzingis’ usage will be, but this number has dropped significantly for Holiday compared to the 25.5 and 26.5’s that we saw for him in the Eastern Conference Finals. 

Dereck Lively has been a massive impact player for Dallas in the playoffs, posting the second-highest plus/minus on the team (+108). 

Lively’s minutes are growing as the playoffs go on, and I believe that he’s the best option to defend Kristaps Porzingis in this series. 

Over the entire playoffs, Lively is averaging 7.2 rebounds per game, and over his last eight matchups that number has jumped to 8.8 per game. He’s a great bet with this number set at just 6.5 for Thursday. 

Jaylen Brown OVER 23.5 Points (-110)

Brown, the Eastern Conference Finals MVP, has played some of his best postseason basketball this season, averaging 25.0 points per game while shooting 54.3 percent from the field and 36.8 percent from 3-point range.

Brown has been much more efficient than Jayson Tatum, and he finds himself with a points prop that is four points lower than his co-star in Game 1. 

I love the OVER here for Brown, who has cleared 22.5 points in nine of his 14 playoff games, including all four of his matchups in the Eastern Conference Finals against the Indiana Pacers.

While the return of Porzingis could eat into Brown’s usage, I don’t expect KP to return to his normal role in his first game back from a calf injury. He has even admitted that he’s not sure where exactly his conditioning is. 

Brown has cleared 40 minutes in three of his last five games, and he’s taken at least 17 shots in 11 of 14 games this postseason. That usage is enough to take him to score 23 or more points on Thursday.

Odds refresh periodically and are subject to change.

If you or someone you know has a gambling problem and wants help, call 1-800-GAMBLER.

Find Peter Dewey's  betting record here  You can also follow my daily plays on  BetStamp here .

Peter Dewey

PETER DEWEY

Peter is a senior editor for Sports Illustrated Betting. He has worked as a writer and editor for BetSided, NBC Sports, the Connecticut Sun and the Meriden Record-Journal covering the NBA, WNBA, NFL, MLB, and more. He is a hoops fanatic with a soft spot for his New York Knicks.

Follow @peterdewey2

Looking to see the planetary parade June 3? NASA says you may be disappointed. Here's why.

If you're wanting to see a parade of planets, experts say later this month may be better for viewing an actual celestial show..

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Folks who are expecting to see a dazzling parade of planets on Monday June 3 may be disappointed by what they end up seeing in the sky and, instead, experts are saying they should manage their expectations and wait until the end of the month to see the planetary alignment .

The past couple of months have been pretty eventful for backyard astronomers. First, the solar eclipse in April, then the northern lights made a rare appearance in May, and now a parade of planets will make its 2024 debut.

Stargazers are supposed to be able to see six planets, Jupiter, Mercury, Uranus, Mars, Neptune and Saturn, aligned.

However, experts from NASA and Astronomers Without Borders both agree that it won't be the best time to see the planetary parade. That's because Uranus, Mercury and Jupiter will be swallowed up by the sun's light and be too close to the horizon to be visible.

Northern lights: Northern lights in US were dim compared to 'last time mother nature showed off': What to know

Experts say be patient: Planet parade will be more of a show later in June

"To me, the closest thing to a planet parade is June 29th, when you’ll have Saturn, the third-quarter Moon, Mars, and Jupiter arrayed across the sky at dawn," Preston Dyches, a public engagement specialist for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory told USA TODAY. Dyches has a background in astronomy and hosts NASA's " What's Up ," a monthly video series that describes what's happening in the night sky.

Andrew Fazekas, the communications manager for Astronomers Without Borders, says that when it comes to the planetary parade on June 3, it will be nearly impossible to see all the planets with the naked eye.

Both Fazekas and Dyches agree that it's better to see the planetary parade on June 29, instead.

On June 3, Jupiter, Mercury and Uranus are going to be "way too close to the sun," said Fazekas. So, it will be difficult to see those three planets.

So, folks who do decide to rise before the sun does on Monday morning just to get a glimpse at this celestial phenomenon could be setting themselves up for disappointment.

In this case, good things come to those who wait. And waiting until the end of the month will give stargazers a better chance at viewing the planets.

