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Essay on Global Warming


  • Updated on  
  • Apr 27, 2024

essay on global warming for ssc cgl

Being able to write an essay is an integral part of mastering any language. Essays form an integral part of many academic and scholastic exams like the SAT, and UPSC amongst many others. It is a crucial evaluative part of English proficiency tests as well like IELTS, TOEFL, etc. Major essays are meant to emphasize public issues of concern that can have significant consequences on the world. To understand the concept of Global Warming and its causes and effects, we must first examine the many factors that influence the planet’s temperature and what this implies for the world’s future. Here’s an unbiased look at the essay on Global Warming and other essential related topics.

Short Essay on Global Warming and Climate Change?

Since the industrial and scientific revolutions, Earth’s resources have been gradually depleted. Furthermore, the start of the world’s population’s exponential expansion is particularly hard on the environment. Simply put, as the population’s need for consumption grows, so does the use of natural resources , as well as the waste generated by that consumption.

Climate change has been one of the most significant long-term consequences of this. Climate change is more than just the rise or fall of global temperatures; it also affects rain cycles, wind patterns, cyclone frequencies, sea levels, and other factors. It has an impact on all major life groupings on the planet.

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What is Global Warming?

Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth’s average surface temperature over the past century, primarily due to the greenhouse gases released by people burning fossil fuels . The greenhouse gases consist of methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapour, and chlorofluorocarbons. The weather prediction has been becoming more complex with every passing year, with seasons more indistinguishable, and the general temperatures hotter.

The number of hurricanes, cyclones, droughts, floods, etc., has risen steadily since the onset of the 21st century. The supervillain behind all these changes is Global Warming. The name is quite self-explanatory; it means the rise in the temperature of the Earth.

Also Read: What is a Natural Disaster?

What are the Causes of Global Warming?

According to recent studies, many scientists believe the following are the primary four causes of global warming:

  • Deforestation 
  • Greenhouse emissions
  • Carbon emissions per capita

Extreme global warming is causing natural disasters , which can be seen all around us. One of the causes of global warming is the extreme release of greenhouse gases that become trapped on the earth’s surface, causing the temperature to rise. Similarly, volcanoes contribute to global warming by spewing excessive CO2 into the atmosphere.

The increase in population is one of the major causes of Global Warming. This increase in population also leads to increased air pollution . Automobiles emit a lot of CO2, which remains in the atmosphere. This increase in population is also causing deforestation, which contributes to global warming.

The earth’s surface emits energy into the atmosphere in the form of heat, keeping the balance with the incoming energy. Global warming depletes the ozone layer, bringing about the end of the world. There is a clear indication that increased global warming will result in the extinction of all life on Earth’s surface.

Also Read: Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation, and Wildlife Resources

Solutions for Global Warming

Of course, industries and multinational conglomerates emit more carbon than the average citizen. Nonetheless, activism and community effort are the only viable ways to slow the worsening effects of global warming. Furthermore, at the state or government level, world leaders must develop concrete plans and step-by-step programmes to ensure that no further harm is done to the environment in general.

Although we are almost too late to slow the rate of global warming, finding the right solution is critical. Everyone, from individuals to governments, must work together to find a solution to Global Warming. Some of the factors to consider are pollution control, population growth, and the use of natural resources.

One very important contribution you can make is to reduce your use of plastic. Plastic is the primary cause of global warming, and recycling it takes years. Another factor to consider is deforestation, which will aid in the control of global warming. More tree planting should be encouraged to green the environment. Certain rules should also govern industrialization. Building industries in green zones that affect plants and species should be prohibited.

Also Read: Essay on Pollution

Effects of Global Warming

Global warming is a real problem that many people want to disprove to gain political advantage. However, as global citizens, we must ensure that only the truth is presented in the media.

This decade has seen a significant impact from global warming. The two most common phenomena observed are glacier retreat and arctic shrinkage. Glaciers are rapidly melting. These are clear manifestations of climate change.

Another significant effect of global warming is the rise in sea level. Flooding is occurring in low-lying areas as a result of sea-level rise. Many countries have experienced extreme weather conditions. Every year, we have unusually heavy rain, extreme heat and cold, wildfires, and other natural disasters.

Similarly, as global warming continues, marine life is being severely impacted. This is causing the extinction of marine species as well as other problems. Furthermore, changes are expected in coral reefs, which will face extinction in the coming years. These effects will intensify in the coming years, effectively halting species expansion. Furthermore, humans will eventually feel the negative effects of Global Warming.

Also Read: Concept of Sustainable Development

Sample Essays on Global Warming

Here are some sample essays on Global Warming:

Essay on Global Warming Paragraph in 100 – 150 words

Global Warming is caused by the increase of carbon dioxide levels in the earth’s atmosphere and is a result of human activities that have been causing harm to our environment for the past few centuries now. Global Warming is something that can’t be ignored and steps have to be taken to tackle the situation globally. The average temperature is constantly rising by 1.5 degrees Celsius over the last few years.

The best method to prevent future damage to the earth, cutting down more forests should be banned and Afforestation should be encouraged. Start by planting trees near your homes and offices, participate in events, and teach the importance of planting trees. It is impossible to undo the damage but it is possible to stop further harm.

Also Read: Social Forestry

Essay on Global Warming in 250 Words

Over a long period, it is observed that the temperature of the earth is increasing. This affected wildlife, animals, humans, and every living organism on earth. Glaciers have been melting, and many countries have started water shortages, flooding, and erosion and all this is because of global warming. 

No one can be blamed for global warming except for humans. Human activities such as gases released from power plants, transportation, and deforestation have increased gases such as carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants in the earth’s atmosphere.                                              The main question is how can we control the current situation and build a better world for future generations. It starts with little steps by every individual. 

Start using cloth bags made from sustainable materials for all shopping purposes, instead of using high-watt lights use energy-efficient bulbs, switch off the electricity, don’t waste water, abolish deforestation and encourage planting more trees. Shift the use of energy from petroleum or other fossil fuels to wind and solar energy. Instead of throwing out the old clothes donate them to someone so that it is recycled. 

Donate old books, don’t waste paper.  Above all, spread awareness about global warming. Every little thing a person does towards saving the earth will contribute in big or small amounts. We must learn that 1% effort is better than no effort. Pledge to take care of Mother Nature and speak up about global warming.

Also Read: Types of Water Pollution

Essay on Global Warming in 500 Words

Global warming isn’t a prediction, it is happening! A person denying it or unaware of it is in the most simple terms complicit. Do we have another planet to live on? Unfortunately, we have been bestowed with this one planet only that can sustain life yet over the years we have turned a blind eye to the plight it is in. Global warming is not an abstract concept but a global phenomenon occurring ever so slowly even at this moment. Global Warming is a phenomenon that is occurring every minute resulting in a gradual increase in the Earth’s overall climate. Brought about by greenhouse gases that trap the solar radiation in the atmosphere, global warming can change the entire map of the earth, displacing areas, flooding many countries, and destroying multiple lifeforms. Extreme weather is a direct consequence of global warming but it is not an exhaustive consequence. There are virtually limitless effects of global warming which are all harmful to life on earth. The sea level is increasing by 0.12 inches per year worldwide. This is happening because of the melting of polar ice caps because of global warming. This has increased the frequency of floods in many lowland areas and has caused damage to coral reefs. The Arctic is one of the worst-hit areas affected by global warming. Air quality has been adversely affected and the acidity of the seawater has also increased causing severe damage to marine life forms. Severe natural disasters are brought about by global warming which has had dire effects on life and property. As long as mankind produces greenhouse gases, global warming will continue to accelerate. The consequences are felt at a much smaller scale which will increase to become drastic shortly. The power to save the day lies in the hands of humans, the need is to seize the day. Energy consumption should be reduced on an individual basis. Fuel-efficient cars and other electronics should be encouraged to reduce the wastage of energy sources. This will also improve air quality and reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Global warming is an evil that can only be defeated when fought together. It is better late than never. If we all take steps today, we will have a much brighter future tomorrow. Global warming is the bane of our existence and various policies have come up worldwide to fight it but that is not enough. The actual difference is made when we work at an individual level to fight it. Understanding its import now is crucial before it becomes an irrevocable mistake. Exterminating global warming is of utmost importance and each one of us is as responsible for it as the next.  

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Essay on Global Warming UPSC

Always hear about global warming everywhere, but do we know what it is? The evil of the worst form, global warming is a phenomenon that can affect life more fatally. Global warming refers to the increase in the earth’s temperature as a result of various human activities. The planet is gradually getting hotter and threatening the existence of lifeforms on it. Despite being relentlessly studied and researched, global warming for the majority of the population remains an abstract concept of science. It is this concept that over the years has culminated in making global warming a stark reality and not a concept covered in books. Global warming is not caused by one sole reason that can be curbed. Multifarious factors cause global warming most of which are a part of an individual’s daily existence. Burning of fuels for cooking, in vehicles, and for other conventional uses, a large amount of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, and methane amongst many others is produced which accelerates global warming. Rampant deforestation also results in global warming as lesser green cover results in an increased presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which is a greenhouse gas.  Finding a solution to global warming is of immediate importance. Global warming is a phenomenon that has to be fought unitedly. Planting more trees can be the first step that can be taken toward warding off the severe consequences of global warming. Increasing the green cover will result in regulating the carbon cycle. There should be a shift from using nonrenewable energy to renewable energy such as wind or solar energy which causes less pollution and thereby hinder the acceleration of global warming. Reducing energy needs at an individual level and not wasting energy in any form is the most important step to be taken against global warming. The warning bells are tolling to awaken us from the deep slumber of complacency we have slipped into. Humans can fight against nature and it is high time we acknowledged that. With all our scientific progress and technological inventions, fighting off the negative effects of global warming is implausible. We have to remember that we do not inherit the earth from our ancestors but borrow it from our future generations and the responsibility lies on our shoulders to bequeath them a healthy planet for life to exist. 

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Climate Change and Global Warming Essay

Global Warming and Climate Change are two sides of the same coin. Both are interrelated with each other and are two issues of major concern worldwide. Greenhouse gases released such as carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants in the earth’s atmosphere cause Global Warming which leads to climate change. Black holes have started to form in the ozone layer that protects the earth from harmful ultraviolet rays. 

Human activities have created climate change and global warming. Industrial waste and fumes are the major contributors to global warming. 

Another factor affecting is the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and also one of the reasons for climate change.  Global warming has resulted in shrinking mountain glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland, and the Arctic and causing climate change. Switching from the use of fossil fuels to energy sources like wind and solar. 

When buying any electronic appliance buy the best quality with energy savings stars. Don’t waste water and encourage rainwater harvesting in your community. 

Also Read: Essay on Air Pollution

Tips to Write an Essay

Writing an effective essay needs skills that few people possess and even fewer know how to implement. While writing an essay can be an assiduous task that can be unnerving at times, some key pointers can be inculcated to draft a successful essay. These involve focusing on the structure of the essay, planning it out well, and emphasizing crucial details.

