Parts of a Cover Letter: A Detailed Breakdown of 6 Must-Have Sections

Nathan Thompson

3 takeaways

  • Learn each part of a cover letter and proper cover letter structure
  • Discover how to correctly write each section of your cover letter 
  • The best method for generating personalized cover letters in seconds with the Teal AI Resume Builder

When you’re job searching, writing a cover letter can be one of the most discouraging tasks on the list. After all, you’ve already bookmarked the job you want, researched the company, and tailored the perfect resume to match the job description. 

And now, you need to find the time (and energy) to fit all that information into a single-page cover letter.

But by knowing all the parts of a cover letter, along with how to write them, you’ll have a massive head start in the application process. 

What are the parts of a cover letter?

Before you get started creating your cover letter sections, it's important to know the main parts of a professional cover letter. Here they are in order:

  • Salutation (or greeting)
  • Opening paragraph
  • Closing paragraph

Struggling to land interviews with your current resume and cover letter? Get started with Teal’s AI Resume Builder today.

Just like there are resume sections , cover letters have sections, too.  So, first things first: should a cover letter have a header? Absolutely. 

More than just a list of ways to reach you, the header of your cover letter is your first branding opportunity. It should mirror the header of your resume to frame your application as a polished and cohesive package. 

This symmetry isn't just visually appealing; it shows a deliberate and meticulous approach to your job application.

But what should be on a cover letter header?

The key elements of a cover letter header include your:

  • Email address
  • LinkedIn URL (Optional)
  • Phone number

Here’s an example: 

Parts of a cover letter showing the header

Consider adding a link to your professional online profile, like LinkedIn, especially if you’re applying for a remote job. 

Note: Even if you’re sending an email cover letter , you should attach your letter as a PDF. First, it’s just easier to format. Second, it helps the hiring manager print or share this document with other decision-makers. 

Following the date, you’ll want to add the:

  • Name of the hiring manager 
  • The company you’re applying to 

Here’s what this looks like: 

Parts of a cover letter showing hiring manger details in the header

2. Salutation

When you’re on the hunt for a new job, first impressions matter. This is what makes the cover letter salutation so important.

This is where writing a personalized cover letter begins and where you demonstrate your interest and effort in connecting with the company on a human level. Directly addressing the hiring manager is highly recommended when you know their name. It signals respect, shows that you've done your homework, and positions you as a candidate who values personal engagement.

Why not just start your cover letter as “To whom it may concern”? 

Because in today's job market, where a lot of applications flood an inbox, a personalized greeting helps you stand out. It sets a tone of attentiveness and immediately tells the hiring manager that you pay attention to detail. 

Even this little gesture can transform a generic cover letter from a one-size-fits-all document into a tailored conversation starter that resonates with the person responsible for filling the role.

How to find the hiring manager's name

Finding the hiring manager’s name may seem difficult, but it’s often simpler than you think. 

Here are some strategies to uncover this key piece of information:

  • LinkedIn : The professional network is your first port of call. Search for the company and sift through employee listings, focusing on those with titles like “Hiring Manager,” “Recruitment Officer,” or specific department heads if you’re applying for a specialized position.
  • Company website : Sometimes, the information is hidden in plain sight on the company’s ‘Team’ or ‘About Us’ page. Larger companies might list their staff, job titles, and contact information.
  • Calling in : A direct approach can be the most effective. Call the company’s front desk or HR department. Be polite, introduce yourself, and explain that you wish to address your cover letter appropriately. Most will be happy to help.
  • Networking outreach : Rely on your network. Ask colleagues or mentors if they know who the hiring manager might be for the position you're eyeing. A mutual connection can often provide you with the name you need.
  • Social media scan : Companies often post about their team and new hires on platforms like LinkedIn, Twitter, or Instagram. A quick search might yield the right name.

If you can’t find the hiring manager's name despite your best efforts, opt for a polite and general salutation like “Dear hiring manager” or “Dear hiring team” over the impersonal “To whom it may concern.” 

This retains a level of personalization and respect for the team's collaborative hiring effort. It also sets you apart from the many others who simply wrote: “to whom it may concern.”

Write the elements of a cover letter with Teal's AI

Before you start writing the main parts of your cover letter, consider using Teal instead.

Teal’s cover letter generator pulls from the information you added to a specific resume (also extracting the main keywords and details from the job posting you’re applying to) to align your content. Then, in just a click, you’ll have a great cover letter written before your eyes.

All of the parts of a cover letter written with AI

3. Opening paragraph

The opening paragraph of your cover letter is your chance to captivate the reader's interest and set the stage for your narrative. 

When it comes to your cover letter format , this section should include a succinct introduction of who you are, a brief mention of the position you’re applying for, and a compelling reason why the role aligns perfectly with your skills and career aspirations. 

How to grab your reader’s attention in the opening paragraph

To make your entrance memorable, the opening paragraph must do more than introduce – it must intrigue. Here’s how to ensure it does that:

  • Start with a bang : Lead with a strong statement or a striking fact about your career achievements. Alternatively, a concise, bold expression of your enthusiasm for the company can be just as effective.
  • Show, don't tell : Use a mini anecdote or a powerful example from your experience that reflects your capabilities and mirrors the values or needs of the company.
  • Tailor your tone : Match the tone of your writing to the culture of the company. A startup might appreciate a more casual and innovative opener, while a traditional firm might respect a formal and straightforward approach.
  • Add some flair : Add a touch of your personality without overshadowing your professionalism. Make sure it’s a blend that conveys your unique professional identity.
  • Research results : Mention something recent about the company that impressed you, showing you’re up-to-date and genuinely interested in what they do.
  • Give the why and the what : Clearly articulate why you’re excited about the role and what you bring to the table – this is your unique value proposition.

Example of cover letter content for an opening paragraph

“Imagine a marketing strategy so engaging that it doesn't just capture attention but creates a movement. That's been the hallmark of my approach as a Marketing Manager for the past decade, where I've increased brand engagement by an average of 65% year-over-year. Inspired by [Company Name]'s recent groundbreaking campaign on sustainability—a subject close to my heart since I was just a kid—I am eager to bring my expertise in crafting compelling narratives to the role of Head of Marketing.”

You can find more cover letter samples in these marketing manager cover letter examples .

What makes this a strong opening:

  • Engages with storytelling: The opening verb is “Imagine,” which is much more engaging than something more traditional, like “My name is…”
  • Quantifiable achievements: It includes a specific, measurable achievement (increasing brand engagement by 65% year-over-year), which adds credibility to the applicant’s claims and showcases a track record of success.
  • Personal connection: There’s a personal touch with the mention of a lifelong passion for sustainability, making the applicant’s interest in the company feel genuine and deeply rooted.
  • Alignment with company values: The reference to the company’s campaign on sustainability suggests that the applicant has done their research and shares the company’s values, implying a natural cultural fit.
  • Focus on contribution: By stating a desire to bring expertise in crafting compelling narratives, the applicant immediately addresses how they can contribute to the company’s success rather than just what they wish to gain from the position.

If you can get all of those qualities to shine through in your cover letter, you’ll be more likely to get the reader over to the body of your cover letter. 

Your cover letter body is the meat of your message. It's where you dive into your professional journey, aligning your skills and experiences with the needs of the job at hand. 

This part should be structured in a clear and compelling manner, usually composed of one to three paragraphs, each serving a distinct purpose. 

The first paragraph should connect your past successes to the potential future contributions you'll make to the company. Subsequent paragraphs , like the second or third paragraph , can be used to go further into your relevant skills, experiences, and achievements while also reflecting your knowledge of the company’s goals and challenges.

How to showcase relevant skills and experiences

Here’s how to write a cover letter body that resonates with hiring managers:

  • Customize and contextualize : Tailor each example of your experience to mirror the job description. It’s about relevance—show the reader why and how your background prepares you for the specific role.
  • Quantify your impact : Use numbers and metrics to give weight to your achievements. Whether it’s increasing sales by a certain percentage or reducing costs through innovative solutions, numbers speak louder than words .
  • Problem, action, result (PAR) method : For each skill or experience you share, present the problem you encountered, the action you took, and the result of your efforts. This method illustrates your thought process and problem-solving skills.
  • Align with the company's vision : Show that you’ve done your homework by relating your experience to the company's current projects or goals. This demonstrates not just alignment but also initiative and forward-thinking.
  • Storytelling with substance : Craft your experiences into a narrative that’s engaging. Your goal is to lead the reader on a journey that showcases growth, impact, and relevance to the role.
  • Be concise, be clear : Avoid jargon and overly complex language. The body of your cover letter should be easy to read and understand, ensuring that your points are made without confusion.

Example of what should be in a cover letter body

During my tenure with XYZ Corp, a pioneer in eco-friendly packaging, I spearheaded a transition that faced significant initial resistance both internally and from our customer base. The challenge was formidable: to reframe the public's perception of sustainable packaging from a costly alternative to a savvy, consumer-driven choice. My strategy was to launch an educational campaign that highlighted not just the environmental impact but also the long-term economic benefits. This initiative not only garnered a 120% increase in consumer engagement but also positioned XYZ Corp as a thought leader in the market. In my most recent project, I led a cross-functional team to address a 15% slump in market share due to increased competition. By instituting a thorough competitor analysis and customer feedback loop, we identified key areas where our messaging fell flat. I orchestrated a brand revitalization campaign focused on our core strengths, infused with customer success stories. The result was a 25% market share rebound within the first quarter post-campaign. In each role, I've aligned my actions not only with the company's immediate goals but with a visionary outlook. For instance, anticipating the rise of AI in marketing, I initiated a successful pilot program at XYZ Corp that utilized machine learning to personalize customer interactions, leading to a 30% uptick in customer retention rates.

But remember, not every cover letter will focus on the same information. You’ll need to craft your cover letter according to the specific job you’re applying to. 

While this level of personalization may seem tedious, it’s absolutely necessary. 

5. Closing paragraph

One of the last main parts of a professional cover letter , the closing paragraph, isn’t just a summary but a strategic push to get you into the interview room. This part should reiterate your interest in the position, succinctly summarize why you’re the right fit, and express your enthusiasm about the potential to contribute to the company. 

It's also the place to include a call to action, such as expressing your desire to discuss your application in more detail in a personal interview.

How to end the cover letter on a strong note

  • Reaffirm your value : Concisely restate how your skills and experiences align with the job and can benefit the company.
  • Personal touch : Express genuine enthusiasm and confidence in your ability to perform the role. Let them feel your eagerness and readiness to take on the challenges it presents.
  • Call to action : Encourage the hiring manager to take the next step. You can say you look forward to the opportunity to discuss how you can contribute to their team or that you're eager to provide further details on how you can help achieve their goals.

Closing paragraph example in a cover letter

I am excited to contribute to [Company Name]'s innovative marketing efforts. My skill set aligns seamlessly with the objectives of the Head of Marketing position. I am eager to apply my expertise in strategic planning and digital engagement to drive impactful campaigns that resonate with your brand's vision, and I look forward to discussing how my experience and insights can support your company's success. Thank you for considering my application, and I am hopeful for the opportunity to discuss collaboration in person.

If you're looking for more inspiration, check out this comprehensive database of 1300+ cover letter examples .

6. Sign-off

A professional sign-off sets the tone for how your cover letter is received. It's the equivalent of the final handshake after a successful meeting—it should convey respect and formality. 