"If you're patient and you wait until the end of the month, these planets will move farther away from the sun higher up in the early morning sky," Fazekas told USA TODAY "So, that you will get an easier chance to pick them out in the sky.

Folks will not only get a better view of the planetary parade if they wait until June 29, but they'll be able to gaze at the stars on Friday night into Saturday morning, instead of having to view it during the work week like they would this Monday morning.

Excitement from solar eclipse, northern lights creating planet parade hype

People are expecting to see something amazing the morning of June 3, said Fazekas. But, he's worried the expectations set by two very viral celestial events, the solar eclipse and northern lights, and sensationalization on social media could raise people's expectations a bit too high and lead to a lackluster experience.

He adds that he's concerned one bad experience that was overhyped online could steal people's enthusiasm about astronomy.

"What worries me is that we set people up for disappointment," said Fazekas "And then they won't want to do it again."

According to Fazekas, he's never seen so many people interested in sky-watching, and he doesn't want the excitement to end.

What will you be able to see?

According to a program called SkySafari Pro, you will be able to see the following during the planetary parade on June 29:

  • Jupiter, which will be closest to the horizon.

What is a planetary parade?

Basically, it's when the planets form a straight line and look like they're marching across the night sky and form a sort of space parade.

It's also known as a large planetary alignment, states Delaware Online , a part of the USA TODAY Network.

What equipment do you need to view a planetary parade?

According to Fazekas, you will still need binoculars and telescopes to see some of the planets.

"Neptune is a planet that you need strong binoculars or a small telescope to be able to see," said Fazekas. "And it's not easy to find either."

Folks who go out to stargaze on June 28, will be able to see Neptune right next to the moon. On June 29, it will be farther away from the moon, and be above it instead.

Apps, like Skyview on the Apple app store, can turn people's phones into a tool that helps them identify celestial bodies in the night sky.

Where will you be able to see the planetary parade?

According to Fazekas, people will need to do the following to get a view of the planetary parade:

  • Get up early, before sunrise.
  • Find a spot with a clear view that faces the east or southeastern sky.
  • Have your binoculars or telescope ready to view planets that aren't visible to the naked eye.

Harrison Ford sips a colorful drinking while holding another one in Working Girl.

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The best movies new to Netflix, Max, and more this June

Stay cool with a great movie as the weather heats up

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Happy June, Polygon readers. The weather is heating up, the sun is shining more brightly, and you’re probably doing activities outside a bit more. Good for you! But there’s still plenty of cause to plop on the couch, fire up the AC, pop some corn, and watch some great movies.

Every month, we collect the best movies new to streaming on Netflix, Hulu, Max, Prime, and more. This June, it’s a good group. We’ve got an underrated John Carpenter thriller newly on the Criterion Channel, two standout early works from directors with big releases this summer, and more.

[ Update, 6/3: Netflix surprised the world by dropping Godzilla Minus One on the platform this weekend. All other recommendations are moot. Watch Godzilla Minus One .]

Here are the movies new to streaming services you should watch this month.

Editor’s pick: Assault on Precinct 13

Gangsters in Assault on Precinct 13 hold someone up by gun point

Where to watch: Criterion Channel Genre: Action thriller Director: John Carpenter Cast: Austin Stoker, Darwin Joston, Laurie Zimmer

Often imitated but never outdone, John Carpenter’s 1976 crime thriller is one of the tensest 91 minutes ever put on screen, and now it’s on the Criterion Channel as a part of its “Synth Soundtracks” collection. Carpenter’s second feature film (following Dark Star , and just two years before Halloween changed everything), the movie follows a police officer (Austin Stoker) and a convicted murderer (Darwin Joston) who team up to defend the titular precinct from a heavily armed street gang.

Made on a shoestring budget of approximately $100,000, the original Assault on Precinct 13 is a master class of efficient filmmaking, using the closed-in setting of the movie to maximum effect in building tension and staging action sequences. It’s also an early peek at many of the skills that would make Carpenter one of the great masters of genre filmmaking. — Pete Volk

New on Netflix

Mya Taylor, left, and Kitana Kiki Rodriguez, in Tangerine.