Mentioned below are some pointers that can help you write better structure and more thoughtful essays that will get across to your readers:

  • Prepare an outline for the essay to ensure continuity and relevance and no break in the structure of the essay
  • Decide on a thesis statement that will form the basis of your essay. It will be the point of your essay and help readers understand your contention
  • Follow the structure of an introduction, a detailed body followed by a conclusion so that the readers can comprehend the essay in a particular manner without any dissonance.
  • Make your beginning catchy and include solutions in your conclusion to make the essay insightful and lucrative to read
  • Reread before putting it out and add your flair to the essay to make it more personal and thereby unique and intriguing for readers  

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Ans. Both natural and man-made factors contribute to global warming. The natural one also contains methane gas, volcanic eruptions, and greenhouse gases. Deforestation, mining, livestock raising, burning fossil fuels, and other man-made causes are next.

Ans. The government and the general public can work together to stop global warming. Trees must be planted more often, and deforestation must be prohibited. Auto usage needs to be curbed, and recycling needs to be promoted.

Ans. Switching to renewable energy sources , adopting sustainable farming, transportation, and energy methods, and conserving water and other natural resources.

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Digvijay Singh

Having 2+ years of experience in educational content writing, withholding a Bachelor's in Physical Education and Sports Science and a strong interest in writing educational content for students enrolled in domestic and foreign study abroad programmes. I believe in offering a distinct viewpoint to the table, to help students deal with the complexities of both domestic and foreign educational systems. Through engaging storytelling and insightful analysis, I aim to inspire my readers to embark on their educational journeys, whether abroad or at home, and to make the most of every learning opportunity that comes their way.

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This was really a good essay on global warming… There has been used many unic words..and I really liked it!!!Seriously I had been looking for a essay about Global warming just like this…

Thank you for the comment!

I want to learn how to write essay writing so I joined this page.This page is very useful for everyone.

Hi, we are glad that we could help you to write essays. We have a beginner’s guide to write essays ( ) and we think this might help you.

It is not good , to have global warming in our earth .So we all have to afforestation program on all the world.

thank you so much

Very educative , helpful and it is really going to strength my English knowledge to structure my essay in future

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Global warming is the increase in 𝓽𝓱𝓮 ᴀᴠᴇʀᴀɢᴇ ᴛᴇᴍᴘᴇʀᴀᴛᴜʀᴇs ᴏғ ᴇᴀʀᴛʜ🌎 ᴀᴛᴍᴏsᴘʜᴇʀᴇ

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Essay on Global Warming – Causes and Solutions

500+ words essay on global warming.

Global Warming is a term almost everyone is familiar with. But, its meaning is still not clear to most of us. So, Global warming refers to the gradual rise in the overall temperature of the atmosphere of the Earth. There are various activities taking place which have been increasing the temperature gradually. Global warming is melting our ice glaciers rapidly. This is extremely harmful to the earth as well as humans. It is quite challenging to control global warming; however, it is not unmanageable. The first step in solving any problem is identifying the cause of the problem. Therefore, we need to first understand the causes of global warming that will help us proceed further in solving it. In this essay on Global Warming, we will see the causes and solutions of Global Warming.

essay on global warming

Causes of Global Warming

Global warming has become a grave problem which needs undivided attention. It is not happening because of a single cause but several causes. These causes are both natural as well as manmade. The natural causes include the release of greenhouses gases which are not able to escape from earth, causing the temperature to increase.

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Further, volcanic eruptions are also responsible for global warming. That is to say, these eruptions release tons of carbon dioxide which contributes to global warming. Similarly, methane is also one big issue responsible for global warming.

essay on global warming for ssc cgl

So, when one of the biggest sources of absorption of carbon dioxide will only disappear, there will be nothing left to regulate the gas. Thus, it will result in global warming. Steps must be taken immediately to stop global warming and make the earth better again.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Global Warming Solutions

As stated earlier, it might be challenging but it is not entirely impossible. Global warming can be stopped when combined efforts are put in. For that, individuals and governments, both have to take steps towards achieving it. We must begin with the reduction of greenhouse gas.

Furthermore, they need to monitor the consumption of gasoline. Switch to a hybrid car and reduce the release of carbon dioxide. Moreover, citizens can choose public transport or carpool together. Subsequently, recycling must also be encouraged.

Read Global Warming Speech here

For instance, when you go shopping, carry your own cloth bag. Another step you can take is to limit the use of electricity which will prevent the release of carbon dioxide. On the government’s part, they must regulate industrial waste and ban them from emitting harmful gases in the air. Deforestation must be stopped immediately and planting of trees must be encouraged.

In short, all of us must realize the fact that our earth is not well. It needs to treatment and we can help it heal. The present generation must take up the responsibility of stopping global warming in order to prevent the suffering of future generations. Therefore, every little step, no matter how small carries a lot of weight and is quite significant in stopping global warming.

हिंदी में ग्लोबल वार्मिंग पर निबंध यहाँ पढ़ें

FAQs on Global Warming

Q.1 List the causes of Global Warming.

A.1 There are various causes of global warming both natural and manmade. The natural one includes a greenhouse gas, volcanic eruption, methane gas and more. Next up, manmade causes are deforestation, mining, cattle rearing, fossil fuel burning and more.

Q.2 How can one stop Global Warming?

A.2 Global warming can be stopped by a joint effort by the individuals and the government. Deforestation must be banned and trees should be planted more. The use of automobiles must be limited and recycling must be encouraged.

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Global Warming Definition, Causes, Effects, Impacts, Solutions_1.1

Global Warming Definition, Causes, Effects, Impacts, Solutions

Global Warming is a long-term increase in average global temperature. Read about Global Warming Definition, Causes, Effects, Impact on Climate Change & Solutions for the UPSC exam.

Global Warming

Table of Contents

What is Global Warming?

Global Warming is a long-term increase in average global temperature. It is considered a natural phenomenon, but anthropogenic activities on earth, particularly post Industrial Revolution , have led to an increase in the rate of this temperature increase. Various Reports published by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have time and again highlighted that since 1850 human activities have led to an increase of about 1 degree Celsius in average global temperature. Most of this warming has taken place in the second half of the 20th century. The fact that 5 of the hottest recorded year have occurred since 2015 can help us better understand the calamitous impact of anthropogenic activities.

Global Warming Causes

Green House Gases also known as GHGs in the atmosphere trap the solar radiations that are reflected by the earth’s surface. Under normal circumstances, most of these radiations escape into outer space. However, the release of GHGs by anthropogenic activities has increased their concentration in the atmosphere. Thus, the earth is getting hotter and hotter. 

Some of the common GHGs include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and water vapour, among others. The global warming potential of each GHG is different. For example, methane has a 25-time warming potential than carbon dioxide. Similarly, nitrous oxide has more than 250 times the warming potential than carbon dioxide. The top  anthropogenic activities that are responsible for the release of GHGs are shown below.

Global Warming Definition, Causes, Effects, Impacts, Solutions_4.1

Global Warming and Green House Effect

Both phenomena are related to each other. Green House Gases also known as GHGs in the atmosphere trap the solar radiations that are reflected by the earth’s surface. Under normal circumstances, most of these radiations escape into outer space. However, the release of GHGs by anthropogenic activities has increased their concentration in the atmosphere. This is the primary cause of Global Warming . 

Global Warming Effects

Increase in the average temperature of the earth.

According to IPCC reports, human-induced global warming is responsible for nearly 1 degree Celsius temperature rise vis a vis pre-industrial level. Data from NASA suggest that 2016 has been the hottest year on record.

Frequency of Extreme Weather Events is Increasing

Across the globe, extreme weather events have increased in occurrence. For example, forest fires in California have become an annual event. Also, it is increasing in frequency each year. Most recently, we have recorded the phenomena of heat waves in Antarctica. The intensity of cyclones in the Bay of Bengal region has increased. Similarly, the frequency of occurrence of El Niño and La Niña has reduced from once in 8–10 years to once in 3–4 years now. More frequent episodes of floods and drought are being recorded every year across the world.

Melting of Ice

According to IPCC, there is 10% less permafrost in North Hemisphere at present compared to the 1900s. Remote sensing data suggest Arctic ice is melting fast. Experts suggest that not only will the sea level rise with the melting of glaciers, but there is also a danger of new bacteria and viruses being released into the environment which has so far been trapped in ice sheets. This may lead to outbreaks of disease and pandemics which are beyond the control of human medical sciences.

Sea Level Rise and Acidification of Ocean

A report published by WMO, suggests that the rate of sea level rise has doubled for the period between 2013 and 2021 compared to the rate for the period between 1993 and 2002. Earth scientists are suggesting that if this phenomenon continues, many human-inhabited coastal areas will be submerged into the sea in the coming decades. Also, with the concentration of carbon dioxide rising in the atmosphere, oceans are absorbing more of it. This is leading to ocean acidification. The impact of this phenomenon can be disastrous for ocean biodiversity, particularly the coral reefs. 

Adverse Impact on Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Earth

It has been recorded that many flora and fauna species are heading northwards in Northern Hemisphere. Significant changes have been observed in the migratory movements of birds across the world. Early arrival to their summer feeding and breeding grounds is quite evident. Expert biologists suggest that rising temperatures in the tropical and subtropical regions may lead to an outbreak of new diseases, which in turn may render many floral and faunal species extinct.

Social and Economic Impact

A rising number of extreme weather events will have an adverse impact on agriculture and fisheries. Rising global temperatures will have a negative impact on the productivity of human beings, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the earth. The impact on life and livelihoods of indigenous people across the world will be even more pronounced. 

Global Warming Solutions

Global cooperation for reduction of emissions.

It is time that the target of containing the global average temperature rise within 1.5 degrees Celsius of pre-industrial levels is taken seriously. Also, global efforts should be based on a spirit of Common But Differentiated Responsibility. This will ensure that historical injustices done to the global south are duly acknowledged, and they have an equal chance to transform themselves into developed countries. Countries must act proactively to achieve Net Zero Emission status at the earliest. 

Transition to Cleaner and Greener Forms of Energy

Thermal power plants based on coal should be made more efficient and inefficient ones should be phased off. Also, mass adoption of renewable forms of energy like solar should be promoted. Similarly, avenues for using hydrogen as energy fuel should be looked into. We must also explore the possibility of Nuclear fusion for energy generation, in addition to making nuclear fission-based energy generation safer.

Changes in Agricultural Practices and Land Use

Agriculture based on the use of nitrogenous fertilizers must be replaced with organic farming techniques. Also, methane gas released from agricultural and cattle waste must be trapped as biogas for domestic usage. Massive afforestation drives must be organized. Urban governments must make it a point to include green spaces in urban planning.