Here's how you can ensure your sign-off strengthens your application:

  • Choose the right closing : "Sincerely," "Best regards," and "Kind regards" are safe and professional options. If the company culture is more casual, "Best" or "Warm regards" may be suitable.
  • Include your full name : Your sign-off should always include your full name to ensure clarity and formality. If you've established a personal connection with the hiring manager, adding a handwritten signature above your typed name can add a personal touch.
  • Professional contact details : Beneath your name, include your professional contact details, such as your phone number and email address, and LinkedIn profile URL to facilitate easy follow-up.

The best way to write a cover letter 

Again, if writing a cover letter is your least favorite part of the job application, you’re not alone. It can be difficult to take all the bullet-point information from a resume and turn that into a single page of compelling and persuasive text. 

From getting the cover letter format just right to writing the actual information, it’s not an easy task. 

That’s why, with a tool like Teal’s cover letter generator , there’s simply no excuse for not having a personalized cover letter with each application. 

Simply build your resume, and with the click of a button, you can have a polished and personalized cover letter in seconds. 

Sign up for Teal today to give it a try!

Frequently Asked Questions

How long should each section of a cover letter be to maintain the reader's interest, can i include bullet points in the body of my cover letter to highlight my achievements, is it necessary to address the cover letter to a specific person, and what if i can't find a name.

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How to Write a Cover Letter [Full Guide & Examples for 2024]

Background Image

After weeks of heavy job searching, you’re almost there!

You’ve perfected your resume.

You’ve short-listed the coolest jobs you want to apply for.

You’ve even had a friend train you for every single interview question out there.

But then, before you can send in your application and call it a day, you remember that you need to write a cover letter too.

So now, you’re stuck staring at a blank page, wondering where to start...

Don’t panic! We’ve got you covered. Writing a cover letter is a lot simpler than you might think. 

In this guide, we’re going to teach you how to write a cover letter that gets you the job you deserve.

We're going to cover:

What Is a Cover Letter?

  • How to Write the Perfect Cover Letter, Step by Step
  • 15+ Job-Winning Cover Letter Examples

Let’s get started.

A cover letter is a document that you submit as part of your job application, alongside your resume or CV.

The purpose of a cover letter is to introduce you and briefly summarize your professional background. On average, it should be around 250 to 400 words long .

A good cover letter is supposed to impress the hiring manager and convince them you’re worth interviewing as a candidate.

So, how can your cover letter achieve this?

First of all, it should complement your resume, not copy it. Your cover letter is your chance to elaborate on important achievements, skills, or anything else that your resume doesn’t give you the space to cover. 

For example, if you have an employment gap on your resume, the cover letter is a great place to explain why it happened and how it helped you grow as a person. 

If this is your first time writing a cover letter, writing about yourself might seem complicated. But don’t worry—you don’t need to be super creative or even a good writer .

All you have to do is follow this tried and tested cover letter structure:

structure of a cover letter

  • Header. Add all the necessary contact information at the top of your cover letter.
  • Formal greeting. Choose an appropriate way to greet your target audience.
  • Introduction. Introduce yourself in the opening paragraph and explain your interest in the role.
  • Body. Elaborate on why you’re the best candidate for the job and a good match for the company. Focus on “selling” your skills, achievements, and relevant professional experiences.
  • Conclusion. Summarize your key points and wrap it up professionally.

Now, let’s take a look at an example of a cover letter that follows our structure perfectly:

How to Write a Cover Letter

New to cover letter writing? Give our cover letter video a watch before diving into the article!

When Should You Write a Cover Letter?

You should always include a cover letter in your job application, even if the hiring manager never reads it. Submitting a cover letter is as important as submitting a resume if you want to look like a serious candidate.

If the employer requests a cover letter as part of the screening process, not sending one is a huge red flag and will probably get your application tossed into the “no” pile immediately.

On the other hand, if the job advertisement doesn’t require a cover letter from the candidates, adding one shows you went the extra mile.

Putting in the effort to write a cover letter can set you apart from other candidates with similar professional experience and skills, and it could even sway the hiring manager to call you for an interview if you do it right.

Need to write a letter to help get you into a good school or volunteer program? Check out our guide to learn how to write a motivation letter !

How to Write the Perfect Cover Letter

Now that you know what a cover letter is, it’s time to learn how to write one!

We’ll go through the process in detail, step by step.

#1. Choose the Right Cover Letter Template

A good cover letter is all about leaving the right first impression.

So, what’s a better way to leave a good impression than a well-formatted, stylish template?

cover letter templates for 2024

Just choose one of our hand-picked cover letter templates , and you’ll be all set in no time!

As a bonus, our intuitive AI will even give you suggestions on how to improve your cover letter as you write it. You’ll have the perfect cover letter done in minutes!

cover letter templates

#2. Put Contact Information in the Header

As with a resume, it’s important to start your cover letter with your contact details at the top. These should be in your cover letter’s header, separated neatly from the bulk of your text.

Contact Information on Cover Letter

Here, you want to include all the essential contact information , including:

  • Full Name. Your first and last name should stand out at the top.
  • Job Title. Match the professional title underneath your name to the exact job title of the position you’re applying for. Hiring managers often hire for several roles at once, so giving them this cue about what role you’re after helps things go smoother.
  • Email Address. Always use a professional and easy-to-spell email address. Ideally, it should combine your first and last names.
  • Phone Number. Add a number where the hiring manager can easily reach you.
  • Location. Add your city and state/country, no need for more details.
  • Relevant Links (optional). You can add links to websites or social media profiles that are relevant to your field. Examples include a LinkedIn profile , Github, or an online portfolio.

Then it’s time to add the recipient’s contact details, such as:

  • Hiring Manager's Name. If you can find the name of the hiring manager, add it.
  • Hiring Manager's Title. While there’s no harm in writing “hiring manager,” if they’re the head of the department, we recommend you use that title accordingly.
  • Company Name. Make sure to write the name of the company you're applying to.
  • Location. The city and state/country are usually enough information here, too.
  • Date of Writing (Optional). You can include the date you wrote your cover letter for an extra professional touch.

matching resume and cover letter

#3. Address the Hiring Manager

Once you’ve properly listed all the contact information, it’s time to start writing the content of the cover letter.

The first thing you need to do here is to address your cover letter directly to the hiring manager.

In fact, you want to address the hiring manager personally .

Forget the old “Dear Sir or Madam” or the impersonal “To Whom It May Concern.” You want to give your future boss a good impression and show them that you did your research before sending in your application.

No one wants to hire a job seeker who just spams 20+ companies and hopes something sticks with their generic approach

So, how do you find out who’s the hiring manager?

First, check the job ad. The hiring manager’s name might be listed somewhere in it.

If that doesn’t work, check the company’s LinkedIn page. You just need to look up the head of the relevant department you’re applying to, and you’re all set.

For example, if you’re applying for the position of Communication Specialist at Novorésumé. The hiring manager is probably the Head of Communications or the Chief Communications Officer.

Here’s what you should look for on LinkedIn:

linkedin search cco

And there you go! You have your hiring manager.

But let’s say you’re applying for a position as a server . In that case, you’d be looking for the “restaurant manager” or “food and beverage manager.”

If the results don’t come up with anything, try checking out the “Team” page on the company website; there’s a good chance you’ll at least find the right person there.

Make sure to address them as Mr. or Ms., followed by their last name. If you’re not sure about their gender or marital status, you can just stick to their full name, like so:

  • Dear Mr. Kurtuy,
  • Dear Andrei Kurtuy,

But what if you still can’t find the hiring manager’s name, no matter where you look?

No worries. You can direct your cover letter to the company, department, or team as a whole, or just skip the hiring manager’s name.

  • Dear [Department] Hiring Manager
  • Dear Hiring Manager
  • Dear [Department] Team
  • Dear [Company Name]

Are you applying for a research position? Learn how to write an academic personal statement .

#4. Write an Eye-Catching Introduction

First impressions matter, especially when it comes to your job search.

Hiring managers get hundreds, sometimes even thousands, of applications. Chances are, they’re not going to be reading every single cover letter end-to-end.

So, it’s essential to catch their attention from the very first paragraph.

The biggest problem with most opening paragraphs is that they’re usually extremely generic. Here’s an example:

  • My name is Jonathan, and I’d like to work as a Sales Manager at XYZ Inc. I’ve worked as a Sales Manager at MadeUpCompany Inc. for 5+ years, so I believe that I’d be a good fit for the position.

See the issue here? This opening paragraph doesn’t say anything except the fact that you’ve worked the job before.

And do you know who else has similar work experience? All the other applicants you’re competing with.

Instead, you want to start with some of your top achievements to grab the reader’s attention. And to get the point across, the achievements should be as relevant as possible to the position.

Your opening paragraph should also show the hiring manager a bit about why you want this specific job. For example, mention how the job relates to your plans for the future or how it can help you grow professionally. This will show the hiring manager that you’re not just applying left and right—you’re actually enthusiastic about getting this particular role.

Now, let’s make our previous example shine:

Dear Mr. Smith,

My name’s Michael, and I’d like to help XYZ Inc. hit and exceed its sales goals as a Sales Manager. I’ve worked as a Sales Representative with Company X, another fin-tech company , for 3+ years, where I generated an average of $30,000+ in sales per month and beat the KPIs by around 40%. I believe that my previous industry experience, passion for finance , and excellence in sales make me the right candidate for the job.

The second candidate starts with what they can do for the company in the future and immediately lists an impressive and relevant achievement. Since they’re experienced in the same industry and interested in finance, the hiring manager can see they’re not just a random applicant.

From this introduction, it’s safe to say that the hiring manager would read the rest of this candidate’s cover letter.

#5. Use the Cover Letter Body for Details

The next part of your cover letter is where you can go into detail about what sets you apart as a qualified candidate for the job.

The main thing you need to remember here is that you shouldn’t make it all about yourself . Your cover letter is supposed to show the hiring manager how you relate to the job and the company you’re applying to.

No matter how cool you make yourself sound in your cover letter, if you don’t tailor it to match what the hiring manager is looking for, you’re not getting an interview.

To get this right, use the job ad as a reference when writing your cover letter. Make sure to highlight skills and achievements that match the job requirements, and you’re good to go.

Since this part of your cover letter is by far the longest, you should split it into at least two paragraphs.

Here’s what each paragraph should cover:

Explain Why You’re the Perfect Candidate for the Role

Before you can show the hiring manager that you’re exactly what they’ve been looking for, you need to know what it is they’re looking for.

Start by doing a bit of research. Learn what the most important skills and responsibilities of the role are according to the job ad, and focus on any relevant experience you have that matches them.

For example, if you’re applying for the position of a Facebook Advertiser. The top requirements on the job ad are:

  • Experience managing a Facebook ad budget of $10,000+ / month
  • Some skills in advertising on other platforms (Google Search + Twitter)
  • Excellent copywriting skills

So, in the body of your cover letter, you need to show how you meet these requirements. Here’s an example of what that can look like:

In my previous role as a Facebook Marketing Expert at XYZ Inc. I handled customer acquisition through ads, managing a monthly Facebook ad budget of $40,000+ . As the sole digital marketer at the company, I managed the ad creation and management process end-to-end. I created the ad copy and images, picked the targeting, ran optimization trials, and so on.

