term papers table of contents

How to Write a Term Paper From Start to Finish

term papers table of contents

The term paper, often regarded as the culmination of a semester's hard work, is a rite of passage for students in pursuit of higher education. Here's an interesting fact to kick things off: Did you know that the term paper's origins can be traced back to ancient Greece, where scholars like Plato and Aristotle utilized written works to explore and document their philosophical musings? Just as these great minds once wrote their thoughts on parchment, you, too, can embark on this intellectual voyage with confidence and skill.

How to Write a Term Paper: Short Description

In this article, we'll delve into the core purpose of this kind of assignment – to showcase your understanding of a subject, your research abilities, and your capacity to communicate complex ideas effectively. But it doesn't stop there. We'll also guide you in the art of creating a well-structured term paper format, a roadmap that will not only keep you on track but also ensure your ideas flow seamlessly and logically. Packed with valuable tips on writing, organization, and time management, this resource promises to equip you with the tools needed to excel in your academic writing.

Understanding What Is a Term Paper

A term paper, a crucial component of your college education, is often assigned towards the conclusion of a semester. It's a vehicle through which educators gauge your comprehension of the course content. Imagine it as a bridge between what you've learned in class and your ability to apply that knowledge to real-world topics.

For instance, in a history course, you might be asked to delve into the causes and consequences of a significant historical event, such as World War II. In a psychology class, your term paper might explore the effects of stress on mental health, or in an environmental science course, you could analyze the impact of climate change on a specific region.

Writing a term paper isn't just about summarizing facts. It requires a blend of organization, deep research, and the art of presenting your findings in a way that's both clear and analytical. This means structuring your arguments logically, citing relevant sources, and critically evaluating the information you've gathered.

For further guidance, we've prepared an insightful guide for you authored by our expert essay writer . It's brimming with practical tips and valuable insights to help you stand out in this academic endeavor and earn the recognition you deserve.

How to Start a Term Paper

Before you start, keep the guidelines for the term paper format firmly in mind. If you have any doubts, don't hesitate to reach out to your instructor for clarification before you begin your research and writing process. And remember, procrastination is your worst enemy in this endeavor. If you're aiming to produce an exceptional piece and secure a top grade, it's essential to plan ahead and allocate dedicated time each day to work on it. Now, let our term paper writing services provide you with some valuable tips to help you on your journey:

start a term paper

  • Hone Your Topic : Start by cultivating a learning mindset that empowers you to effectively organize your thoughts. Discover how to research a topic in the section below.
  • Hook Your Readers: Initiate a brainstorming session and unleash a barrage of creative ideas to captivate your audience right from the outset. Pose intriguing questions, share compelling anecdotes, offer persuasive statistics, and more.
  • Craft a Concise Thesis Statement Example : If you find yourself struggling to encapsulate the main idea of your paper in just a sentence or two, it's time to revisit your initial topic and consider narrowing it down.
  • Understand Style Requirements: Your work must adhere to specific formatting guidelines. Delve into details about the APA format and other pertinent regulations in the section provided.
  • Delve Deeper with Research : Equipped with a clearer understanding of your objectives, dive into your subject matter with a discerning eye. Ensure that you draw from reputable and reliable sources.
  • Begin Writing: Don't obsess over perfection from the get-go. Just start writing, and don't worry about initial imperfections. You can always revise or remove those early sentences later. The key is to initiate the term papers as soon as you've amassed sufficient information.

Ace your term paper with EssayPro 's expert help. Our academic professionals are here to guide you through every step, ensuring your term paper is well-researched, structured, and written to the highest standards.

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Term Paper Topics

Selecting the right topic for your term paper is a critical step, one that can significantly impact your overall experience and the quality of your work. While instructors sometimes provide specific topics, there are instances when you have the freedom to choose your own. To guide you on how to write a term paper, consider the following factors when deciding on your dissertation topics :