Improving Transportation System

The advent of E-vehicles is a welcome change, but we need to make the batteries used in these vehicles more efficient. Urban planners must make public transportation systems inherent as a benchmark of good urban planning. Also, urban planning should be such that it promotes more walking and cycling habits among the residents. 

Behavioural Changes

All the above discussions will have no meaning if we as individuals are not sensitive enough. We need to make reducing, reusing and recycling a mantra of our living. It should be our civic duty to save water, and wildlife and raise awareness among others. 

Solar Geoengineering

Solar geoengineering, a proposed climate intervention method, aims to counteract global warming by reflecting a portion of the sun’s rays back into space. One prominent approach involves injecting substances like sulphur dioxide into the upper atmosphere to create reflective aerosols. These particles can scatter sunlight, reducing the Earth’s temperature. However, solar geoengineering is a topic of debate, with concerns about its side effects, such as disrupted weather patterns and potential geopolitical risks. Research in this field is ongoing, but it remains a theoretical concept with limited practical implementation.

Can Solar Geoengineering Halt Global Warming?

Solar geoengineering, specifically solar radiation management (SRM), is under scrutiny as a potential method to mitigate global warming. SRM involves reflecting sunlight away from Earth, often by injecting substances like sulphur dioxide into the upper atmosphere to create reflective aerosols. However, its effectiveness remains a subject of debate, with concerns about potential side effects and ethical implications. While research in this field is ongoing, solar geoengineering is currently in a theoretical stage, with limited practical implementation.

Global Warming Conclusion

It is rightly said that “Charity begins at home.” Climate action will be more efficient if we go by this spirit. To begin with, each individual can make sure that what is happening in their house and immediate surroundings is in harmony with the environment. If this can happen, all the policies we are making at the local, national, regional and global levels will give far better results. 

Global Warming UPSC

Each year, we read about rising global temperatures. Also, catching the headlines is the news related to disasters caused by events like cyclones, forest fires, floods and drought. All these phenomena can be attributed to one single cause which is global warming. 

Global Warming is a long-term increase in average global temperature. It is considered a natural phenomenon, but anthropogenic activities on earth, particularly post-Industrial Revolution, have led to an increase in the rate of this temperature increase.

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Why is global warming a problem?

Global Warming at present rate can lead to disastrous impacts like rising sea level, out break of new diseases, extreme weather events among others.

What are 3 causes of global warming?

Human induced green house gas emission due to activities like agriculture, industrial emissions, transportation are the top 3 causes of global warming.

What are 5 effects of global warming?

Rising sea level, out break of new diseases, extreme weather events, changes in biodiversity and melting of glaciers are top 5 effects of global warming.

Why global warming is important?

Global warming at its natural rate is important to keep up the temperature of earth within the range that makes it habitable. This makes global warming important.

Can we control global warming?

Number of mitigation measures like shifting to cleaning forms of energy and transportation can be taken to control global warming.

Who help with global warming?

Global Warming is a collective challenge for entire humanity. Citizens, civil societies, governments and businesses must act in unison to address it.

Sakshi Gupta

I, Sakshi Gupta, am a content writer to empower students aiming for UPSC, PSC, and other competitive exams. My objective is to provide clear, concise, and informative content that caters to your exam preparation needs. I strive to make my content not only informative but also engaging, keeping you motivated throughout your journey!

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A cityscape view with reflections of people on windows and a dramatic cloudy sky in the background.

A problem built into our relationship with energy itself. Photo by Ferdinando Scianna/Magnum

Deep warming

Even if we ‘solve’ global warming, we face an older, slower problem. waste heat could radically alter earth’s future.

by Mark Buchanan   + BIO

The world will be transformed. By 2050, we will be driving electric cars and flying in aircraft running on synthetic fuels produced through solar and wind energy. New energy-efficient technologies, most likely harnessing artificial intelligence, will dominate nearly all human activities from farming to heavy industry. The fossil fuel industry will be in the final stages of a terminal decline. Nuclear fusion and other new energy sources may have become widespread. Perhaps our planet will even be orbited by massive solar arrays capturing cosmic energy from sunlight and generating seemingly endless energy for all our needs.

That is one possible future for humanity. It’s an optimistic view of how radical changes to energy production might help us slow or avoid the worst outcomes of global warming. In a report from 1965, scientists from the US government warned that our ongoing use of fossil fuels would cause global warming with potentially disastrous consequences for Earth’s climate. The report, one of the first government-produced documents to predict a major crisis caused by humanity’s large-scale activities, noted that the likely consequences would include higher global temperatures, the melting of the ice caps and rising sea levels. ‘Through his worldwide industrial civilisation,’ the report concluded, ‘Man is unwittingly conducting a vast geophysical experiment’ – an experiment with a highly uncertain outcome, but clear and important risks for life on Earth.

Since then, we’ve dithered and doubted and argued about what to do, but still have not managed to take serious action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which continue to rise. Governments around the planet have promised to phase out emissions in the coming decades and transition to ‘green energy’. But global temperatures may be rising faster than we expected: some climate scientists worry that rapid rises could create new problems and positive feedback loops that may accelerate climate destabilisation and make parts of the world uninhabitable long before a hoped-for transition is possible.

Despite this bleak vision of the future, there are reasons for optimists to hope due to progress on cleaner sources of renewable energy, especially solar power. Around 2010, solar energy generation accounted for less than 1 per cent of the electricity generated by humanity. But experts believe that, by 2027, due to falling costs, better technology and exponential growth in new installations, solar power will become the largest global energy source for producing electricity. If progress on renewables continues, we might find a way to resolve the warming problem linked to greenhouse gas emissions. By 2050, large-scale societal and ecological changes might have helped us avoid the worst consequences of our extensive use of fossil fuels.

It’s a momentous challenge. And it won’t be easy. But this story of transformation only hints at the true depth of the future problems humanity will confront in managing our energy use and its influence over our climate.

As scientists are gradually learning, even if we solve the immediate warming problem linked to the greenhouse effect, there’s another warming problem steadily growing beneath it. Let’s call it the ‘deep warming’ problem. This deeper problem also raises Earth’s surface temperature but, unlike global warming, it has nothing to do with greenhouse gases and our use of fossil fuels. It stems directly from our use of energy in all forms and our tendency to use more energy over time – a problem created by the inevitable waste heat that is generated whenever we use energy to do something. Yes, the world may well be transformed by 2050. Carbon dioxide levels may stabilise or fall thanks to advanced AI-assisted technologies that run on energy harvested from the sun and wind. And the fossil fuel industry may be taking its last breaths. But we will still face a deeper problem. That’s because ‘deep warming’ is not created by the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. It’s a problem built into our relationship with energy itself.

F inding new ways to harness more energy has been a constant theme of human development. The evolution of humanity – from early modes of hunter-gathering to farming and industry – has involved large systematic increases in our per-capita energy use. The British historian and archaeologist Ian Morris estimates, in his book Foragers, Farmers, and Fossil Fuels: How Human Values Evolve (2015), that early human hunter-gatherers, living more than 10,000 years ago, ‘captured’ around 5,000 kcal per person per day by consuming food, burning fuel, making clothing, building shelter, or through other activities. Later, after we turned to farming and enlisted the energies of domesticated animals, we were able to harness as much as 30,000 kcal per day. In the late 17th century , the exploitation of coal and steam power marked another leap: by 1970, the use of fossil fuels allowed humans to consume some 230,000 kcal per person per day. (When we think about humanity writ large as ‘humans’, it’s important to acknowledge that the average person in the wealthiest nations consumes up to 100 times more energy than the average person in the poorest nations.) As the global population has risen and people have invented new energy-dependent technologies, our global energy use has continued to climb.

In many respects, this is great. We can now do more with less effort and achieve things that were unimaginable to the 17th-century inventors of steam engines, let alone to our hominin ancestors. We’ve made powerful mining machines, superfast trains, lasers for use in telecommunications and brain-imaging equipment. But these creations, while helping us, are also subtly heating the planet.

All the energy we humans use – to heat our homes, run our factories, propel our automobiles and aircraft, or to run our electronics – eventually ends up as heat in the environment. In the shorter term, most of the energy we use flows directly into the environment. It gets there through hot exhaust gases, friction between tires and roads, the noises generated by powerful engines, which spread out, dissipate, and eventually end up as heat. However, a small portion of the energy we use gets stored in physical changes, such as in new steel, plastic or concrete. It’s stored in our cities and technologies. In the longer term, as these materials break down, the energy stored inside also finds its way into the environment as heat. This is a direct consequence of the well-tested principles of thermodynamics.

Waste heat will pose a problem that is every bit as serious as global warming from greenhouse gases

In the early decades of the 21st century , this heat created by simply using energy, known as ‘waste heat’, is not so serious. It’s equivalent to roughly 2 per cent of the planetary heating imbalance caused by greenhouse gases – for now. But, with the passing of time, the problem is likely to get much more serious. That’s because humans have a historical tendency to consistently discover and produce things, creating entirely new technologies and industries in the process: domesticated animals for farming; railways and automobiles; global air travel and shipping; personal computers, the internet and mobile phones. The result of such activities is that we end up using more and more energy, despite improved energy efficiency in nearly every area of technology.

During the past two centuries at least (and likely for much longer), our yearly energy use has doubled roughly every 30 to 50 years . Our energy use seems to be growing exponentially, a trend that shows every sign of continuing. We keep finding new things to do and almost everything we invent requires more and more energy: consider the enormous energy demands of cryptocurrency mining or the accelerating energy requirements of AI.

If this historical trend continues, scientists estimate waste heat will pose a problem in roughly 150-200 years that is every bit as serious as the current problem of global warming from greenhouse gases. However, deep heating will be more pernicious as we won’t be able to avoid it by merely shifting from one kind energy to another. A profound problem will loom before us: can we set strict limits on all the energy we use? Can we reign in the seemingly inexorable expansion of our activities to avoid destroying our own environment?

Deep warming is a problem hiding beneath global warming, but one that will become prominent if and when we manage to solve the more pressing issue of greenhouse gases. It remains just out of sight, which might explain why scientists only became concerned about the ‘waste heat’ problem around 15 years ago.

O ne of the first people to describe the problem is the Harvard astrophysicist Eric Chaisson, who discussed the issue of waste heat in a paper titled ‘Long-Term Global Heating from Energy Usage’ (2008). He concluded that our technological society may be facing a fundamental limit to growth due to ‘unavoidable global heating … dictated solely by the second law of thermodynamics, a biogeophysical effect often ignored when estimating future planetary warming scenarios’. When I emailed Chaisson to learn more, he told me the history of his thinking on the problem:

It was on a night flight, Paris-Boston [circa] 2006, after a UNESCO meeting on the environment when it dawned on me that the IPCC were overlooking something. While others on the plane slept, I crunched some numbers literally on the back of an envelope … and then hoped I was wrong, that is, hoped that I was incorrect in thinking that the very act of using energy heats the air, however slightly now.