Other than Facebook advertising, I’ve also delved into other online PPC channels, including:

  • Google Search

Our example addresses all the necessary requirements and shows off the candidate’s relevant skills.

Are you a student applying for your first internship? Learn how to write an internship cover letter with our dedicated guide.

Explain Why You’re a Good Fit for the Company

As skilled and experienced as you may be, that’s not all the hiring manager is looking for.

They also want someone who’s a good fit for their company and who actually wants to work there.

Employees who don’t fit in with the company culture are likely to quit sooner or later. This ends up costing the company a ton of money, up to 50% of the employee’s annual salary , so hiring managers vet candidates very carefully to avoid this scenario.

So, you have to convince the hiring manager that you’re passionate about working with them.

Start by doing some research about the company. You want to know things like:

  • What’s the company’s business model?
  • What’s the company’s product or service? Have you used it?
  • What’s the company’s culture like?

Chances are, you’ll find all the information you need either on the company website or on job-search websites like Jobscan or Glassdoor.

Then, pick your favorite thing about the company and talk about it in your cover letter.

But don’t just describe the company in its own words just to flatter them. Be super specific—the hiring manager can see through any fluff.

For example, if you’re passionate about their product and you like the company’s culture of innovation and independent work model, you can write something like:

I’ve personally used the XYZ Smartphone, and I believe that it’s the most innovative tech I’ve used in years. The features, such as Made-Up-Feature #1 and Made-Up-Feature #2, were real game changers for the device.

I really admire how Company XYZ strives for excellence in all its product lines, creating market-leading tech. As someone who thrives in a self-driven environment, I truly believe that I’ll be a great match for your Product Design team.

So, make sure to do your fair share of research and come up with good reasons why you're applying to that specific company.

Is the company you want to work for not hiring at the moment? Check out our guide to writing a letter of interest .

#6. Wrap It Up and Sign It

Finally, it’s time to conclude your cover letter.

In the final paragraph, you want to:

  • Wrap up any points you couldn't make in the previous paragraphs. Do you have anything left to say? If there’s any other information that could help the hiring manager make their decision, mention it here. If not, just recap your key selling points so far, such as key skills and expertise.
  • Express gratitude. Politely thanking the hiring manager for their time is always a good idea.
  • Finish the cover letter with a call to action. The very last sentence in your cover letter should be a call to action. This means you should ask the hiring manager to do something, like call you and discuss your application or arrange an interview.
  • Remember to sign your cover letter. Just add a formal closing line and sign your name at the bottom.

Here’s an example of how to end your cover letter :

I hope to help Company X make the most of their Facebook marketing initiatives. I'd love to further discuss how my previous success at XYZ Inc. can help you achieve your Facebook marketing goals. Please don’t hesitate to reach out to me at the provided email address or phone number so that we may arrange an interview.

Thank you for your consideration,

Alice Richards

Feel free to use one of these other popular closing lines for your cover letter:

  • Best Regards,
  • Kind Regards,

Cover Letter Writing Checklist

Once you’re done with your cover letter, it’s time to check if it meets all industry requirements. 

Give our handy cover letter writing checklist a look to make sure:

Does your cover letter heading include all essential information?

  • Professional Email
  • Phone Number
  • Relevant Links

Do you address the right person? 

  • The hiring manager in the company
  • Your future direct supervisor
  • The company/department in general

Does your introductory paragraph grab the reader's attention?

  • Did you mention some of your top achievements?
  • Did you use numbers and facts to back up your experience?
  • Did you convey enthusiasm for the specific role?

Do you show that you’re the right candidate for the job?

  • Did you identify the core requirements for the role?
  • Did you show how your experiences helped you fit the requirements perfectly?

Do you convince the hiring manager that you’re passionate about the company you’re applying to?

  • Did you identify the top 3 things that you like about the company?
  • Did you avoid generic reasons for explaining your interest in the company?

Did you conclude your cover letter properly?

  • Did you recap your key selling points in the conclusion?
  • Did you end your cover letter with a call to action?
  • Did you use the right formal closing line and sign your name?

15 Cover Letter Tips

Now you’re all set to write your cover letter! 

Before you start typing, here are some cover letter tips to help take your cover letter to the next level:

  • Customize Your Cover Letter for Each Job. Make sure your cover letter is tailored to the job you're applying for. This shows you're not just sending generic applications left and right, and it tells the hiring manager you’re the right person for the job.
  • Showcase Your Skills. Talk about how your skills meet the company’s needs. And while your hard skills should be front and center, you shouldn’t underestimate your soft skills in your cover letter either.
  • Avoid Fluff. Don’t make any generic statements you can’t back up. The hiring manager can tell when you’re just throwing words around, and it doesn’t make your cover letter look good.
  • Use Specific Examples. Instead of saying you're great at something, give an actual example to back up your claim. Any data you can provide makes you sound more credible, so quantify your achievements. For example, give numbers such as percentages related to your performance and the timeframe it took to accomplish certain achievements.
  • Research the Company. Always take time to learn about the company you're applying to. Make sure to mention something about them in your cover letter to show the hiring manager that you're interested.
  • Follow the Application Instructions. If the job posting asks for something specific in your cover letter or requires a certain format, make sure you include it. Not following instructions can come off as unattentive or signal to the hiring manager that you’re not taking the job seriously.
  • Use the Right Template and Format. Choose the right cover letter format and adapt your cover letter’s look to the industry you’re applying for. For example, if you’re aiming for a job in Law or Finance, you should go for a cleaner, more professional look. But if you’re applying for a field that values innovation, like IT or Design, you have more room for creativity.
  • Express Your Enthusiasm. Let the hiring manager know why you're excited about the job. Your passion for the specific role or the field in general can be a big selling point, and show them that you’re genuinely interested, not just applying left and right.
  • Address Any Gaps. If there are any employment gaps in your resume , your cover letter is a great place to mention why. Your resume doesn’t give you enough space to elaborate on an employment gap, so addressing it here can set hiring managers at ease—life happens, and employers understand.
  • Avoid Quirky Emails. Your email address should be presentable. It’s hard for a hiring manager to take you seriously if your email address is “[email protected].” Just use a [email protected] format.
  • Check Your Contact Information. Typos in your email address or phone number can mean a missed opportunity. Double-check these before sending your application.
  • Mention if You Want to Relocate. If you’re looking for a job that lets you move somewhere else, specify this in your cover letter.
  • Keep It Brief. You want to keep your cover letter short and sweet. Hiring managers don’t have time to read a novel, so if you go over one page, they simply won’t read it at all.
  • Use a Professional Tone. Even though a conversational tone isn’t a bad thing, remember that it's still a formal document. Show professionalism in your cover letter by keeping slang, jargon, and emojis out of it.
  • Proofread Carefully. Typos and grammar mistakes are a huge deal-breaker. Use a tool like Grammarly or QuillBot to double-check your spelling and grammar, or even get a friend to check it for you.

15+ Cover Letter Examples

Need some inspiration? Check out some perfect cover letter examples for different experience levels and various professions.

5+ Cover Letter Examples by Experience

#1. college student cover letter example.

college or student cover letter example

Check out our full guide to writing a college student cover letter here.

#2. Middle Management Cover Letter Example

Middle Management Cover Letter

Check out our full guide to writing a project manager cover letter here.

#3. Team Leader Cover Letter Example

Team Leader Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing a team leader cover letter here.

#4. Career Change Cover Letter Example

Career Change Cover Letter

Check out our full guide to a career change resume and cover letter here.

#5. Management Cover Letter Example

Management Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing a management cover letter here.

#6. Senior Executive Cover Letter Example

Senior Executive Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing an executive resume here.

9+ Cover Letter Examples by Profession

#1. it cover letter example.

IT Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing an IT cover letter here.

#2. Consultant Cover Letter Example

Consultant Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing a consultant cover letter here.

#3. Human Resources Cover Letter

Human Resources Cover Letter

Check out our full guide to writing a human resources cover letter here.

#4. Business Cover Letter Example

Business Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing a business cover letter here.

#5. Sales Cover Letter Example

Sales Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing a sales cover letter here.

#6. Social Worker Cover Letter

Social Worker Cover Letter

Check out our full guide to writing a social worker cover letter here.

#7. Lawyer Cover Letter

Lawyer Cover Letter

Check out our full guide to writing a lawyer cover letter here.

#8. Administrative Assistant Cover Letter

Administrative Assistant Cover Letter

Check out our full guide to writing an administrative assistant cover letter here.

#9. Engineering Cover Letter Example

Engineering Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing an engineer cover letter here.

#10. Receptionist Cover Letter Example

Receptionist Cover Letter Example

Check out our full guide to writing a receptionist cover letter here.

Need more inspiration? Check out these cover letter examples to learn what makes them stand out.

Plug & Play Cover Letter Template

Not sure how to start your cover letter? Don’t worry!

Just copy and paste our free cover letter template into the cover letter builder, and swap out the blanks for your details.

[Your Full Name]

[Your Profession]

[Your Phone Number]

[Your Email Address]

[Your Location]

[Your LinkedIn Profile URL (optional)]

[Your Personal Website URL (optional)]

[Recipient's Name, e.g., Jane Doe],

[Recipient's Position, e.g., Hiring Manager]

[Company Name, e.g., ABC Corporation]

[Company Address]

[City, State/Country]

Dear [Recipient's Name],

As a seasoned [Your Profession] with [Number of Years of Experience] years of industry experience, I am eager to express my interest in the [Job Title] position at [Company Name]. With my experience in [Your Industry/Sector] and the successes I've achieved throughout my education and career, I believe I can bring unique value and creativity to your team.

In my current role as [Your Current Job Title], I've taken the lead on more than [Number of Projects/Assignments] projects, some valued up to $[Highest Project Value]. I pride myself on consistently exceeding client expectations and have successfully [Mention a Key Achievement] in just a [Amount of Time] through [Skill] and [Skill].

I've collaborated with various professionals, such as [List Roles], ensuring that all [projects/tasks] meet [relevant standards or objectives]. This hands-on experience, coupled with my dedication to understanding each [client's/customer's] vision, has equipped me to navigate and deliver on complex projects.

My key strengths include:

  • Improving [Achievement] by [%] over [Amount of Time] which resulted in [Quantified Result].
  • Optimizing [Work Process/Responsibility] which saved [Previous Employer] [Amount of Time/Budget/Other Metric] over [Weeks/Months/Years]
  • Spearheading team of [Number of People] to [Task] and achieving [Quantified Result].

Alongside this letter, I've attached my resume. My educational background, a [Your Degree] with a concentration in [Your Specialization], complements the practical skills that I'm particularly eager to share with [Company Name].

I'm excited about the possibility of contributing to [Something Notable About the Company or Its Mission]. I'd be grateful for the chance to delve deeper into how my expertise aligns with your needs.

Thank you for considering my application, and I look forward to hearing from you soon.

The Heart of Your Job Search - Creating a Killer Resume

Your cover letter is only as good as your resume. If either one is weak, your entire application falls through.

After all, your cover letter is meant to complement your resume. Imagine going through all this effort to leave an amazing first impression in your cover letter, only for the hiring manager to never read it because your resume was mediocre.

But don’t worry; we’ve got you covered here, too.

Check out our dedicated guide on how to make a resume and learn everything you need to know to land your dream job!