Genre: Dramedy Director: Sean Baker Cast: Kitana Kiki Rodriguez, Mya Taylor, James Ransone

Director Sean Baker just became the first American to win the Palme d’Or since Terrence Malick won for The Tree of Life in 2011. Baker’s new movie, Anora , follows a sex worker (Mikey Madison) in a difficult relationship with a Russian oligarch. It does not yet have a release date in the U.S., but that big award win is a great reason to revisit one of Baker’s early projects, Tangerine — another story about sex workers, but in a very different style.

Shot on three iPhone 5S phones, Tangerine follows two trans sex workers in Los Angeles who are the closest of friends. One just got out of a short stint in prison and has heard her boyfriend has been cheating on her. The two try to find him and get down to the bottom of this mystery in a raw and funny dramedy that looks gorgeous despite the technological limitations of the equipment. If you liked Baker’s later films — The Florida Project and Red Rocket — or are looking forward to the Palme d’Or-winning Anora , but haven’t made time for Tangerine , now’s your moment. — PV

New on Hulu

Working girl.

Melanie Griffith, Harrison Ford, and Sigourney Weaver in Working Girl.

Genre: Romantic comedy Director: Mike Nichols Cast: Sigourney Weaver, Harrison Ford, Melanie Griffith

Mike Nichols’ ( The Graduate ) 1988 rom-com classic was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, and acting nominations for Melanie Griffith, Sigourney Weaver, and Joan Cusack. A class comedy about a secretary who fills in for her injured boss only to have said boss try to take credit for her hard work, this is a breezy comedy with an outstanding cast that also serves as a bit of a time capsule for late 1980s New York City, and makes an excellent companion piece to 9 to 5 .

Working Girl also inspired a particularly funny episode of Bob’s Burgers : the season 5 premiere “Work Hard or Die Trying, Girl,” a mashup of Working Girl and Die Hard . — PV

a korean father and his young son stand in an open field

Genre: Drama Director: Lee Isaac Chung Cast: Steven Yeun, Han Ye-ri, Alan Kim

Lee Isaac Chung’s Minari is an American story in the purest sense: Jacob (Steven Yeun), a Korean American father with dreams of a better life for himself and his children, moves his family from California to Arkansas in pursuit of his dream of becoming a farmer. As they weather the challenges and hardships that come with this strange new life in the Ozarks, he and his family learn the true meaning of what it takes to build a home. From our list of the best movies of 2020 :

Novelistic and warmly rendered, Minari is a drama about everyday life, and remembering to see the gifts of what’s right in front of you. And the perspective comes from a top-tier cast: Along with Yeun, playing a piercing patriarch, Han Yeri delivers a touching performance as a mother holding fast to her wayward loved ones, newcomers Noel Cho and Alan S. Kim buck every bad trope to play goofy and lovable kids, and renowned Korean actress Yuh-Jung Youn solidifies her legacy in a film that is wholly American.

Next up for Chung: the mega blockbuster Twisters , coming to theaters this summer. — Toussaint Egan

New on Prime Video

Koyaanisqatsi.

A man and a passenger behind the wheel of an automobile as streaks of light trail around them in Koyaanisqatsi.

Genre: Documentary Director: Godfrey Reggio

Consisting primarily of time-lapsed footage of cities and natural environments, Koyaanisqatsi is a fascinating time capsule of 20th-century society on the verge of the new millennium, one which asks its audiences to consider the symbiotic relationship between human beings and Earth and whether or not, as the English translation of the film’s title suggests, life as we know it has been thrown out of balance.

The movie has gone on to be referenced and parodied countless times since its premiere in 1982, including in the 2007 announcement trailer for Grand Theft Auto 4 , which features a track from Philip Glass’ iconic score for the film. Make the time to appreciate this monolith of majestic introspective filmmaking. —TE

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    This article provides an effective technique for writing a conclusion adapted from Erika Eby's The College Student's Guide to Writing a Good Research Paper: 101 Easy Tips & Tricks to Make Your Work Stand Out.. While the thesis introduction starts out with broad statements about the topic, and then narrows it down to the thesis statement, a thesis conclusion does the same in the opposite order.

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