The transformation of energy into heat is among the most ubiquitous processes of physics

Chaisson drafted the idea up as a paper and sent it to an academic journal. Two anonymous reviewers were eager for it to be published. ‘A third tried his damnedest to kill it,’ Chaisson said, the reviewer claiming the findings were ‘irrelevant and distracting’. After it was finally published, the paper got some traction when it was covered by a journalist and ran as a feature story on the front page of The Boston Globe . The numbers Chaisson crunched, predictions of our mounting waste heat, were even run on a supercomputer at the US National Center for Atmospheric Research, by Mark Flanner, a professor of earth system science. Flanner, Chaisson suspected at the time, was likely ‘out to prove it wrong’. But, ‘after his machine crunched for many hours’, he saw the same results that Chaisson had written on the back of an envelope that night in the plane.

Around the same time, also in 2008, two engineers, Nick Cowern and Chihak Ahn, wrote a research paper entirely independent of Chaisson’s work, but with similar conclusions. This was how I first came across the problem. Cowern and Ahn’s study estimated the total amount of waste heat we’re currently releasing to the environment, and found that it is, right now, quite small. But, like Chaisson, they acknowledged that the problem would eventually become serious unless steps were taken to avoid it.

That’s some of the early history of thinking in this area. But these two papers, and a few other analyses since, point to the same unsettling conclusion: what I am calling ‘deep warming’ will be a big problem for humanity at some point in the not-too-distant future. The precise date is far from certain. It might be 150 years , or 400, or 800, but it’s in the relatively near future, not the distant future of, say, thousands or millions of years. This is our future.

T he transformation of energy into heat is among the most ubiquitous processes of physics. As cars drive down roads, trains roar along railways, planes cross the skies and industrial plants turn raw materials into refined products, energy gets turned into heat, which is the scientific word for energy stored in the disorganised motions of molecules at the microscopic level. As a plane flies from Paris to Boston, it burns fuel and thrusts hot gases into the air, generates lots of sound and stirs up contrails. These swirls of air give rise to swirls on smaller scales which in turn make smaller ones until the energy ultimately ends up lost in heat – the air is a little warmer than before, the molecules making it up moving about a little more vigorously. A similar process takes place when energy is used by the tiny electrical currents inside the microchips of computers, silently carrying out computations. Energy used always ends up as heat. Decades ago, research by the IBM physicist Rolf Landauer showed that a computation involving even a single computing bit will release a certain minimum amount of heat to the environment.

How this happens is described by the laws of thermodynamics, which were described in the mid-19th century by scientists including Sadi Carnot in France and Rudolf Clausius in Germany. Two key ‘laws’ summarise its main principles.

The first law of thermodynamics simply states that the total quantity of energy never changes but is conserved. Energy, in other words, never disappears, but only changes form. The energy initially stored in an aircraft’s fuel, for example, can be changed into the energetic motion of the plane. Turn on an electric heater, and energy initially held in electric currents gets turned into heat, which spreads into the air, walls and fabric of your house. The total energy remains the same, but it markedly changes form.

We’re generating waste heat all the time with everything we do

The second law of thermodynamics, equally important, is more subtle and states that, in natural processes, the transformation of energy always moves from more organised and useful forms to less organised and less useful forms. For an aircraft, the energy initially concentrated in jet fuel ends up dissipated in stirred-up winds, sounds and heat spread over vast areas of the atmosphere in a largely invisible way. It’s the same with the electric heater: the organised useful energy in the electric currents gets dissipated and spread into the low-grade warmth of the walls, then leaks into the outside air. Although the amount of energy remains the same, it gradually turns into less organised, less usable forms. The end point of the energy process produces waste heat. And we’re generating it all the time with everything we do.

Data on world energy consumption shows that, collectively, all humans on Earth are currently using about 170,000 terawatt-hours (TWh), which is a lot of energy in absolute terms – a terawatt-hour is the total energy consumed in one hour by any process using energy at a rate of 1 trillion watts. This huge number isn’t surprising, as it represents all the energy being used every day by the billions of cars and homes around the world, as well as by industry, farming, construction, air traffic and so on. But, in the early 21st century , the warming from this energy is still much less than the planetary heating due to greenhouse gases.

Concentrations of greenhouse gases such as CO 2 and methane are quite small, and only make a fractional difference to how much of the Sun’s energy gets trapped in the atmosphere, rather than making it back out to space. Even so, this fractional difference has a huge effect because the stream of energy arriving from the Sun to Earth is so large. Current estimates of this greenhouse energy imbalance come to around 0.87 W per square meter, which translates into a total energy figure about 50 times larger than our waste heat. That’s reassuring. But as Cowern and Ahn wrote in their 2008 paper, things aren’t likely to stay this way over time because our energy usage keeps rising. Unless, that is, we can find some radical way to break the trend of using ever more energy.

O ne common objection to the idea of the deep warming is to claim that the problem won’t really arise. ‘Don’t worry,’ someone might say, ‘with efficient technology, we’re going to find ways to stop using more energy; though we’ll end up doing more things in the future, we’ll use less energy.’ This may sound plausible at first, because we are indeed getting more efficient at using energy in most areas of technology. Our cars, appliances and laptops are all doing more with less energy. If efficiency keeps improving, perhaps we can learn to run these things with almost no energy at all? Not likely, because there are limits to energy efficiency.

Over the past few decades, the efficiency of heating in homes – including oil and gas furnaces, and boilers used to heat water – has increased from less than 50 per cent to well above 90 per cent of what is theoretically possible. That’s good news, but there’s not much more efficiency to be realised in basic heating. The efficiency of lighting has also vastly improved, with modern LED lighting turning something like 70 per cent of the applied electrical energy into light. We will gain some efficiencies as older lighting gets completely replaced by LEDs, but there’s not a lot of room left for future efficiency improvements. Similar efficiency limits arise in the growing or cooking of food; in the manufacturing of cars, bikes and electronic devices; in transportation, as we’re taken from place to place; in the running of search engines, translation software, GPT-4 or other large-language models.

Even if we made significant improvements in the efficiencies of these technologies, we will only have bought a little time. These changes won’t delay by much the date when deep warming becomes a problem we must reckon with.

Optimising efficiencies is just a temporary reprieve, not a radical change in our human future

As a thought experiment, suppose we could immediately improve the energy efficiency of everything we do by a factor of 10 – a fantastically optimistic proposal. That is, imagine the energy output of humans on Earth has been reduced 10 times , from 170,000 TWh to 17,000 TWh . If our energy use keeps expanding, doubling every 30-50 years or so (as it has for centuries), then a 10-fold increase in waste heat will happen in just over three doubling times, which is about 130 years : 17,000 TWh doubles to 34,000 TWh , which doubles to 68,000 TWh , which doubles to 136,000 TWh , and so on. All those improvements in energy efficiency would quickly evaporate. The date when deep warming hits would recede by 130 years or so, but not much more. Optimising efficiencies is just a temporary reprieve, not a radical change in our human future.

Improvements in energy efficiency can also have an inverse effect on our overall energy use. It’s easy to think that if we make a technology more efficient, we’ll then use less energy through the technology. But economists are deeply aware of a paradoxical effect known as ‘rebound’, whereby improved energy efficiency, by making the use of a technology cheaper, actually leads to more widespread use of that technology – and more energy use too. The classic example, as noted by the British economist William Stanley Jevons in his book The Coal Question (1865), is the invention of the steam engine. This new technology could extract energy from burning coal more efficiently, but it also made possible so many new applications that the use of coal increased. A recent study by economists suggests that, across the economy, such rebound effects might easily swallow at least 50 per cent of any efficiency gains in energy use. Something similar has already happened with LED lights, for which people have found thousands of new uses.

If gains in efficiency won’t buy us lots of time, how about other factors, such as a reduction of the global population? Scientists generally believe that the current human population of more than 8 billion people is well beyond the limits of our finite planet, especially if a large fraction of this population aspires to the resource-intensive lifestyles of wealthy nations. Some estimates suggest that a more sustainable population might be more like 2 billion , which could reduce energy use significantly, potentially by a factor of three or four. However, this isn’t a real solution: again, as with the example of improved energy efficiency, a one-time reduction of our energy consumption by a factor of three will quickly be swallowed up by an inexorable rise in energy use. If Earth’s population were suddenly reduced to 2 billion – about a quarter of the current population – our energy gains would initially be enormous. But those gains would be erased in two doubling times, or roughly 60-100 years , as our energy demands would grow fourfold.

S o, why aren’t more people talking about this? The deep warming problem is starting to get more attention. It was recently mentioned on Twitter by the German climate scientist Stefan Rahmstorf, who cautioned that nuclear fusion, despite excitement over recent advances, won’t arrive in time to save us from our waste heat, and might make the problem worse. By providing another cheap source of energy, fusion energy could accelerate both the growth of our energy use and the reckoning of deep warming. A student of Rahmstorf’s, Peter Steiglechner, wrote his master’s thesis on the problem in 2018. Recognition of deep warming and its long-term implications for humanity is spreading. But what can we do about the problem?

Avoiding or delaying deep warming will involve slowing the rise of our waste heat, which means restricting the amount of energy we use and also choosing energy sources that exacerbate the problem as little as possible. Unlike the energy from fossil fuels or nuclear power, which add to our waste energy burden, renewable energy sources intercept energy that is already on its way to Earth, rather than producing additional waste heat. In this sense, the deep warming problem is another reason to pursue renewable energy sources such as solar or wind rather than alternatives such as nuclear fusion, fission or even geothermal power. If we derive energy from any of these sources, we’re unleashing new flows of energy into the Earth system without making a compensating reduction. As a result, all such sources will add to the waste heat problem. However, if renewable sources of energy are deployed correctly, they need not add to our deposition of waste heat in the environment. By using this energy, we produce no more waste heat than would have been created by sunlight in the first place.

Take the example of wind energy. Sunlight first stirs winds into motion by heating parts of the planet unequally, causing vast cells of convection. As wind churns through the atmosphere, blows through trees and over mountains and waves, most of its energy gets turned into heat, ending up in the microscopic motions of molecules. If we harvest some of this wind energy through turbines, it will also be turned into heat in the form of stored energy. But, crucially, no more heat is generated than if there had been no turbines to capture the wind.

The same can hold true for solar energy. In an array of solar cells, if each cell only collects the sunlight falling on it – which would ordinarily have been absorbed by Earth’s surface – then the cells don’t alter how much waste heat gets produced as they generate energy. The light that would have warmed Earth’s surface instead goes into the solar cells, gets used by people for some purpose, and then later ends up as heat. In this way we reduce the amount of heat being absorbed by Earth by precisely the same amount as the energy we are extracting for human use. We are not adding to overall planetary heating. This keeps the waste energy burden unchanged, at least in the relatively near future, even if we go on extracting and using ever larger amounts of energy.