Just pick one of our resume templates and start writing your own job-winning resume.

resume examples for cover letters

Key Takeaways

Now that we’ve walked you through all the steps of writing a cover letter, let’s summarize everything we’ve learned:

  • A cover letter is a 250 - 400 word document that’s meant to convince the hiring manager that you’re the best candidate for the job.
  • Your job application should always include a cover letter alongside your resume.
  • To grab the hiring manager’s attention, write a strong opening paragraph. Mention who you are, why you’re applying, and a standout achievement to pique their interest.
  • Your cover letter should focus on why you’re the perfect candidate for the job and why you’re passionate about working in this specific company.
  • Use the body of your cover letter to provide details on your skills, achievements, and qualifications, as well as make sure to convey your enthusiasm throughout your whole cover letter.
  • Recap your key selling points towards the end of your cover letter, and end it with a formal closing line and your full name signed underneath.

At Novorésumé, we’re committed to helping you get the job you deserve every step of the way! 

Follow our career blog for more valuable advice, or check out some of our top guides, such as:

  • How to Make a Resume in 2024 | Beginner's Guide
  • How to Write a CV (Curriculum Vitae) in 2024 [31+ Examples]
  • 35+ Job Interview Questions and Answers [Full List]

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  • Career Planning
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  • Cover Letters

How to Structure a Cover Letter

What to include in each part of a cover letter.

four basic parts of a cover letter

The Structure of a Cover Letter

  • What to Include in a Cover Letter

Sending an Email Cover Letter

Cover letter template and example.

When writing a cover letter to apply for a job, it's important to include all the requisite information clearly and efficiently.

Your cover letter is a way to grab the hiring manager's attention and it's important to be sure that it's polished, professional, and complete with the information the reader expects to see. If any elements are missing, it could even disqualify you from consideration for the job.

Here's how to structure a professional cover letter, with tips for every part and an example that includes everything.

A cover letter is comprised of several sections: your contact information, a salutation, the body of the cover letter, an appropriate closing, and a signature.

Review the structure of a cover letter, what to include in each part, and examples.

Your Contact Information

  • What to include: The first section or header includes your contact information: name, address, phone or cell phone number, and your email address. It has also become common to include your LinkedIn address so that employers can immediately access your professional profile, resume, and networking contacts.  In an email, you can also list your contact info below your signature.
  • Choose a style: Go with a simple centered header, or get a little fancy with the design if you're sending a hard copy. 
  • Keep it professional: Also, keep in mind that your email address should sound simple and professional. Ideally, it would look like “[email protected].” Never use a “cutesy” email address that refers to your hobbies or political opinions or is off-color; your email address needs to reflect your professional identity, not your sense of humor.

You may want to create an email account dedicated solely to your career search. It can be easier to track all your correspondence when you have a dedicated email address for job hunting.

Employer Contact Information

  • You can also include the employer's contact information. This is most appropriate to include on a formal, hard copy cover letter submitted through snail mail or by hand.
  • If you are sending a job application by email or through an employer’s online application system, it is not as necessary to include this contact information.
  • As a general rule of thumb for email applications, use the formal contact address if you know it, but don’t worry too much about omitting it otherwise.

Cover Letter Salutation

Although you may not need to know whom to address when sending a cover letter via email, getting a name to address your letter to is important. Do your research to avoid having to use the generic " To Whom It May Concern " or "Dear Sir or Madam," which can make things look like you didn't make an effort to learn more about the job or the employer. The best ways to learn contact names are to call an organization’s front office or to review their website.

To get in gear, review samples of  cover letter salutations . If you can't find a contact person, there are options you can use instead.

Cover Letter Body

The body of your cover letter lets the employer know what position you are applying for, why the employer should select you for an interview, and how you will follow up. This section of your cover letter includes:

  • First paragraph : Why you are writing. This is "the grab," your chance to grasp your reader by the collar and get their attention. Offer some specific, focused information regarding the job you're seeking and a few core strengths that demonstrate your suitability for the position.
  • Second paragraph : What you have to offer the employer .  This is your hook where you highlight examples of the work performed and achieved results. Draw on your key competencies from your resume, although don't copy it word for word. Bullet points in this paragraph are extremely effective in drawing your reader's eye to your successes.
  • Third paragraph : Your knowledge of the company. Show you did your research and know something about the business and how you can contribute to its mission.
  • Fourth paragraph : Your closing. Summarize what you would bring to the position and suggest some next steps by requesting a meeting or suggesting a call.

You can boldface quantifiable achievements like year-over-year sales figures to make these “pop” on the page.

Finish your letter with a formal closing like "Sincerely" or "Yours truly." A cover letter is a professional correspondence, so don't use informal closings like "Cheers" in the letters you write to apply for jobs.

Your Signature 

How you sign your cover letter will depend if you're sending a paper or email letter. If you're sending a paper letter, type your name after the salutation, leaving a space for your handwritten signature. If you're sending an email cover letter, type your name and contact information after your salutation.

Signature for a Hard Copy Letter Example

Mary Barnes (Your Signature)

Mary Barnes

Email Letter Signature Example

Mary Barnes Address City, State Zip Email Phone

When you're sending a cover letter via email, include your name and the job you're applying for in the subject line of the message. That way, you'll be sure your message gets opened and read.

Subject: Mary Barnes - Marketing Assistant Position

Download a cover letter template (compatible with Google Docs and Word Online), or see below for more examples.

Cover Letter Example

Lucius Applicant 123 Main Street Anytown, CA 12345 555-555-5555

August 12, 2024

William Lee Lead Mechanic Acme Auto 123 Business Rd. Business City, NY 54321 

Dear Mr. Lee:

I’m writing to apply for the position of diesel mechanic at the City Transit Agency, as advertised on the city’s careers web page. I’ve included my resume for your consideration.

In addition to my experience as a diesel mechanic, I have an excellent knowledge of gasoline engines and electric systems, and I hold a CDL driver's license. Most recently, I worked for Trailer Transfer in Middletown as their lead diesel mechanic. While I was there, I developed a training program for new hires. However, I had to leave my job due to a move to your city.

Thank you for your time and consideration. I will follow up next week to see if I can offer any more information about my skills and experience. My cell phone is 555-555-5555 and my email is 

Best regards,

Lucius Applicant (Signature hard copy letter)

Lucius Applicant

Need more examples? Here are more cover letter examples , including templates you can customize to create your own cover letters.

Key Takeaways

  • A cover letter should be clear and professional, and it should also include some necessary information to help ensure your application is properly assessed.
  • Structure your cover letter with your contact information, a salutation, body paragraphs detailing your qualifications and knowledge of the company, a formal closing, and your signature.
  • Tailor your cover letter by addressing it to a specific person and highlighting relevant achievements.
  • Make sure to demonstrate your knowledge of the company to make a strong impression on the hiring manager.

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What To Include In A Cover Letter (With Examples)

  • Cover Letter Format
  • Salutation and Greeting
  • Who To Address When Unknown
  • How To Start A Cover Letter
  • How To End A Cover Letter
  • Best Cover Letter Font And Size
  • Cover Letter Spacing
  • Cover Letter Length
  • Key Elements Of A Cover Letter
  • How To Write An Address
  • Official Letter Format
  • Cover Letter Opening

Find a Job You Really Want In

Cover letters are the first introduction to you as a person and potential employee. While resumes cover your work experience and skills, the cover letter explains why you, specifically, should get the job. It’s where you can showcase your writing skills, why you want the position, and highlight your relevant skills and qualifications.

If you’re looking to write up a cover letter for a job you’re applying to, or if you want to see if your letter checks all the boxes, then this article will help you out. While a hiring manager may not select you entirely because of your cover letter, giving it that extra bit of shine could push you into the top candidate slot.

Key Takeaways

Your cover letter should include:

Your contact information and the date

The employer’s contact information

Body paragraphs

A closing paragraph

You should customize your cover letter to every position you apply to.

Focus on what you can add to the company in your cover letter.

Work keywords from the job description into your cover letter.

What to Include in a Cover Letter

What to include in a cover letter

Example cover letter, cover letter tips, what not to put in a cover letter, final thoughts, cover letter faq.

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Cover letters, like every business communication, have a set of rules that you’re expected to follow. They should be short, confident, and include information relevant to the job. The format of a cover letter determines what goes where, meaning that you won’t have to spend long organizing your letter.

With that in mind, here’s everything you need to include in each part of your cover letter :

How to write a cover letter

Your Contact Information and the Date

The very first key element your cover letter is going to be a header that includes your contact information. You’re going to list your name, your address, your phone number, and your email address. Feel free to include your LinkedIn contact information or a link to your online portfolio .

Make sure you create a professional email address if you don’t already have one. Something like [email protected]. It’s another way to make a good first impression on the hiring manager.

Lulu Paige 333 First Street Los Angeles, CA , 90001 (000) 111-2222 [email protected] January 1, 2023

Employer’s Contact Information

Even though most cover letters are submitted online nowadays, it’s still a rule of thumb to include the company’s contact information. Google the company to find their local address and list it beneath your own contact information.

If you can’t find out the company’s local address, don’t sweat it — but if you can find it, include it just for tradition’s sake.

Adam Smith Recruiter TopNotch Company 111 West Street Los Angeles, CA 90001

How you address your cover letter is more important than you might think. Try to avoid greetings like “ To Whom It May Concern ” or “ Dear Sir or Madam. ” While there’s nothing inherently wrong with either, they’re seen as out of date and impersonal.

Hiring managers value it if you show you’re willing to put in the extra effort to find out who to address the letter to. Put effort into finding out the name of the person who’s going to be reading your cover letter. Call the company’s front office or review their website to find their hiring manager’s name.

Acceptable addresses include:

Dear Chris Rogers, Dear Mr. Rogers, Dear Mr. Chris Rogers, Dear Hiring Manager, Dear Human Resources Manager,

While conventional wisdom states that using the person’s title (in this case “Mr.”) is preferable and more polite, be very careful about assuming someone’s gender. If their honorific is Dr., then it’s safe to include, but unless you know what the hiring manager’s preferred pronouns are, it’s best to just use their full name.

Body Paragraphs

The body of your cover letter is the most important part. It tells the employer what job you’re applying for, why they should bring you in for an interview , and how you’re going to follow up.

First paragraph. This is your cover letter introduction . It’s where you’re going to grab the employer’s attention and make them want to read the rest of your cover letter.

Let’s not waste any time in this paragraph — go ahead and tell them which position you’re applying for and how it relates to your background, and show them that you’re excited about the opportunity.

I am interested in applying for your Social Media Manager position that I saw advertised on Zippia .com. After contributing to the growth and success of my last employer’s presence on Facebook and Instagram, I am seeking new challenges with a company that is looking for someone with exceptional leadership and management abilities.

Second paragraph. This is where you’re going to tell the hiring manager what you have to offer. Use this paragraph to list your qualifications, give examples from your work experience , and quantify any of your achieved results.

I know my proven leadership skills, strong commitment to growing a social media base, and flexibility with regard to assignments would allow me to make a significant contribution to TopNotch Company. I welcome the opportunity to discuss how my qualifications could benefit your company’s continued success.

Pro tip: Go into more depth on your relevant qualifications, but make sure not to copy your resume word for word. Use your cover letter to highlight the most important reasons why you’re the ideal candidate.

Third paragraph. Discuss what you know (and like) about the company. This is your chance to impress the employers even further by showing them that you care enough to do some background research on the company , and how you can contribute to their mission.