Covering deserts in dark panels would absorb a lot more energy than the desert floor

Chaisson summarised the problem quite clearly in 2008:

I’m now of the opinion … that any energy that’s dug up on Earth – including all fossil fuels of course, but also nuclear and ground-sourced geothermal – will inevitably produce waste heat as a byproduct of humankind’s use of energy. The only exception to that is energy arriving from beyond Earth, this is energy here and now and not dug up, namely the many solar energies (plural) caused by the Sun’s rays landing here daily … The need to avoid waste heat is indeed the single, strongest, scientific argument to embrace solar energies of all types.

But not just any method of gathering solar energy will avoid the deep warming problem. Doing so requires careful engineering. For example, covering deserts with solar panels would add to planetary heating because deserts reflect a lot of incident light back out to space, so it is never absorbed by Earth (and therefore doesn’t produce waste heat). Covering deserts in dark panels would absorb a lot more energy than the desert floor and would heat the planet further.

We’ll also face serious problems in the long run if our energy appetite keeps increasing. Futurists dream of technologies deployed in space where huge panels would absorb sunlight that would otherwise have passed by Earth and never entered our atmosphere. Ultimately, they believe, this energy could be beamed down to Earth. Like nuclear energy, such technologies would add an additional energy source to the planet without any compensating removal of heating from the sunlight currently striking our planet’s surface. Any effort to produce more energy than is normally available from sunlight at Earth’s surface will only make our heating problems worse.

D eep warming is simply a consequence of the laws of physics and our inquisitive nature. It seems to be in our nature to constantly learn and develop new things, changing our environment in the process. For thousands of years, we have harvested and exploited ever greater quantities of energy in this pursuit, and we appear poised to continue along this path with the rapidly expanding use of renewable energy sources – and perhaps even more novel sources such as nuclear fusion. But this path cannot proceed indefinitely without consequences.

The logic that more energy equals more warming sets up a profound dilemma for our future. The laws of physics and the habits ingrained in us from our long evolutionary history are steering us toward trouble. We may have a technological fix for greenhouse gas warming – just shift from fossil fuels to cleaner energy sources – but there is no technical trick to get us out of the deep warming problem. That won’t stop some scientists from trying.

Perhaps, believing that humanity is incapable of reducing its energy usage, we’ll adopt a fantastic scheme to cool the planet, such as planetary-scale refrigeration or using artificially engineered tornadoes to transport heat from Earth’s surface to the upper atmosphere where it can be radiated away to space. As far-fetched as such approaches sound, scientists have given some serious thought to these and other equally bizarre ideas, which seem wholly in the realm of science fiction. They’re schemes that will likely make the problem worse not better.

We will need to transform the human story. It must become a story of doing less, not more

I see several possibilities for how we might ultimately respond. As with greenhouse gas warming, there will probably be an initial period of disbelief, denial and inaction, as we continue with unconstrained technological advance and growing energy use. Our planet will continue warming. Sooner or later, however, such warming will lead to serious disruptions of the Earth environment and its ecosystems. We won’t be able to ignore this for long, and it may provide a natural counterbalance to our energy use, as our technical and social capacity to generate and use ever more energy will be eroded. We may eventually come to some uncomfortable balance in which we just scrabble out a life on a hot, compromised planet because we lack the moral and organisational ability to restrict our energy use enough to maintain a sound environment.

An alternative would require a radical break with our past: using less energy. Finding a way to use less energy would represent a truly fundamental rupture with all of human history, something entirely novel. A rupture of this magnitude won’t come easily. However, if we could learn to view restrictions on our energy use as a non-negotiable element of life on Earth, we may still be able to do many of the things that make us essentially human: learning, discovering, inventing, creating. In this scenario, any helpful new technology that comes into use and begins using lots of energy would require a balancing reduction in energy use elsewhere. In such a way, we might go on with the future being perpetually new, and possibly better.

None of this is easily achieved and will likely mirror our current struggles to come to agreements on greenhouse gas heating. There will be vicious squabbles, arguments and profound polarisation, quite possibly major wars. Humanity will never have faced a challenge of this magnitude, and we won’t face up to it quickly or easily, I expect. But we must. Planetary heating is in our future – the very near future and further out as well. Many people will find this conclusion surprisingly hard to swallow, perhaps because it implies fundamental restrictions on our future here on Earth: we can’t go on forever using more and more energy, and, at the same time, expecting the planet’s climate to remain stable.

The world will likely be transformed by 2050. And, sometime after that, we will need to transform the human story. The narrative arc of humanity must become a tale of continuing innovation and learning, but also one of careful management. It must become a story, in energy terms, of doing less, not more. There’s no technology for entirely escaping waste heat, only techniques.

This is important to remember as we face up to the extremely urgent challenge of heating linked to fossil-fuel use and greenhouse gases. Global warming is just the beginning of our problems. It’s a testing ground to see if we can manage an intelligent and coordinated response. If we can handle this challenge, we might be better prepared, more capable and resilient as a species to tackle an even harder one.

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Grinnell Glacier shrinkage

Human activity affects global surface temperatures by changing Earth ’s radiative balance—the “give and take” between what comes in during the day and what Earth emits at night. Increases in greenhouse gases —i.e., trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane that absorb heat energy emitted from Earth’s surface and reradiate it back—generated by industry and transportation cause the atmosphere to retain more heat, which increases temperatures and alters precipitation patterns.

Global warming, the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near Earth’s surface over the past one to two centuries, happens mostly in the troposphere , the lowest level of the atmosphere, which extends from Earth’s surface up to a height of 6–11 miles. This layer contains most of Earth’s clouds and is where living things and their habitats and weather primarily occur.

Continued global warming is expected to impact everything from energy use to water availability to crop productivity throughout the world. Poor countries and communities with limited abilities to adapt to these changes are expected to suffer disproportionately. Global warming is already being associated with increases in the incidence of severe and extreme weather, heavy flooding , and wildfires —phenomena that threaten homes, dams, transportation networks, and other facets of human infrastructure. Learn more about how the IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report, released in 2021, describes the social impacts of global warming.

Polar bears live in the Arctic , where they use the region’s ice floes as they hunt seals and other marine mammals . Temperature increases related to global warming have been the most pronounced at the poles, where they often make the difference between frozen and melted ice. Polar bears rely on small gaps in the ice to hunt their prey. As these gaps widen because of continued melting, prey capture has become more challenging for these animals.

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global warming , the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near the surface of Earth over the past one to two centuries. Climate scientists have since the mid-20th century gathered detailed observations of various weather phenomena (such as temperatures, precipitation , and storms) and of related influences on climate (such as ocean currents and the atmosphere’s chemical composition). These data indicate that Earth’s climate has changed over almost every conceivable timescale since the beginning of geologic time and that human activities since at least the beginning of the Industrial Revolution have a growing influence over the pace and extent of present-day climate change .

Giving voice to a growing conviction of most of the scientific community , the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). The IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report (AR6), published in 2021, noted that the best estimate of the increase in global average surface temperature between 1850 and 2019 was 1.07 °C (1.9 °F). An IPCC special report produced in 2018 noted that human beings and their activities have been responsible for a worldwide average temperature increase between 0.8 and 1.2 °C (1.4 and 2.2 °F) since preindustrial times, and most of the warming over the second half of the 20th century could be attributed to human activities.

AR6 produced a series of global climate predictions based on modeling five greenhouse gas emission scenarios that accounted for future emissions, mitigation (severity reduction) measures, and uncertainties in the model projections. Some of the main uncertainties include the precise role of feedback processes and the impacts of industrial pollutants known as aerosols , which may offset some warming. The lowest-emissions scenario, which assumed steep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions beginning in 2015, predicted that the global mean surface temperature would increase between 1.0 and 1.8 °C (1.8 and 3.2 °F) by 2100 relative to the 1850–1900 average. This range stood in stark contrast to the highest-emissions scenario, which predicted that the mean surface temperature would rise between 3.3 and 5.7 °C (5.9 and 10.2 °F) by 2100 based on the assumption that greenhouse gas emissions would continue to increase throughout the 21st century. The intermediate-emissions scenario, which assumed that emissions would stabilize by 2050 before declining gradually, projected an increase of between 2.1 and 3.5 °C (3.8 and 6.3 °F) by 2100.

Many climate scientists agree that significant societal, economic, and ecological damage would result if the global average temperature rose by more than 2 °C (3.6 °F) in such a short time. Such damage would include increased extinction of many plant and animal species, shifts in patterns of agriculture , and rising sea levels. By 2015 all but a few national governments had begun the process of instituting carbon reduction plans as part of the Paris Agreement , a treaty designed to help countries keep global warming to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) above preindustrial levels in order to avoid the worst of the predicted effects. Whereas authors of the 2018 special report noted that should carbon emissions continue at their present rate, the increase in average near-surface air temperature would reach 1.5 °C sometime between 2030 and 2052, authors of the AR6 report suggested that this threshold would be reached by 2041 at the latest.

Combination shot of Grinnell Glacier taken from the summit of Mount Gould, Glacier National Park, Montana in the years 1938, 1981, 1998 and 2006.

The AR6 report also noted that the global average sea level had risen by some 20 cm (7.9 inches) between 1901 and 2018 and that sea level rose faster in the second half of the 20th century than in the first half. It also predicted, again depending on a wide range of scenarios, that the global average sea level would rise by different amounts by 2100 relative to the 1995–2014 average. Under the report’s lowest-emission scenario, sea level would rise by 28–55 cm (11–21.7 inches), whereas, under the intermediate emissions scenario, sea level would rise by 44–76 cm (17.3–29.9 inches). The highest-emissions scenario suggested that sea level would rise by 63–101 cm (24.8–39.8 inches) by 2100.

essay on global warming for ssc cgl

The scenarios referred to above depend mainly on future concentrations of certain trace gases, called greenhouse gases , that have been injected into the lower atmosphere in increasing amounts through the burning of fossil fuels for industry, transportation , and residential uses. Modern global warming is the result of an increase in magnitude of the so-called greenhouse effect , a warming of Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere caused by the presence of water vapour , carbon dioxide , methane , nitrous oxides , and other greenhouse gases. In 2014 the IPCC first reported that concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides in the atmosphere surpassed those found in ice cores dating back 800,000 years.

Of all these gases, carbon dioxide is the most important, both for its role in the greenhouse effect and for its role in the human economy. It has been estimated that, at the beginning of the industrial age in the mid-18th century, carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere were roughly 280 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 2022 they had risen to 419 ppm, and, if fossil fuels continue to be burned at current rates, they are projected to reach 550 ppm by the mid-21st century—essentially, a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations in 300 years.

What's the problem with an early spring?

A vigorous debate is in progress over the extent and seriousness of rising surface temperatures, the effects of past and future warming on human life, and the need for action to reduce future warming and deal with its consequences. This article provides an overview of the scientific background related to the subject of global warming. It considers the causes of rising near-surface air temperatures, the influencing factors, the process of climate research and forecasting, and the possible ecological and social impacts of rising temperatures. For an overview of the public policy developments related to global warming occurring since the mid-20th century, see global warming policy . For a detailed description of Earth’s climate, its processes, and the responses of living things to its changing nature, see climate . For additional background on how Earth’s climate has changed throughout geologic time , see climatic variation and change . For a full description of Earth’s gaseous envelope, within which climate change and global warming occur, see atmosphere .

SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper PDF Download, Tier 1 & 2 PDFs with Solutions

Attempt ssc cgl previous year question paper with solutions pdf for tier 1 and 2 to secure good marks in the exam. the tier 1 exam is slated to be held in september or october 2024. download ssc cgl previous year question papers with solution in hindi & english for 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020 and more here..

Meenu Solanki

SSC CGL Previous Year Question Papers play an integral role in exam preparation. They provide detailed insights into the types and difficulty levels of questions asked in the exam. Solving these papers helps you understand the exam format and the distribution of marks across different topics, while also improving your speed and accuracy in solving questions.

  • SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper

The Staff Selection Commission will conduct the Combined Graduate Level Examination in September or October 2024 to fill 17,727 vacancies for various Group ‘B’ and Group ‘C’ posts in different Ministries, Departments, and Organizations of the Government of India. Lakhs of candidates participate in this exam, leading to intense competition and higher cut-off marks. The SSC CGL Question Paper includes questions from four subjects: General Awareness, Quantitative Aptitude, English Language, and Reasoning.

Solving previous SSC CGL question papers is essential to assess your preparation level. This practice helps you to strategically personalize your study plan, focus on high-weightage topics, and solve frequently asked questions.

SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper PDF

  • SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper with Solutions
  • SSC CGL Previous Year Paper PDF with Solution
  • SSC CGL Tier 1 Previous Year Paper

SSC CGL Previous Year Paper 2023

SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper with Solution PDF

SSC CGL Tier 1 Previous Year Question Paper

How to Download SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper PDF 

Knowledge of SSC CGL Previous Year Question Papers is an effective strategy to maximize your score and increase your chances of acing the SSC CGL 2024 exam. Here is the step-by-step guide to downloading the SSC CGL Previous Year Papers with ease.

Step 1: Go to the official SSC website.

Step 2: On the homepage, click the “CGL” tab.

Step 3: Find the SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper PDF link of the respective year and click on it.

Step 4: The previous year's papers will appear on the screen.

How to Solve SSC CGL Previous Year Question Papers

  • Download the SSC CGL previous year papers from the official website or direct links shared above.
  • Keep the stopwatch or timer to mimic the actual exam timing.
  • Go through the question paper carefully before solving the papers.
  • Once the entire paper is solved, compare your response with the official keys to ascertain strong and weak areas.

Benefits of Solving SSC CGL Previous Year Question Papers

  • Learn about the question type, marks weightage, and other details with the help of the previous year's question paper.
  • Solving SSC CGL Previous Year Papers improves your problem-solving skills and enables you to build an exam-relevant strategy.
  • Regularly solving the previous year's papers will help you understand the paper pattern and types of questions asked in the exam.
  • Solving SSC CGL Previous Year Question Papers will help you revise the concepts and improve the weak areas.

SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper Pattern

  • Tier I will consist of Objective Type questions. 
  • The medium of questions will be English & Hindi except for English Comprehension.
  • There will be a negative marking of 0.50 for each wrong answer.

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  • Do questions from the SSC CGL previous year paper repeat? + Yes, the Staff Selection Commission often repeats questions from SSC CGL Previous Year Papers with slight modifications.
  • What are the benefits of solving SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper PDFs? + SSC CGL Previous Year Question Papers highlight weak areas that require improvements and your overall preparation level.
  • How many questions are asked in SSC CGL Question Papers? + As per the official exam pattern, a total of 100 objective-type questions for 200 marks are asked in the Tier 1 exam. The exam duration shall be 1 hour.
  • How to download the SSC CGL Previous Year Question Papers PDF? + To access the SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper PDF, you can either visit the official website of SSC or click on the direct link provided above.
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Global Warming: Impact on the Global Climate

Last updated on April 2, 2024 by ClearIAS Team

global warming

The gradual rise in earth’s temperature known as global warming is typically brought on by the greenhouse effect, which is brought on by elevated amounts of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants. It has an immense impact on the global climate as well. Read here to know more about it.

Global warming is the long-term heating of the Earth’s surface observed since the pre-industrial period (between 1850 and 1900) due to human activities.

The leading cause was primarily fossil fuel burning, which increases heat-trapping greenhouse gas levels in Earth’s atmosphere.

This term is not interchangeable with the term “ climate change .”

Human activities are thought to have contributed to an increase in Earth’s average global temperature of about 1 degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit) since the pre-industrial era.

This temperature increase is currently happening at a rate of more than 0.2 degrees Celsius (0.36 degrees Fahrenheit) per decade.

Human activity since the 1950s has contributed to the current warming trend, which has been accelerating at an unheard-of rate for millennia.

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( Weather vs Climate:

  • Weather refers to atmospheric conditions that occur locally over short periods, from minutes to hours or days. Familiar examples include rain, snow, clouds, winds, floods, or thunderstorms.
  • Climate, on the other hand, refers to the long-term (usually at least 30 years) regional or even a global average of temperature, humidity, and rainfall patterns over seasons, years, or decades.)

Table of Contents

Global warming vs Climate change

Although these expressions are occasionally used interchangeably, they are not the same.

  • Changes in global weather patterns and growing seasons are referred to as climate change. It also refers to the rise in sea level brought on by melting ice sheets and glaciers and the expansion of warmer oceans.
  • Climate change brought on by global warming poses a severe threat to life on earth in the form of catastrophic weather events and extensive flooding .

Climate change is a long-term change in the average weather patterns that have come to define Earth’s local, regional and global climates. These changes have a broad range of observed effects that are synonymous with the term.

Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels, which raises the concentrations of heat-trapping greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere and thus increases the planet’s average surface temperature, are to blame for the climate changes that have been observed since the middle of the 20th century.

In addition to internal variability (such as cyclical ocean patterns like El Nino, La Nina , and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation ) and external forcings (such as volcanic activity , changes in the Sun’s energy output, and variations in Earth’s orbit), natural processes that have been outweighed by human activities can also contribute to climate change.

Key indicators of climate change are:

  • global land and ocean temperature increases
  • rising sea levels
  • ice loss at Earth’s poles and in mountain glaciers
  • frequency and severity changes in extreme weather such as hurricanes, heatwaves , wildfires, droughts, floods, and precipitation
  • cloud and vegetation cover changes

The gradual increase in the planet’s surface temperature is known as global warming.

Although this warming trend has been around for a while, the burning of fossil fuels has greatly accelerated its pace over the past century. The amount of fossil fuels burned has increased along with the size of the human population.

Burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas results in the “greenhouse effect,” which affects the atmosphere of Earth.

  • The greenhouse effect is when the Sun’s rays penetrate the atmosphere, but when that heat is reflected off the surface cannot escape back into space.
  • Gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels prevent the heat from leaving the atmosphere.
  • These greenhouse gasses are carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, water vapor, methane, and nitrous oxide.
  • The excess heat in the atmosphere has caused the average global temperature to rise over time, otherwise known as global warming.

Global warming is one of the causes of climate change.

Also read: State of Global Climate Report 2023

Impact of global warming on global climate

Scientists agree that the earth’s rising temperatures are fueling longer and hotter heat waves, more frequent droughts, heavier rainfall, and more powerful hurricanes.

The impacts of global warming are being felt everywhere.

  • Extreme heat waves have caused tens of thousands of deaths around the world in recent years.
  • Antarctica has lost nearly four trillion metric  tons of ice since the 1990s.
  • It is causing the permafrost to thaw in the Arctic region.

The rate of loss could speed up if we keep burning fossil fuels at our current pace, some experts say, causing sea levels to rise several meters in the next 50 to 150 years and wreaking havoc on coastal communities worldwide.

The earth’s ocean temperatures are getting warmer, so tropical storms can pick up more energy.

In other words, global warming can turn a category 3 storm into a more dangerous category 4 storm.

  • Scientists have found that the frequency of North Atlantic hurricanes has increased since the early 1980s, as has the number of storms that reach categories 4 and 5.

The impact of global warming is also seen in but not limited to:

  • The risk of wildfires will continue to rise as a result of melting glaciers, early snowmelt, and severe droughts.
  • Increased coastal flooding will be caused by rising sea levels throughout the coastal regions.
  • Cities, farms, and forests will see more bothersome pests, heat waves, torrential downpours, and flooding. Agriculture and fisheries may be harmed or destroyed by all of these.
  • Many plant and animal species may go extinct if environments like coral reefs and alpine meadows are damaged.
  • Because pollen-producing ragweed is growing more quickly, there is more air pollution, and more people are exposed to these conditions, allergies, asthma attacks, and infectious disease outbreaks will become more frequent.

Even though everyone is impacted by climate change, not everyone is equally impacted. Typically, those who are indigenous, persons of color, or economically marginalized are severely harmed. Even though these same groups have made the least effort to contribute to climate change, they are more exposed to its severe effects due to inequities embedded into our housing, healthcare, and labor systems. This is known as environmental racism .

Also read: Planetary Boundaries

Global warming contributions by countries

In recent years, China has taken the lead in global-warming pollution, producing about 26 percent of all CO 2 emissions.

The United States comes in second. Despite making up just 4 percent of the world’s population, the nation produces about 13 percent of all global CO 2 emissions which is nearly as much as the European Union and India (third and fourth place) combined.

And America is still number one, by far, in cumulative emissions over the past 150 years. As a top contributor to global warming, the United States must help propel the world to a cleaner, safer, and more equitable future.

Global climate data

  • Global temperatures rose about 1.8°F (1°C) from 1901 to 2020.
  • Sea level rise has accelerated from 1.7 mm/year throughout most of the twentieth century to 3.2 mm/year since 1993.
  • Glaciers are shrinking: the average thickness of 30 well-studied glaciers has decreased by more than 60 feet since 1980.
  • The area covered by sea ice in the Arctic at the end of summer has shrunk by about 40% since 1979.
  • The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen by 25% since 1958, and by about 40% since the Industrial Revolution.
  • Snow is melting earlier compared to long-term averages.

Way forward

Levels of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and methane, continued their unrelenting rise in 2020 despite the economic slowdown caused by the coronavirus pandemic response.

Moving away from fossil fuels is the first step in preventing climate change. Renewable energy sources including solar , wind , biomass , and geothermal need to be highlighted.

Producing clean energy is crucial, but it’s as necessary to use more cost-effective technologies to reduce our energy and water usage, such as LED lightbulbs and cutting-edge shower systems.