TopNotch’s commitment to a sustainable future aligns with and inspires my own values of environmental consciousness and stewardship. Even as a digital marketer , I found ways to reduce my office’s carbon emissions by 11%, and I’d be thrilled to work for a company that values and prioritizes such changes.

Feel free to mention any current events, information about the company’s history, their core values, or their mission statement.

Closing Line

The final paragraph is where you’re going to close your cover letter . Summarize what you could bring to the position and request an interview or a phone call.

I’d like to thank you again for taking the time to review my application and resume, and I welcome the opportunity to discuss my qualifications with you in detail.

Picking an appropriate and successful sign-off is trickier than you might think. A cover letter is a professional document, so you have to be strategic with everything you write.

With that in mind, here are some sign-offs to choose from that hiring managers respond well to:

Best regards


Thanks in advance

And here are some sign-offs you should avoid at all costs:

Best wishes


Sent from my iPhone

You get the idea. Pick an appropriate sign-off, sign your name, and then you’ve got yourself a cover letter!

Lulu Paige 333 First Street Los Angeles, CA, 90001 (000) 111-2222 [email protected] January 1, 2020 Adam Smith Recruiter TopNotch Company 111 West Street Los Angeles, CA 90001 Dear Mr. Smith, I am interested in applying for your Social Media Manager position that I saw advertised on After contributing to the growth and success of my last employer’s presence on Facebook and Instagram, I am seeking new challenges with a company that is looking for someone with exceptional leadership and management abilities. As you will see in my enclosed resume, while serving as a Social Media Intern, I was tasked with onboarding new employees and managing their publishing schedules as well as coming up with content for my own calendar. My ability to juggle these different tasks reinforced my desire to advance in my career and step into a management role. I know my proven leadership skills, strong commitment to growing a social media base, and flexibility with regard to assignments would allow me to make a significant contribution to TopNotch Company. I welcome the opportunity to discuss how my qualifications could benefit your company’s continued success. I’d like to thank you again for taking the time to review my application and resume, and I welcome the opportunity to discuss my qualifications with you in detail. Sincerely, Lulu Paige

Knowing all the parts of a cover letter is essential, but that’s not the only trick to writing an excellent cover letter. Putting in a bit of extra effort will make your cover letter stand out from the rest, and will therefore make you more likely to get an interview.

Customize each cover letter. When you’re sending out applications to multiple companies, it’s essential to tailor each cover letter and resume for the job. Your resume customization may just take a few strategic keyword changes and emphasizing different parts of your experience.

Your cover letter customization, however, should be much more thorough. Hiring managers and recruiters can spot a generic cover letter a mile away, so be sure to talk specifically about why you’re interested in the company and what particular value you’d have for the company.

Find the hiring manager. In the spirit of customization, try your best to find the hiring manager or recipient’s name. Review the job posting for contact info, research the company’s website, and look on LinkedIn if you’re stuck. Or just call the company’s HR department and ask.

If you’re still stuck, “Dear Hiring Manager” or one of its alternatives will work.

Don’t copy your resume. Instead of repeating every point from your resume, pick one or two bullet points to really emphasize. Think about what accomplishments you can quantify since those are the most compelling evidence of your past success.

Also, your cover letter should answer the “how” and “why” of your career, so discuss how you achieved those awesome results and why you enjoy doing things your way.

Always focus on the company. A cover letter is your chance to sell yourself, but that mostly means highlighting how the company will benefit from your skills , methodologies, and contributions.

Steal keywords from the job description. Highlight keywords from the job description like skills, qualifications, and attributes, and then incorporate some of those words throughout your resume and cover letter. That way, it’s super easy for a recruiter or hiring manager to see how your experience matches up with the job requirements.

Match the company culture. Spend some time researching the company on their website and scouting employees on LinkedIn. If you can match the tone of the company’s written communications, you’ll be in good shape for presenting as a solid cultural fit.

Let your personality shine. Resumes are boring, but cover letters are your chance to showcase who you are as a person as well as a professional. Don’t go overly formal (unless you’re applying to a conservative firm).

Hiring managers want to know what kind of person you’re like to work with, and while the interview will inform them more fully, your cover letter is meant to whet the reader’s appetite so they want to call you in for an interview in the first place.

Open and finish strong. Cover letters are generally skimmed, so you really want to make your opening and closing lines count. Open with an attention grabber and finish with a strong call-to-action and reminder of your awesomeness and enthusiasm.

Keep it short . Cover letters should never be more than 400 words, but we recommend aiming for a 200-300 word count. As we said, recruiters usually skim these things, so make it easy for them.

Review and edit. Never send a cover letter without a proofread, a spellcheck program, and, if possible, a trusted confidant to read it over. Another pair of eyes might catch things you didn’t notice re-reading it over and over again.

Email cover letters. If you’re emailing your cover letter directly (as opposed to attaching it or mailing it physically), be sure to include a descriptive subject line.

Often, employers will tell you how to label your email in the job posting, so follow any directions there. If not, a subject line that includes your name and the position you’re applying for is a safe bet.

For an email cover letter, don’t include contact information at the start. Instead, put your contact information after your signature (you can skip your physical address) and leave out the company’s contact information entirely.

Knowing what to avoid putting in your cover letter can be just as helpful as knowing what to put in it. Here are a few items you should leave out:

Lies (even little white ones or stretched truths).

Anything about salary.

Negativity about your current job.

Information about your personal life.

Long-winded paragraphs.

Unneccessary or irrelevant information.

Grammatical errors.

Misspelled words (including names).

Unprofessional email addresses or file names.

Polarizing or controversial hobbies or opinions.

Cover letters are one of your most valuable tools when it comes to applying for jobs. They let you go into detail about your qualifications, demonstrate your communication skills , and show that you’re interested in a specific company.

When you write your cover letter, make sure to include your professional contact information, go into detail about your relevant skills, and show that you’re motivated to help the company achieve its goals. Show the hiring manager why you’re the best person for the position, and you’re on your way to getting the job of your dreams .

Do you need a cover letter?

Whether or not you need a cover letter will depend on the application’s requirements, but they’re highly recommended. Unless the instructions explicitly state not to send in a cover letter, it’s recommended to include one.

Cover letters allow you to focus on skills relevant to the job that may not fit into your resume. It also lets you show that you’ve looked into the company by mentioning something about its culture, knowing the hiring manager’s name, or mentioning key skills.

What should you include in a cover letter?

A cover letter should include:

Your contact information. Include your name, address, phone number, and email address.

Company’s contact information. This should include the name of the company, their phone number, email address, and physical address if you can find it.

Salutation. Do your best to address this directly to the hiring manager that will be reviewing your application.

Introduction. This is the part where you say who you are and why you’re applying.

Body. This should be one to two paragraphs that cover your relevant skills, why you think you’d be a good fit for the job, and show your interest.

Closing line. Make sure to thank the hiring manager for their time. It’s also recommended to include a call to action, such as saying “I look forward to hearing from you.”

Sign off. Make sure to end with a professional closing, such as “Sincerely,” and then your full name.

How do you format a cover letter?

Cover letters should be formatted in standard business format. That means that it should use a 10 or 12-point legible font, such as Times New Roman, have double spacing between paragraphs, and be no longer than a page .

Harvard Business Review — How to Write a Cover Letter

National Careers Service — How to Write a Cover Letter

University of Wisconsin-Madison — Writing Cover Letters

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Maddie Lloyd was a writer for the Zippia Advice blog focused on researching tips for interview, resume, and cover letter preparation. She's currently a graduate student at North Carolina State University's department of English concentrating in Film and Media Studies.

Matt Warzel a President of a resume writing firm (MJW Careers, LLC) with 15+ years of recruitment, outplacement, career coaching and resume writing experience. Matt is also a Certified Professional Resume Writer (CPRW) and Certified Internet Recruiter (CIR) with a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration (Marketing Focus) from John Carroll University.

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How to Write a Cover Letter: Your Full Guide (With Tips and Examples)

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It’s a familiar cycle: You sit down to write a cover letter, open a blank document, check your email, browse cover letter examples , do some chores, watch that cursor blink a few more times, and finally Google something like “how to write a cover letter”—which hopefully brought you here. But you still might be thinking, does anyone really read cover letters? Why do they even exist?

First: Yes, we can assure you that cover letters do, in fact, get read. To some hiring managers, they’re the most important part of your job application. And regardless, you don’t want to miss the opportunity to tell prospective employers who you are, showcase why they should hire you, and stand out above all the other candidates.

To ensure your letter is in amazing shape (and crafting it is as painless as possible), we’ve got easy-to-follow steps plus examples, a few bonus tips, and answers to frequently asked questions.

Get that cover letter out there! Browse open jobs on The Muse and find your dream job »

What is a cover letter and why is it important?

A cover letter is a brief (one page or less) note that you write to a hiring manager or recruiter to go along with your resume and other application materials.

Done well, a cover letter gives you the chance to speak directly to how your skills and experience line up with the specific job you’re pursuing. It also affords you an opportunity to hint to the reviewer that you’re likable, original, and likely to be a great addition to the team.

Instead of using cover letters to their strategic advantage, most job applicants blabber on and on about what they want, toss out bland, cliché-filled paragraphs that essentially just regurgitate their resume, or go off on some strange tangent in an effort to be unique. Given this reality, imagine the leg up you’ll have once you learn how to do cover letters right.

How long should a cover letter be?

An ideal cover letter typically ranges from a half page to one full page. Aim to structure it into four paragraphs, totaling around 250 to 400 words, unless the job posting states otherwise. Some employers may have specific guidelines like word or character limits, writing prompt, or questions to address. In such cases, be sure to follow these instructions from the job posting.

How to write a cover letter hiring managers will love

Now that you’re sold on how important cover letters are, here are eight steps to writing one that screams, “I’m a great hire!”

Step 1: Write a fresh cover letter for each job (but yes, you can use a template)

Sure, it’s way faster and easier to take the cover letter you wrote for your last application, change the name of the company, and send it off. But most employers want to see that you’re truly excited about the specific position and organization—which means creating a custom letter for each position.

While it’s OK to recycle a few strong sentences and phrases from one cover letter to the next, don’t even think about sending out a 100% generic letter. “Dear Hiring Manager, I am excited to apply to the open position at your company” is an immediate signal to recruiters and hiring managers that you’re mass-applying to every job listing that pops up on LinkedIn.

At the same time, there’s nothing that says you can’t get a little help: Try out one of our free cover letter templates to make the process a bit easier.

Step 2: Add your contact info

At the top of your cover letter, you should list out your basic info. You can even copy the same heading from your resume if you’d like. Some contact info you might include (and the order to include it in):

  • Your pronouns (optional)
  • Your location (optional)
  • Your email address
  • Your phone number (optional)
  • Your Linkedin, portfolio, or personal website URL (optional)

Note that only name and email are mandatory, and you don’t need to put a full address on a cover letter or resume anymore. A city and state (or metro area) are more than enough. So your header might look like this:

Inigo Montoya he/him Florin Metropolitan Area [email protected] 555-999-2222

If the job posting tells you to submit your cover letter in the body of an email, you can add your contact info at the end, after your name (and if you’d like to forgo the email address here, you can—they have it already). So your sign off could look like this:

Violet Baudelaire she/her [email protected] 123-123-1234

Step 3: Address your cover letter to the hiring manager—preferably by name

The most traditional way to address a cover letter is to use the person’s first and last name, including “Mr.” or “Ms.” (for example, “Dear Ms. Jane Smith” or just “Dear Ms. Smith”). But to avoid accidentally using the wrong title—or worse, inadvertently misgendering someone—first and last name also work just fine.

If “Dear” feels a bit too stiff, try “Hello.” But never use generic salutations like “ To Whom it May Concern ” or “Dear Sir or Madam.”

For more help, read these rules for addressing your cover letter and a few tips for how to find the hiring manager .

Step 4: Craft an opening paragraph that’ll hook your reader

Your opening sets the stage for the whole cover letter. So you want it to be memorable, friendly, conversational, and hyper-relevant to the job you’re pursuing.

No need to lead with your name—the hiring manager can see it already. But it’s good to mention the job you’re applying for (they may be combing through candidates for half a dozen different jobs).

You could go with something simple like, “I am excited to apply for [job] with [Company].” But consider introducing yourself with a snappy first paragraph that highlights your excitement about the company you’re applying to, your passion for the work you do, and/or your past accomplishments.

This is a prime spot to include the “why” for your application. Make it very clear why you want this job at this company. Are you a longtime user of their products? Do you have experience solving a problem they’re working on? Do you love their brand voice or approach to product development? Do your research on the company (and check out their Muse profile if they have one) to find out.

Read this next: 30 Genius Cover Letter Openers Recruiters Will LOVE

Step 5: Convey why you’d be a great hire for this job

A common cover letter mistake is only talking about how great the position would be for you. Frankly, hiring managers are aware of that—what they really want to know is what you’re going to bring to the position and company.

So once you’ve got the opening under wraps, you should pull out a few key ideas that will make up the backbone of your cover letter. They should show that you understand what the organization is looking for and spell out how your background lines up with the position.

Study the job description for hints . What problems is the company looking to solve with this hire? What skills or experiences are mentioned high up, or more than once? These will likely be the most important qualifications.

If you tend to have a hard time singing your own praises and can’t nail down your strengths , here’s a quick trick: What would your favorite boss, your best friend, or your mentor say about you? How would they sing your praises? Use the answers to inform how you write about yourself. You can even weave in feedback you’ve received to strengthen your case (occasionally, don’t overuse this!). For example:

“When I oversaw our last office move, my color-coded spreadsheets covering every minute detail of the logistics were legendary; my manager said I was so organized, she’d trust me to plan an expedition to Mars.”

Step 6: Back up your qualifications with examples and numbers

Look at your list of qualifications from the previous step, and think of examples from your past that prove you have them. Go beyond your resume. Don’t just regurgitate what the hiring manager can read elsewhere.

Simply put, you want to paint a fuller picture of what experiences and accomplishments make you a great hire and show off what you can sashay through their doors with and deliver once you land the job.

For example, what tells a hiring manager more about your ability to win back former clients? This: “I was in charge of identifying and re-engaging former clients.” Or this: “By analyzing past client surveys, NPS scores, and KPIs, as well as simply picking up the phone, I was able to bring both a data-driven approach and a human touch to the task of re-engaging former clients.”

If you're having trouble figuring out how to do this, try asking yourself these questions and finding answers that line up with the qualifications you’ve chosen to focus on:

  • What approach did you take to tackling one of the responsibilities you’ve mentioned on your resume?
  • What details would you include if you were telling someone a (very short!) story about how you accomplished one of your resume bullet points?
  • What about your personality, passion, or work ethic made you especially good at getting the job done?

Come up with your examples, then throw in a few numbers. Hiring managers love to see stats—they show you’ve had a measurable impact on an organization you’ve worked for. Did you bring in more clients than any of your peers? Put together an impressive number of events? Make a process at work 30% more efficient? Work it into your cover letter!

This might help: How to Quantify Your Resume Bullets (When You Don't Work With Numbers)

Step 7: Finish with a strong conclusion

It’s tempting to treat the final lines of your cover letter as a throwaway: “I look forward to hearing from you.” But your closing paragraph is your last chance to emphasize your enthusiasm for the company or how you’d be a great fit for the position. You can also use the end of your letter to add important details—like, say, the fact that you’re willing to relocate for the job.

Try something like this:

“I believe my energy, desire to innovate, and experience as a sales leader will serve OrangePurple Co. very well. I would love to meet to discuss the value I could add as your next West Coast Sales Director. I appreciate your consideration and hope to meet with you soon.”

Then be sure to sign off professionally , with an appropriate closing and your first and last name. (Need help? Here are three cover letter closing lines that make hiring managers grimace, plus some better options .)

Step 8: Reread and revise

We shouldn’t have to tell you to run your cover letter through spell-check, but remember that having your computer scan for typos isn’t the same as editing . Set your letter aside for a day or even just a few hours, and then read through it again with fresh eyes—you’ll probably notice some changes you want to make.

You might even want to ask a friend or family member to give it a look. In addition to asking them if they spot any errors, you should ask them two questions:

  • Does this sell me as the best person for the job?
  • Does it get you excited?

If the answer to either is “no,” or even slight hesitation, go back for another pass.

Cover letter examples

Here are four example cover letters that follow the advice given above. Keep in mind that different situations may require adjustments in your approach. For instance, experienced job seekers can emphasize accomplishments from previous roles, while those with less experience might highlight volunteer work, personal projects, or skills gained through education.

Example #1: Cover letter for a job application

Alia Farhat San Francisco Bay Area [email protected] 444-000-1111

Hello Danny Tanaka,

If I’m being honest, I still haven’t fully gotten over the death of my first Tamagotchi pet when I was six years old. (His name was Tommy, and I’ve gotten far more creative since then, I promise.) When I was older, I discovered NeoPets and I was hooked for years—not just on the site, but on the community that surrounded it. So when I heard about FantasyPets last year, I immediately started following news about your development process, and that’s how I saw your post looking for a marketing strategist. Not only do I have eight years of experience in digital marketing, but as a lifelong gamer with a passion for pet-focused titles who’s spent years in online communities with like-minded people, I also know exactly what kind of messaging resonates with your target audience.

You’re looking for someone to help you craft a social media marketing campaign to go along with your game launch, and I’ve been a part of three launch-day marketing campaigns for mobile and web-based games. In my current role as social media manager at Phun Inc., I proposed a campaign across Twitter, Instagram, and TikTok based on competitor research and analysis of our social campaigns for similar games to go along with the launch of the mobile game FarmWorld. Using my strategy of featuring both kids and adults in ads, we ended up driving over one million impressions and 80k downloads in the first three months.

I’ve always believed that the best way to find the right messaging for a game is to understand the audience and immerse myself in it as much as possible. I spend some of my research time on gaming forums and watching Twitch streams and Let’s Plays to see what really matters to the audience and how they talk about it. Of course, I always back my strategies up with data—I’m even responsible for training new members of the marketing team at Phun Inc. in Google AdWords and data visualization.

I believe that my passion for games exactly like yours, my digital marketing and market research experience, and my flair for turning data into actionable insights will help put FantasyPets on the map. I see so much promise in this game, and as a future player, I want to see its user base grow as much as you do. I appreciate your consideration for the marketing strategist role and hope to speak with you soon.

Alia Farhat

Example #2: Cover letter for an internship

Mariah Johnson

New York, NY [email protected] 555-000-1234

Dear Hiring Manager,

I am excited to submit my application for the software development internship at Big Tech. As a student at New York University majoring in computer science with a keen interest in social studies, I believe I would be a good fit for the role. Big Tech's mission to promote equality and a more sustainable world is deeply inspiring, and I would be thrilled to contribute to this mission.

In a recent hackathon, I demonstrated my ability to lead a team in designing and developing an app that directs members of a small community to nearby electronics recycling centers. My team successfully developed a working prototype and presented it to a panel of industry experts who awarded us second place.

I’ve also been an active volunteer at my local library for over four years. During this time, I organized book donation drives, led book fairs, and conducted reading sessions with children. This experience strengthened my presentation and communication skills and confirmed my motivation stems from supporting a good cause. I would be more than happy to bring my passion and dedication to an organization whose mission resonates with me..

Through these experiences, along with my coursework in software engineering, I am confident I am able to navigate the challenges of the Big Tech internship program. I look forward to the opportunity to speak with you about my qualifications. Thank you for your consideration.

Example #3: Cover letter with no experience

Sarah Bergman

Philadelphia, PA [email protected] 1234-555-6789

Dear Chloe West,

I’m excited to apply for the entry-level copywriting position at Idea Agency. As a recent graduate from State University with a major in mass communications, I’m eager to delve deeper into copywriting for brands, marketing strategies, and their roles in the business world.

Over the past two years, I’ve completed courses in creative writing, copywriting, and essentials of digital marketing. I’ve also been actively involved in extracurricular activities, creating content and promoting student events across multiple online platforms. These experiences expanded my creativity, enhanced my teamwork skills, and strengthened my communication abilities.

As an admirer of your visionary marketing campaigns and Idea Agency’s commitment to sustainability, I’m enthusiastic about the prospect of joining your team. I'm confident that I can contribute to your future projects with inventive thinking and creative energy.

I welcome the opportunity to discuss my qualifications further. Thank you for considering my application.

Best regards,

Example #4: Career change cover letter

Leslie Smith

Chicago, IL [email protected] 111-222-3344

Dear Paul Jones,

Over the past year, I’ve volunteered to represent my company at a local fair and there I discovered how much fun working face to face with clients would be. Everytime I sold a product for The Solar Company, I often wished it was my full-time job. Now, I'm excited to submit my application for the sales coordinator position with Bloom Sales.

After completing a degree in business administration, I decided to put my outgoing personality and strong communication skills to work as a sales specialist at The Solar Company. I’ve sharpened my presentation and critical thinking skills in client meetings and sourced more than $20,000 in new partnerships. This experience has given me an invaluable foundation, and now I’m confident it's the time to move business administration to sales coordination.

I’m comfortable seeking out new business opportunities, making cold calls, and selling potential clients on the advantages of Bloom Sales products. I attend an average of 10 in-person meetings a week, and interacting with a lot of different personalities is what excites me the most. As a detail-oriented, tech-savvy professional, I have advanced knowledge of Excel and data analysis.

I would love to learn more about your sales strategy for the second semester and discuss how my experience in business administration and client-facing sales exposure would help Bloom Sales achieve its goals. Thank you for your consideration.

Extra cover letter examples

  • Pain point cover letter example
  • Recent graduate cover letter example
  • Stay-at-home parent returning to work cover letter example
  • Sales cover letter example
  • Email marketing manager cover letter example
  • No job description or position cover letter example (a.k.a., a letter of intent or interest)
  • Buzzfeed-style cover letter example
  • Creative cover letter example (from the point-of-view of a dog)

Bonus cover letter tips to give you an edge over the competition

As you write your cover letter, here are a few more tips to consider to help you stand out from the stack of applicants:

  • Keep it short and sweet: There are always exceptions to the rule, but in general, for resumes and cover letters alike, don’t go over a page. (Check out these tips for cutting down your cover letter .)
  • Never apologize for your missing experience: When you don’t meet all of the job requirements, it’s tempting to use lines like, “Despite my limited experience as a manager…” or “While I may not have direct experience in marketing…” But why apologize ? Instead of drawing attention to your weaknesses, emphasize the strengths and transferable skills you do have.
  • Strike the right tone: You want to find a balance between being excessively formal in your writing—which can make you come off as stiff or insincere—and being too conversational. Let your personality shine through, for sure, but also keep in mind that a cover letter shouldn’t sound like a text to an old friend.
  • Consider writing in the company’s “voice:” Cover letters are a great way to show that you understand the environment and culture of the company and industry. Spending some time reading over the company website or stalking their social media before you get started can be a great way to get in the right mindset—you’ll get a sense for the company’s tone, language, and culture, which are all things you’ll want to mirror—especially if writing skills are a core part of the job.
  • Go easy on the enthusiasm: We can’t tell you how many cover letters we’ve seen from people who are “absolutely thrilled for the opportunity” or “very excitedly applying!” Yes, you want to show personality, creativity, and excitement. But downplay the adverbs a bit, and keep the level of enthusiasm for the opportunity genuine and believable.