Promoting carpooling, public transportation, and electric and hydrogen mobility are all effective ways to cut CO2 emissions and combat global warming.

Both the construction of new low-energy buildings and the renovation of existing structures are required to reduce the CO2 emissions from buildings, which are brought on by heating, cooling, hot water, and lighting.

It should also be a primary goal to promote more efficient use of natural resources, halt widespread deforestation, and improve the sustainability and productivity of agriculture .

Developing responsible consumption habits is essential, whether it’s for food (especially meat), apparel, cosmetics, or cleaning supplies. Last but not least, recycling is a crucial component of waste management.

Previous year question

Q. Discuss global warming and mention its effects on global climate. Explain the control measures to bring down the level of greenhouse gases that cause global warming, in the light of the Kyoto Protocol , 1997. (Answer in 250 words) 15 marks (GS Paper 3, 2022)

Read:  Climate Resilient Health Systems; Impact of climate change on Indian monsoon;

-Article written by Swathi Satish

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SSC CGL Geography Syllabus 2024 With Important Topics

essay on global warming for ssc cgl

The SSC CGL Geography Syllabus is important for preparing for the SSC CGL Tier-1 and Tier-2 exams. Candidates taking the SSC CGL Exam 2024 should study Geography topics for the General Awareness section. Typically, 5-6 questions are asked about Geography, which can be very scoring with proper preparation. Therefore, candidates should thoroughly review the SSC CGL Geography Syllabus and create notes and study plans accordingly.

SSC CGL Geography Syllabus

Geography is a significant subject in the SSC CGL examination, covering various physical and human geography aspects. This article provides a detailed overview of the important topics in geography for the SSC CGL Tier 1 and Tier 2 Exam 2024.

1. The Universe and the Solar System
2. Earth
3. Mountains and Rivers
4. Hydrosphere, Lithosphere, Atmosphere
5. Wind Cyclone
6. Climate
7. Geological Survey Of India
8. Indian Climate, Natural Vegetation And Soil

SSC CGL Exam 2024 – Important Dates

The  SSC CGL Notification 2024  has been released, and the SSC CGL Online Form Fill-Up process will continue until 24th July 2024. The last date to submit the SSC CGL Application Fee is 25th July 2024. Further details regarding the SSC CGL Exam 2024 are provided in the table below:

 Period24th June to 24th July 2024
SSC CGL Last to Submit Application Fees25th July 2024
SSC CGL Tier 2 Exam Date 2024December 2024

SSC CGL Geography Syllabus – Important Topics

The Geography syllabus for the SSC CGL Exam 2024 covers a wide range of topics. It includes both World Geography and Indian Geography, focusing on physical features, climate, natural resources, and environmental issues. Preparing these topics well is essential for scoring well in the General Awareness section.

Continents and Oceans,
Major Physical Features,
Climatic Regions,
Important Geographical Phenomena
Physical Features of India,
Indian Climate,
Indian Rivers and Lakes,
Natural Resources of India
Industries, Transport,
and Communication
Ecosystems and Biodiversity,
Environmental Issues and Policies

Geography is crucial for understanding Earth’s layout and features. This topic covers continents, oceans, India’s physical landscape, climate, industries, and environmental issues, offering insights into global and national geographic dynamics.

1. World Geography

Continents and oceans.

Understanding the layout of the world’s continents and oceans is fundamental. Candidates should be familiar with:

  • The names and locations of all continents: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.
  • Major oceans: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, and Arctic.

Major Physical Features

Key physical features across the globe include:

  • Mountains : The Himalayas, Rockies, Andes, Alps, and the Urals.
  • Deserts : Sahara, Gobi, Kalahari, and the Arabian Desert.
  • Rivers : Nile, Amazon, Mississippi, Yangtze, and Danube.

Climatic Regions

Different regions have distinct climates. Important climatic zones are:

  • Mediterranean

Important Geographical Phenomena

Geographical phenomena include natural events that significantly impact the Earth’s surface:

  • Volcanism : The process of magma rising to the Earth’s surface, forming volcanoes.
  • Earthquakes : Sudden shaking of the ground caused by tectonic movements.
  • Tsunamis : Large sea waves triggered by underwater earthquakes or volcanic eruptions.

2. Indian Geography

Physical features of india.

India’s diverse physical landscape includes:

  • Himalayan Range : The northern mountains, including peaks like Kanchenjunga and Nanda Devi.
  • Indo-Gangetic Plains : Fertile plains encompassing the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Indus rivers.
  • Deccan Plateau : A large plateau in southern India, rich in minerals.
  • Coastal Plains : Western and Eastern Ghats flanking the Deccan Plateau.

Indian Climate

India’s climate is influenced by its size and geographical features:

  • Monsoon : Dominant climatic feature, with the Southwest Monsoon bringing significant rainfall.
  • Seasons : Summer, Winter, Monsoon, and Post-Monsoon.

Indian Rivers and Lakes

Major rivers and lakes are crucial for irrigation, transport, and hydroelectric power:

  • Rivers : Ganga, Yamuna, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery, and Narmada.
  • Lakes : Wular Lake, Dal Lake, Chilika Lake, and Sambhar Lake.

Natural Resources of India

India is rich in natural resources, which are vital for its economy:

  • Minerals : Coal, iron ore, bauxite, and mica.
  • Forests : Significant forest coverage providing timber, medicinal plants, and other resources.

3. Economic Geography


Agriculture is a critical sector in India:

  • Major Crops : Rice, wheat, sugarcane, and cotton.
  • Irrigation : Key irrigation projects like Bhakra Nangal, Indira Gandhi Canal.

Industries contribute significantly to India’s GDP:

  • Major Industries : Textiles, automobiles, information technology, and pharmaceuticals.
  • Industrial Regions : Mumbai-Pune Industrial Region, Gujarat Industrial Region, Chota Nagpur Industrial Belt.

Transport and Communication

Effective transport and communication networks are essential for economic growth:

  • Transport : Roads, railways, airways, and waterways.
  • Communication : Development in telecommunications, internet services, and broadcasting.

4. Environmental Geography

Ecosystems and biodiversity.

Understanding ecosystems and biodiversity is crucial for environmental conservation:

  • Ecosystems : Forests, grasslands, deserts, and aquatic ecosystems.
  • Biodiversity : India’s rich biodiversity includes species like the Bengal tiger, Asiatic lion, Indian elephant, and numerous plant species.

Environmental Issues and Policies

Key environmental issues and policies include:

  • Pollution : Air, water, and soil pollution.
  • Climate Change : Impact of global warming on India’s climate.
  • Conservation Efforts : Government initiatives like Project Tiger, National Mission for Green India, and the Clean India Mission (Swachh Bharat Abhiyan).

SSC CGL Geo Syllabus – Coclusion

Geography is an integral part of the SSC CGL examination, and understanding its various aspects is essential for success. This article covered the major topics, including world geography, Indian geography, economic geography, and environmental geography. By focusing on these areas, candidates can build a strong foundation and improve their chances of performing well in the exam.

SSC CGL Geography Syllabus – FAQs

Major topics include continents, oceans, mountains, deserts, rivers, and climatic regions.

Important rivers include Ganga, Yamuna, Brahmaputra, and important lakes include Wular Lake, Chilika Lake, and Dal Lake.

No, the syllabus for Geography remains the same for both SSC CGL Tier 1 and Tier 2 exams.

Questions in SSC CGL Tier 2 Geography exams are generally more complex and in-depth compared to Tier 1

SSC CGL Mock tests  help in familiarizing oneself with the exam pattern and practicing Geography-related questions under exam conditions.


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Essay on Climate Change

Climate Change Essay - The globe is growing increasingly sensitive to climate change. It is currently a serious worldwide concern. The term "Climate Change" describes changes to the earth's climate. It explains the atmospheric changes that have occurred across time, spanning from decades to millions of years. Here are some sample essays on climate change.

100 Words Essay on Climate Change

200 words essay on climate change, 500 words essay on climate change.

Essay on Climate Change

The climatic conditions on Earth are changing due to climate change. Several internal and external variables, such as solar radiation, variations in the Earth's orbit, volcanic eruptions, plate tectonics, etc., are to blame for this.

There are strategies for climate change reduction. If not implemented, the weather might get worse, there might be water scarcity, there could be lower agricultural output, and it might affect people's ability to make a living. In order to breathe clean air and drink pure water, you must concentrate on limiting human activity. These are the simple measures that may be taken to safeguard the environment and its resources.

The climate of the Earth has changed significantly over time. While some of these changes were brought on by natural events like volcanic eruptions, floods, forest fires, etc., many of the changes were brought on by human activity. The burning of fossil fuels, domesticating livestock, and other human activities produce a significant quantity of greenhouse gases. This results in an increase of greenhouse effect and global warming which are the major causes for climate change.

Reasons of Climate Change

Some of the reasons of climate change are:


Excessive use of fossil fuels

Water and soil pollution

Plastic and other non biodegradable waste

Wildlife and nature extinction

Consequences of Climate Change

All kinds of life on earth will be affected by climate change if it continues to change at the same pace. The earth's temperature will increase, the monsoon patterns will shift, the sea level will rise, and there will be more frequent storms, volcano eruptions, and other natural calamities. The earth's biological and ecological equilibrium will be disturbed. Humans won't be able to access clean water or air to breathe when the environment becomes contaminated. The end of life on this earth is imminent. To reduce the issue of climate change, we need to bring social awareness along with strict measures to protect and preserve the natural environment.

A shift in the world's climatic pattern is referred to as climate change. Over the centuries, the climate pattern of our planet has undergone modifications. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has significantly grown.

When Did Climate Change Begin

It is possible to see signs of climate change as early as the beginning of the industrial revolution. The pace at which the manufacturers produced things on a large scale required a significant amount of raw materials. Since the raw materials being transformed into finished products now have such huge potential for profit, these business models have spread quickly over the world. Hazardous substances and chemicals build up in the environment as a result of company emissions and waste disposal.

Although climate change is a natural occurrence, it is evident that human activity is turning into the primary cause of the current climate change situation. The major cause is the growing population. Natural resources are utilised more and more as a result of the population's fast growth placing a heavy burden on the available resources. Over time, as more and more products and services are created, pollution will eventually increase.

Causes of Climate Change

There are a number of factors that have contributed towards weather change in the past and continue to do so. Let us look at a few:

Solar Radiation |The climate of earth is determined by how quickly the sun's energy is absorbed and distributed throughout space. This energy is transmitted throughout the world by the winds, ocean currents etc which affects the climatic conditions of the world. Changes in solar intensity have an effect on the world's climate.

Deforestation | The atmosphere's carbon dioxide is stored by trees. As a result of their destruction, carbon dioxide builds up more quickly since there are no trees to absorb it. Additionally, trees release the carbon they stored when we burn them.