The bottom line with cover letters is this: They matter, much more than the naysayers will have you believe. If you nail yours, you could easily go from the “maybe” pile straight to “Oh, hell yes.”

Cover letter FAQs (a.k.a., everything else you need to know about cover letters)

  • Are cover letters still necessary?
  • Do I have to write a cover letter if it’s optional?
  • Can I skip the cover letter for a tech job?
  • What does it mean to write a cover letter for a resume?
  • How can I write a simple cover letter in 30 minutes?
  • How can I show personality in my cover letter?
  • What should I name my cover letter file?
  • Is a letter of intent different from a cover letter?
  • Is a letter of interest different from a cover letter?

Regina Borsellino , Jenny Foss , and Amanda Cardoso contributed writing, reporting, and/or advice to this article.

four basic parts of a cover letter

5 Parts Of A Cover Letter (AKA How To Write A Good One!)

Hiring manager reads a good cover letter

Every resume should be accompanied by the five parts of a cover letter . In this article, I am going to demonstrate the mechanics of a well written cover letter. I hope this provides some knowledge about the parts of a cover letter, and enables you to generate interest from a hiring manager.

How do you structure a cover letter?

A great cover letter has five parts: the salutation, the opening, the hook, the paragraph of knowledge, and the close.

1. The Salutation (The Hello)

Before writing your cover letter, you should research the company you're applying to. This includes finding the name of the hiring manager who will be reading your resume and cover letter. Get a name, any name. By hook or by crook try to get a name. Sometimes you can't—then try Dear hiring manager .

2. The Opening (The Grab)

The opening paragraph of your cover letter is your introduction and presents the reader with some immediate and focused information about your connection to the company. Don't just reiterate what you say in your resume. Explain what you admire about the company you're applying to. Essentially, you need to tell a story about why you want to work for them. It should "grab" the hiring manager and disrupt them in some way (hence a disruptive cover letter ).

3. The Second Paragraph (The Hook)

This paragraph should define some examples of the work performed and the results achieved. It should be connected to your resume. This does not mean you should copy verbatim what is in the resume. Rather, cover some key competencies that you feel define your success. Provide the hiring manager with some added context about your unique background, blending those facts with language from the job description. Set the stage for how you are qualified for the role you are applying to. But, don't overdo it.

In the event you are highlighting some information not contained in the resume (if you are switching careers, or have a unique value proposition), this is the perfect place to cover that information.

4. The Third Paragraph (Paragraph Of Knowledge)

Next, demonstrate something you know about the company (its goals, recent achievements, etc.) that prompted you to write. Then, select a couple of examples from your resume that you believe will impress recruiters and hiring managers . Reword these achievements and frame them in a way that shows the employers what you can do for them. This shows the reader that you did some preliminary homework and understand the company's drivers and goals.

Try to include quantifiable examples wherever possible since numbers usually resonate more than words.

5. The Fourth Paragraph (The Close)

In the closing paragraph, quickly summarize what you offer, ask for the interview , and close by thanking the hiring manager for taking the time to read your cover letter.

It's important to help the reader connect the dots to show them why you are a great job candidate, a business-of-one who can provide a service they need with a personal connection to the company that is invaluable.

That's it!

What should not be included in a cover letter?

Your cover letter should not include:

  • A boring opening line
  • Long paragraphs
  • A recap of your resume
  • Irrelevant information
  • A boring closing statement

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This article was originally published at an earlier date.

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11 Ways To Enjoy Summer When You’re Working A Full-Time Job

There you are: sitting on the beach, covered in sunscreen, reading your favorite book, drinking your favorite drink under the cool shade of an umbrella. Life doesn't get any better than this. Suddenly, a door slams, a phone rings, a printer turns on. You jolt back into consciousness. You're at work, sitting in your cubicle, without even a hint of sunshine streaming in from outside.

When you're working a full-time job, finding time to enjoy the warm, bright summer weather can be a challenge. This is especially true for young professionals , as many of them are used to having summers off (or, at the very least, having a flexible summer schedule). But there's no need to feel trapped behind your cubicle walls. Go out and enjoy summer!

Here are a few tips for making the most of your summer while working full time.

1. Grab Some Foldable Chairs

Keep a couple of foldable camping chairs at the office so you and a co-worker can catch some rays during lunch—whether it's in the park or the parking lot.

2. Keep A Beach Bag In Your Car​

Keep a bag full of summer supplies for your favorite summer activities . Having a bag (or, in my case, a backseat) full of towels, sunscreen, and swimwear keeps you prepared for anything. Friends hitting up the pool after work? You're covered. Once the clock strikes five, you can head to your destination of choice immediately.

3. Plan An Office Outing

Plan an office field trip to the beach, the park, or the pool. Just do something fun so your brain can recharge and refresh!

4. Organize Group Walks

Get a bunch of co-workers together and go on regular walks around town during lunch. (Or you could suggest a quick jaunt over to the ice cream shop.) This is a great way to get some fresh air, sunshine, and exercise.

5. Eat Lunch At The Park

When you find yourself eating out, hit up places with a deck, porch, or patio of some sort. Obviously, eating out every day isn't really a feasible option for most of us, so look into alternative ideas as well. Pack a lunch and hit the park for your own little picnic.

6. Organize Office Sports

Whether it's setting up an official office sports team or just hanging out with your colleagues a few times a week, playing sports is a great way to get out and enjoy the weather. Have a field nearby? Try setting up some slow-pitch softball games. Or see if you can get a basketball hoop for the office so you and a few co-workers can shoot some hoops at lunch.

7. Join A Professional Group

During the summer, professional networking groups often have fun events like harbor cruises, pub crawls, and outdoor mixers. Find a professional group in your area and make networking fun this summer.

8. Have An Office BBQ

Get your grill on! Talk to your boss about setting up an office BBQ. Ask everyone to contribute their favorite dish, side, or drink. Fire up the grill and relax! Hey, it's summer after all.

9. Wake Up Early

Yes, yes, I know...waking up early is an incredibly painful and unbearable experience for some of us, but waking up even an hour earlier has its benefits—especially in the summer. Go for a morning run, putter around in the garden, or watch the sunrise with a loved one. Talk about starting the day off right!

10. Strategically Use Your Time Off

Strategically use your vacation days around holidays. This way, you can make a potentially long weekend longer without having to use too much of your precious vacation time . Half days are also pretty awesome. It's amazing how much you can do with four extra hours! If you want an early weekend but don't want to burn up your vacation days too quickly, try taking a half day on a Friday instead of using a full day off.

11. Bike To Work

If you're one of the lucky few who live within walking or biking distance of work, take advantage of it! Not only will you get plenty of fresh air, but you'll also save money on gas, which is always a plus!

There are plenty of easy ways to enjoy summer when you work a full-time job. So this summer, try out a few of these ideas and make the most of the sunshine and warm weather—while they're still around!

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The 5 Parts of a Cover Letter for Your Job Application

The 5 Parts of a Cover Letter for Your Job Application

When looking for a job, you probably think only submitting a resume will suffice. While that may be true, having a cover letter submitted along with the resume can also impact your chances of being hired.

Crafting the perfect resume is taught to everyone before they're sent out to the world. However, not everyone knows how to write a cover letter. Before you start drafting one, you'll need to know the parts of a cover letter. You need to consider the position you're applying for, relevant qualifications to improve, and valuable skills.

Writing a Cover Letter

Proper structuring is important when it comes to your cover letter parts. A good cover letter provides benefits compared to just sending a resume. Among other things, it helps you stand out, especially in a job opening with many applicants.

The primary purpose of having a cover letter is to engage employers when they review your application. Succeeding in this can help give you an interview and maybe even an offer. It also shows information they may not find on your resume, like your motivation.

Parts of a Cover Letter

A cover letter is a one-page document submitted along with your resume. Since all companies are different, it's important to tailor your cover letter to ensure it aligns with your job's values.

For each position, you'll need to tailor the letter in a way that helps you stand out to employers. These include regularly modifying the following depending on the job description:

The salutation part of your cover letter is your greeting. Doing this makes the letter seem much more personal since you're addressing a specific person. That means you're better off writing a “Mr.” or “Ms.” Instead of a “To whom it may concern.” To make this part more effective, you'll have to do some research to understand who will be reviewing your resume.

Opening line

The opening line sets the tone for any cover letter. It has the potential to make the entire document more memorable. Examples of strong opening lines can include jokes and puns. You can also open a cover letter with strong emotions, like passion or enthusiasm.

The story is the biggest part of your cover letter. This part is your unique selling point, covering your skills, qualifications, and what you can bring to the table if you're hired. Here, you write the details of what makes you stand out compared to others. It's nearly impossible to have a similar career journey with someone else.

Closing line

Once you finish the letter's main body, a closing line allows you to end the letter gracefully and professionally. It's also here where you can express gratitude and thank the employer for their time. A good closing line summarizes your letter, meaning you should also remind the employer why you make the perfect fit for the role.

You can find the signature at the very bottom of the cover letter. It has your name, signature, and sign-offs like “Sincerely” or “Regards.” It's perhaps the least important to include out of the five, but it's a good closer. Contact information is unnecessary here since they can already find it on your resume.

A Letter That's Got You Covered!

Cover letters are a great way to add value to your application. Drafting one also highlights your motivations and expectations for the role. It tells employers that you're a candidate they should consider because you have the qualifications and skills to fulfill the role.

A good cover letter is nothing without any prospects. With over 51,000 job openings available, can help you land your dream job today!

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A cover letter is often the first thing an editor reads when reviewing your submission. As your first pitch to the editor, the cover letter helps them gauge the suitability of your manuscript for publication in their journal. Imagine your work shaping the future of your field, gathering citations, and sparking discussions. A powerful cover letter is thus the first step to making that vision into a reality.   

In this article, we will guide you through the process of writing an effective cover letter and explain how you can get it right every time with examples. First, let us get started with the basics!  

Getting the Basics Right  

When writing a cover letter, it is crucial to address the editor by their correct and complete name¹ . If there are multiple co-editors, you can address your letter to the right person, based on their specialization or designated responsibilities. If unsure, it is okay to go with a more general salutation, such as “Dear Editors”¹ .   

Presenting your Research  

Provide a clear and concise title for your submission and specify whether it is an article, communication, review, perspective, or a manuscript belonging to some other category. If the journal guideline recommends, consider including a list of all authors in the manuscript.   

After covering the preliminary information, briefly explain your paper’s central theme or focus to give the editor an idea of its contents. Ensure this stays a brief outline, without going into too much detail.   

Conveying the Importance of Your Work  

How you communicate the impact of your work can make or break your cover letter. To make a strong impression on the editor, articulate the significance of your research clearly, emphasizing its relevance to the field. Additionally, show how your work aligns with the journal’s scope and mission.  

Including a Formal Declaration  

Some journals require a set of declarations from you to ensure that your manuscript adheres to its ethical code and the larger ethical standards of scientific publishing. Here are the required declarations in a cover letter:  

  • Originality of work:  
  • Confirm that your work is original and has not been published elsewhere. This tells the editor your research is unique.  
  • Conflict of interest statement:  
  • Be clear about any potential conflicts of interest. This includes any personal, financial, or professional connections that might affect your research.  
  • Funding source (if applicable):  
  • Tell where your research funding came from, if any. This includes any support or grants from organizations.   

Including Personal Suggestions for Reviewers on a Separate Page (optional)  

If there is no part of the submission process that collects researcher suggestions for reviewers, and there are special requests from the researcher for reviewers (e.g., recommending the inclusion or suggesting the exclusion of a specific reviewer, etc.), you may also make a note about this in the cover letter.  

Combining these five points, here is a good example of a cover letter for researchers’ reference:  

Example of a Cover Letter

(This image is intended to demonstrate the norms of formatting and tone of expression in a cover letter, it is to be used only by the researcher as a reference in writing² .)  


A strong cover letter can go a long way in ensuring success for researchers looking to publish their manuscripts! Your cover letter is the opening act, setting the stage for how editors perceive your manuscript. So, look at it not as just another formality but as a crucial opportunity to make a strong impression.   

Understanding what to include, what is optional, and what is best left unsaid can be tricky. That is where our team of experts at Elsevier Language Services can step in. We will provide personalized recommendations and expert guidance to help you craft a cover letter that perfectly complements your manuscript. Reach out to us today to make a great first impression and embark on a successful academic journey!  


  • Nicholas, D. (2019). How to choose a journal and write a cover letter. Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia, 13(5), 35.  
  • Loyola University Chicago. (n.d.). JCSHESA Sample Cover Letter.  

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Election latest: Farage brands Johnson 'liar and hypocrite' over Putin - as PM told to take 'robust action' on betting

Former Tory minister Tobias Ellwood has added to the pressure on Rishi Sunak over the betting allegations surrounding the party. Meanwhile, Reform UK's Nigel Farage has hit back at Boris Johnson following criticism of his comments about Ukraine, Vladimir Putin, and NATO.

Monday 24 June 2024 11:48, UK

  • General Election 2024
  • Labour and Tories accused of 'conspiracy of silence' on tax
  • Ex-minister tells PM to take 'robust action' over betting scandal
  • Labour to 'simplify' transitioning process
  • Farage brands Johnson 'liar' over Putin comments
  • Sky to interview Northern Ireland political party leaders
  • Politics At Jack And Sam's: 10 Days to Go
  • Live reporting by Tim Baker
  • Paul Kelso: Fiscal referee gives both main parties withering review
  • Sam Coates: Tories 'bracing themselves' for more names to emerge

Election essentials

  • Manifesto pledges: Alliance Party | Conservatives | Greens | Labour | Lib Dems | Plaid Cymru | Reform | SNP | Sinn Fein | Workers Party
  • Trackers:  Who's leading polls? | Is PM keeping promises?
  • Campaign Heritage: Memorable moments from elections gone by
  • Follow Sky's politics podcasts: Electoral Dysfunction | Politics At Jack And Sam's
  • Read more:  Who is standing down? | Key seats to watch | What counts as voter ID? | Check if your constituency is changing | Guide to election lingo | Sky's election night plans

Sky deputy political editor Sam Coates has been speaking to Labour leader Sir Keir Starmer this morning.

Sam questions Sir Keir on the claims made by Paul Johnson of the Institute for Fiscal Studies, that it will be hard for the next government to invest - and growth is likely to be low.

Sir Keir says: "Yes, we need to invest in our public services, and I ran one for five years, I believe in that.

"Yes, we need to grow our economy.

"I don't actually agree with these forecasts, that are premised on the basis that we cannot grow the economy, that things cannot be better than they are now.

"I'm proud that our manifesto is a manifesto for building and creating wealth, and that's the change."

Pushed on whether growth can come into the economy fast enough for Labour to enact its plans, Sir Keir says his party has been talking to investors to try to get backing for the big plans in their manifesto.

"I don't accept that nothing can get better," he adds.

Sir Ed Davey, the Liberal Democrat leader, has been asked about the ongoing betting scandal.

Asked whether politicians should be subject to betting restrictions, he says: "I'd be happy to look at restrictions on politicians, of course, and I'd be happy for the Gambling Commission to put forward ideas."

He adds that the Tories "could do far more" on the scandal.

"It feels to me like, as has been so often the case during this Parliament, they seem to be in it for themselves, not for the public service.

"You see one rule for the Conservatives and another rule for others."

Our live poll tracker collates the results of opinion surveys carried out by all the main polling organisations - and allows you to see how the political parties are performing in the run-up to the general election.

It shows a drop in support in recent days for Labour and the Tories - with a jump for Reform and the Liberal Democrats.

Read more about the tracker here .

Sky business correspondent Paul Kelso was watching the economist Paul Johnson heavily criticise all the political parties over their financial plans.

Paul likens Mr Johnson to a "fiscal referee", with the Institute for Fiscal Studies "defensive" about its independent status.

The analysis of the economic situation was "withering", Paul says - and that it outlined how politicians were "dodging the fundamental underlying position of the British economy".

This is down to high debt interest rate payments, demographic changes, rising welfare and increasing defence spending.

Paul says of Mr Johnson: "His point is that unless there's some magical growth - perhaps not quite magical, but unexpected growth - in the forecast, whoever comes to power is going to have to either increase taxes or cut spending or increase borrowing. 

"And none of the parties are willing to talk about that in detail."

Speaking from the Conservative campaign today, political correspondent Rob Powell says the Tory response will be to say their pledged tax cuts will increase growth, which in turn will bring in greater tax receipts - but has kept quiet on its plans if this does not happen.

And political correspondent Tamara Cohen is with Labour today.

She says the current opposition's response will be they are going for growth too - but haven't outlined their plans for tax rises or spending cuts if this does not happen.

Tamara adds that Labour is not really engaging with the question of what happens if the economy does not perform well.

Paul Johnson, the director of the well-respected Institute for Fiscal Studies, has given his verdict on the Labour and Conservative approach to the economy.

He does not pull his punches.

Mr Johnson says: "They have singularly failed even to acknowledge some of the most important issues and choices to have faced us for a very long time."

He highlights that taxes are at a record high and public services are struggling - and more services "will likely need to be cut over the next five years" if the government wants to get down.

The economist notes that a £50bn uptick in debt interest spending is particularly to blame - as well as a growing welfare state.

Mr Johnson's diagnosis is to call for a "primary surplus" - where taxes raise more than is spent on revenues (apart from debt interest).

"Not necessarily a recipe for a happy electorate," he adds.

The IFS chief says the rush to rule out tax increases has been damaging.

And he criticises Labour for its pledge to not increase taxes on working taxes - "who knows what this pledge is really supposed to mean".

For the Conservatives, he says they are planning to reverse many of the policies implemented since 2010 with their new tax cuts.

Mr Johnson says the Liberal Democrats have some good ideas - but also some less good ones.

And Reform's plans help "poison the entire political debate" by proposing things to make a change that are "wholly unattainable".

The Green Party plans to increase borrowing massively "would have unpleasant consequences".

He says: "The choices in front of us are hard. High taxes, high debt, struggling public services, make them so. 

"Pressures from health, defence, welfare, ageing will not make them easier. 

"That is not a reason to hide the choices or to duck them. Quite the reverse. Yet hidden and ducked they have been."

You can read more here:

The fallout from Nigel Farage's comments last week, in which he said the West had provoked Russia into invading Ukraine, continues.

Over the weekend, former prime minister Boris Johnson criticised Mr Farage's words as "nauseating ahistorical drivel and more Kremlin propaganda".

Now, Mr Farage has posted on social media, saying: "Boris, you are a liar and a hypocrite.

"I am glad you are no longer prime minister of this country."

He also attached two articles in highlighting comments from Mr Johnson in 2016 in which he appeared to blame the EU for Russia's 2014 invasion of Ukraine.

By Jason Farrell , home editor

With betting an unexpected theme of this election, we've taken our parliamentary bench to the Sheffield dog track.

Bookies are lined up beside the arena and the people of Sheffield have come for a perfectly legal flutter on which greyhound can run fastest, while chasing a mechanical hare that they will never catch.

Sheffield Brightside and Hillsborough is one of the most working-class constituencies in the UK - the seventh most deprived in England and Wales.

At the Owlerton Stadium a lot of the punters said they weren't going to vote, one man in his 80s proudly said he'd never voted, but those who said they are going to the ballot on 4 July, say they want change.

Callum Fradgley, greyhound trainer, said: "I would like to see Labour win it personally, but that's just a personal choice. I'd like a government that's going to be more for the working class."

Neil Kelly, a teacher on a day out with his family, said: "All you need to do is go into a school to see that the spending may be going up but it's not going up in line with everything else. I work in a school in Sheffield for autistic kids and the facilities we have at some of the sites are frankly Victorian."

Read Jason's full despatch below:

Sky deputy political editor Sam Coates has a bit more on the current situation with the election betting scandal.

He's heard the Gambling Commission has been sent hundreds of lines of entries in spreadsheets from various bookmakers to consider.

While this may seem like a lot, in terms of betting it's actually fairly small.

The commission had asked the betting shops to send over information on any bet placed in May and June on the date of the election that was due to win £199 or more.

Sam says: "I suspect the Tories are bracing themselves and waiting nervously to see whether any other names emerge. 

"I have to say, gambling industry sources that I've been speaking to in the last 24 hours don't think that there will be any more names - they think we've got the best of it. 

"But that could be very, very dramatically wrong in the next few hours."

Shadow health secretary Wes Streeting is speaking to Sky News this morning. 

Proposed changes to the way in which trans people would change gender under Labour are put to him.

This includes making it easier to get a gender recognition certificate - see more in our 6.47am post.

When it is put to Mr Streeting that some in the party may be uncomfortable with the changes, he says the Labour Party is in "a good place" on the manifesto.

"I think there are lots of people who've been reassured by Labour's position on this," he says, adding that there have been "difficult conversations" both in the party and across the country on the topic.

He says: "We have had some tension between how you treat trans people with dignity and respect and inclusion and also make sure that women's rights, voices, spaces are protected.

"And, you know, I think that, I feel very optimistic about the fact that we can reconcile those two things and move forward together as a country. 

"If we have a political culture that's about bringing people together and navigating our way through these conversations with respect, genuinely listening to different perspectives, rather than seeing these differences as divisions to be exploited."

With 10 days remaining until election day, Sky News  deputy political editor  Sam Coates   and Politico's Jack Blanchard discuss Rishi Sunak and Keir Starmer's battle in The Sun, the fallout from Nigel Farage's comments on the war in Ukraine, and the verdict from the Institute for Fiscal Studies on the party manifestos.  

👉 Tap here to follow Politics at Jack and Sam's wherever you get your podcasts 👈  

Email Jack and Sam: [email protected]

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four basic parts of a cover letter


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