Agriculture | Many kinds of greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere by growing crops and raising livestock. Animals, for instance, create methane, a greenhouse gas that is 30 times more potent than carbon dioxide. The nitrous oxide used in fertilisers is roughly 300 times more strong than carbon dioxide.

How to Prevent Climate Change

We need to look out for drastic steps to stop climate change since it is affecting the resources and life on our planet. We can stop climate change if the right solutions are put in place. Here are some strategies for reducing climate change:

Raising public awareness of climate change

Prohibiting tree-cutting and deforestation.

Ensure the surroundings are clean.

Refrain from using chemical fertilisers.

Water and other natural resource waste should be reduced.

Protect the animals and plants.

Purchase energy-efficient goods and equipment.

Increase the number of trees in the neighbourhood and its surroundings.

Follow the law and safeguard the environment's resources.

Reduce the amount of energy you use.

During the last few decades especially, climate change has grown to be of concern. Global concern has been raised over changes in the Earth's climatic pattern. The causes of climate change are numerous, as well as the effects of it and it is our responsibility as inhabitants of this planet to look after its well being and leave it in a better condition for future generations.

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SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper PDF Download

To act as a helping hand in the preparation of the candidates, We have uploaded the SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper PDF with Solutions. Direct link to download PDF.

SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper

Table of Contents

SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper

The Staff Selection Commission Combined Graduate Level Examination commonly known as the SSC CGL examination is conducted to recruit for various posts in ministries and organizations of the Government of India. From now onwards SSC CGL 2024 will be conducted in 2 Tiers both are objective and there will be no descriptive paper.

Before appearing for the exam, you must go through the SSC CGL Syllabus and practice mock and previous years’ papers as much as you can. SSC CGL Previous year papers will boost your speed and accuracy as you would know what kind of questions will be asked during the exam. Solving the SSC CGL previous year’s question paper is really helpful to get an idea about the type of questions asked, the exam pattern, and the difficulty level of the questions. Go through the SSC CGL previous year’s question paper provided  in this article and practice to make your preparation more strong and yourself confident about what you have learned.

SSC CGL Previous Year Papers

SSC CGL  comprises Two Tiers . Besides, the exam pattern, the candidate should be aware of what type of questions the SSC CGL exam holds, and for this SSC CGL previous year’s question paper based on memory would be the best choice to go with. For your convenience, we have uploaded SSC CGL’s previous year’s question paper along with their solution pdfs so that you do not waste time exploring the internet for CGL’s previous year’s question papers.

SSC CGL Previous Year Papers PDF with Answers

You can find SSC CGL Tier 1 Previous Year Solved Question Papers PDFs in Hindi and English for Shift 1, Shift 2, and Shift 3 in the table provided below.

SSC CGL Previous Year Papers- 2023

SSC CGL, 14 July 2023 1
SSC CGL, 14 July 2023 2
SSC CGL, 14 July 2023 3
SSC CGL, 14 July 2023 4
SSC CGL, 14 July 2023 1
SSC CGL, 17 July 2023 2
SSC CGL, 17 July 2023 3
SSC CGL, 17 July 2023 4
SSC CGL, 18 July 2023 1
SSC CGL, 18 July 2023 2
SSC CGL, 18 July 2023 3
SSC CGL, 18 July 2023 4
SSC CGL, 19 July 2023 2
SSC CGL, 21 July 2023 1

SSC CGL Previous Year Papers- 2022

SSC CGL, 1 Dec 2022 1
SSC CGL, 1 Dec 2022 2
SSC CGL, 1 Dec 2022 3
SSC CGL, 1 Dec 2022 4
SSC CGL, 2 Dec 2022 1
SSC CGL, 2 Dec 2022 2
SSC CGL, 2 Dec 2022 3
SSC CGL, 2 Dec 2022 4
SSC CGL, 3 Dec 2022 1
SSC CGL, 3 Dec 2022 2
SSC CGL, 3 Dec 2022 3
SSC CGL, 3 Dec 2022 4

SSC CGL Previous Year Papers- 2021

SSC CGL, 13 August 2021 1
SSC CGL, 13 August 2021 2
SSC CGL, 13 August 2021 3
SSC CGL, 16 August 2021 1

SSC CGL Previous Year Papers- 2020

SSC CGL, 3 March 2020 1
SSC CGL, 4 March 2020 1
SSC CGL, 5 March 2020 1
SSC CGL, 6 March 2020 1
SSC CGL, 7 March 2020 1
SSC CGL, 9 March 2020 1
SSC CGL, 04th June 2020 1

SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper PDF (Tier 2)

Candidates who clear the Tier 1 stage will get to appear for the SSC CGL Tier 2 Exam. For the CGL Tier 2 Previous Year Question Papers, check the table below:

2nd March 2022
15th Nov 2020
16th Nov 2020
18th Nov 2020
19th Nov 2020
11th Sept 2019
12th Sept 2019
13th Sept 2019
14th Sept 2019

SSC CGL Exam Pattern 2024

A candidate should also be well-known for the exam pattern followed by SSC to recruit eligible candidates for grade-B and grade-C job posts. The selection procedure is followed by qualifying 2 stages of examination which are depicted below. The SSC CGL Tier 1 exam is qualifying in nature whereas the final selection is based on the SSC CGL Tier 2 Exam. You can get an idea of how the papers are to come.

SSC CGL Tier 1 Exam Pattern

The SSC CGL Tier I exam is conducted for a total of 200 marks which consists of 100 questions to answer-

General intelligence and reasoning 25 50
Quantitative Aptitude 25 50
General Awareness 25 50
English Comprehensions 25 50

SSC CGL Tier 2 Exam Pattern

Paper I




 Reasoning and General Intelligence




Total= 60

60*3= 180 1 hour
(for each section) (1 hours and 20 minutes for the candidates eligible for scribe)

 English Language and Comprehension

 General Awareness




Total =70

70* 3= 210

Computer Knowledge Module



20*3 =60 15 Minutes (for each module) (20 minutes for the candidates eligible for scribe)

 Data Entry Speed Test Module

One Data
Entry Task
Paper II Statistics 100 100*2= 200 2 hours (2 hours and 40 minutes for the candidates eligible for scribe)
Paper III General Studies (Finance and Economics) 100 100*2= 200 2 hours (2 hours and 40 minutes for the candidates eligible for scribe)

SSC CGL Previous Year Vacancies

Below are the SSC CGL Previous Year Papers Vacancies year-wise.

Year Vacancy
2017 8121
2018-19 11271
2019-20 8582
2020-21 7035

Benefits of SSC CGL Previous Year Paper

Here we have mentioned below pointers that will help the candidates understand the advantages and benefits of Practicing the SSC CGL Previous Year Paper. This way all the eligible candidates will be able to easily use the SSC CGL Previous Year Papers in the best way possible for their preparation.

  • Candidates will be able to figure out the style and format of the questions from each section.
  • It will help the candidates work out an appropriate approach to handle the questions in the SSC CGL Previous Year Paper.
  • They will release what type of questions they have to deal with in their SSC CGL Exam 2023.
  • This will boost their confidence and help them compose their mind.
  • Moreover, this will increase their speed, accuracy, and problem-solving skills.
  • They can eventually identify important and common topics that repeatedly appeared on the SSC CGL Old Question Papers.
  • They will gradually start to comprehend the style of questions formed from each question.
  • They will eventually get to know the pattern of questions asked in the SSC CGL Previous Year Paper.

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Is it possible that questions from SSC CGL Previous Year Question Papers will be asked again?

There's a probability that the same questions may be asked again.

Q. Is practicing SSC CGL Previous Year Question Paper Helpful?

Ans. Yes, practicing Previous Year Question Papers will help to understand the pattern followed by SSC in terms of difficulty level.

What are the required qualifications for the SSC exam?

You should hold a graduation degree in any discipline from a recognized University.

Q. From where can the candidates download  SSC CGL Previous Year Papers PDFs?

Ans. Candidates can download the SSC CGL Previous Year Papers PDFs from the article.

Does SSC follows the normalization process?

Yes, the normalization process is adopted only for the exam which is conducted in the multiple shifts for the SSC exam.

Is it a bilingual exam?

Except for the English language test, all the other tests are conducted bilingually, i.e. English and Hindi.

Q. Is there a chance of questions being repeated from SSC CGL Previous Year Question Papers?

Ans. There is very little chance that exact questions are repeated but the number and type of questions can surely be repeated from SSC CGL Previous Year Papers.

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Global Warming Awareness Essay

essay on global warming for ssc cgl


While talking about environmental pollution , children might have heard how it leads to various problems like global warming and climate change. Whenever the topic is discussed, global warming takes centre stage. Despite the repetitive utterance of the word, children fail to understand its real meaning or importance. So, this global warming awareness essay is aimed at the young learners to better acquaint them with the problems faced due to global warming.

Global warming is a phenomenon where the temperature gradually increases in the atmosphere of Earth due to both natural and human-made causes. As global warming results in climate change and the melting of glaciers, which will have serious repercussions on Earth and the living beings on the planet, efforts should be made to control it. The short essay on global warming awareness will throw light on this aspect, thus highlighting the significance of creating awareness of the phenomenon.

Importance of Global Warming Awareness

Global warming will affect us today or tomorrow. Though its effect can only be seen in a few places now, it won’t be long before it hits other places too. So, it is not wise for us to sit calmly and think that we are not being affected. In the global warming awareness essay, we will be discussing the causes of global warming , thereby emphasising the need to address the concern.

It is said that the increase in greenhouse gases results in global warming, which, in turn, leads to severe consequences like the melting of ice as well as causing frequent droughts and floods. But people are not aware of these problems, and they believe that all these things are merely said for the sake of it. This is why we must educate them about global warming and its issues through the short essay on global warming awareness essay so that we can take one step at a time in protecting ourselves and our planet.

Ways to Raise Global Warming Awareness

Global warming is not a simple topic to make our children familiar with, but this global warming awareness essay will help you in making your task easier. Let us make them realise by connecting their feelings to that of a polar bear. We can simply ask our children how they would feel when their home is taken away and they are left to live without it. Then, we can link it to the situation of the polar bear, where its home (glaciers) is destroyed due to global warming.

Similarly, we can encourage them to show respect towards our planet through small yet impactful actions, like switching off lights when not in use, cleaning the surroundings etc. By teaching these actions, we are saving ourselves when we care for our Earth, and we can help them grow as conscientious individuals.

Let this short essay on global warming awareness essay be a guide for our children to realise the problems faced by us. You can also check out other essays on BYJU’S website that will make our children knowledgeable.

Frequently Asked Questions on Global Warming Awareness Essay

Why is it necessary to have awareness about global warming.

If people are not aware of global warming, we will not be able to stop our planet from destruction, and our lives will be impacted severely. Hence, it is necessary to create awareness about global warming.

How will the global warming awareness essay be useful for children?

The essay will be useful for children to understand more about global warming, its causes and effects. As they will be informed about it, they will be careful in their actions to not harm our planet.

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