choose a term paper topic

  • Relevance to Assignment Length: Begin by considering the required length of your paper. Whether it's a substantial 10-page paper or a more concise 5-page one, understanding the word count will help you determine the appropriate scope for your subject. This will inform whether your topic should be broad or more narrowly focused.
  • Availability of Resources : Investigate the resources at your disposal. Check your school or community library for books and materials that can support your research. Additionally, explore online sources to ensure you have access to a variety of reference materials.
  • Complexity and Clarity : Ensure you can effectively explain your chosen topic, regardless of how complex it may seem. If you encounter areas that are challenging to grasp fully, don't hesitate to seek guidance from experts or your professor. Clarity and understanding are key to producing a well-structured term paper.
  • Avoiding Overused Concepts : Refrain from choosing overly trendy or overused topics. Mainstream subjects often fail to captivate the interest of your readers or instructors, as they can lead to repetitive content. Instead, opt for a unique angle or approach that adds depth to your paper.
  • Manageability and Passion : While passion can drive your choice of topic, it's important to ensure that it is manageable within the given time frame and with the available resources. If necessary, consider scaling down a topic that remains intriguing and motivating to you, ensuring it aligns with your course objectives and personal interests.

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Term Paper Outline

Before embarking on the journey of writing a term paper, it's crucial to establish a well-structured outline. Be mindful of any specific formatting requirements your teacher may have in mind, as these will guide your outline's structure. Here's a basic format to help you get started:

  • Cover Page: Begin with a cover page featuring your name, course number, teacher's name, and the deadline date, centered at the top.
  • Abstract: Craft a concise summary of your work that informs readers about your paper's topic, its significance, and the key points you'll explore.
  • Introduction: Commence your term paper introduction with a clear and compelling statement of your chosen topic. Explain why it's relevant and outline your approach to addressing it.
  • Body: This section serves as the meat of academic papers, where you present the primary findings from your research. Provide detailed information about the topic to enhance the reader's understanding. Ensure you incorporate various viewpoints on the issue and conduct a thorough analysis of your research.
  • Results: Share the insights and conclusions that your research has led you to. Discuss any shifts in your perspective or understanding that have occurred during the course of your project.
  • Discussion: Conclude your term paper with a comprehensive summary of the topic and your findings. You can wrap up with a thought-provoking question or encourage readers to explore the subject further through their own research.

How to Write a Term Paper with 5 Steps

Before you begin your term paper, it's crucial to understand what a term paper proposal entails. This proposal serves as your way to introduce and justify your chosen topic to your instructor, and it must gain approval before you start writing the actual paper.

In your proposal, include recent studies or research related to your topic, along with proper references. Clearly explain the topic's relevance to your course, outline your objectives, and organize your ideas effectively. This helps your instructor grasp your term paper's direction. If needed, you can also seek assistance from our expert writers and buy term paper .

how to write a term paper

Draft the Abstract

The abstract is a critical element while writing a term paper, and it plays a crucial role in piquing the reader's interest. To create a captivating abstract, consider these key points from our dissertation writing service :

  • Conciseness: Keep it short and to the point, around 150-250 words. No need for lengthy explanations.
  • Highlight Key Elements: Summarize the problem you're addressing, your research methods, and primary findings or conclusions. For instance, if your paper discusses the impact of social media on mental health, mention your research methods and significant findings.
  • Engagement: Make your abstract engaging. Use language that draws readers in. For example, if your paper explores the effects of artificial intelligence on the job market, you might begin with a question like, 'Is AI revolutionizing our work landscape, or should we prepare for the robots to take over?'
  • Clarity: Avoid excessive jargon or technical terms to ensure accessibility to a wider audience.

Craft the Introduction

The introduction sets the stage for your entire term paper and should engage readers from the outset. To craft an intriguing introduction, consider these tips:

  • Hook Your Audience: Start with a captivating hook, such as a thought-provoking question or a compelling statistic. For example, if your paper explores the impact of smartphone addiction, you could begin with, 'Can you remember the last time you went a whole day without checking your phone?'
  • State Your Purpose: Clearly state the purpose of your paper and its relevance. If your term paper is about renewable energy's role in combating climate change, explain why this topic is essential in today's world.
  • Provide a Roadmap: Briefly outline how your paper is structured. For instance, if your paper discusses the benefits of mindfulness meditation, mention that you will explore its effects on stress reduction, emotional well-being, and cognitive performance.
  • Thesis Statement: Conclude your introduction with a concise thesis statement that encapsulates the central argument or message of your paper. In the case of a term paper on the impact of online education, your thesis might be: 'Online education is revolutionizing learning by providing accessibility, flexibility, and innovative teaching methods.'

Develop the Body Sections: Brainstorming Concepts and Content

Generate ideas and compose text: body sections.

The body of your term paper is where you present your research, arguments, and analysis. To generate ideas and write engaging text in the body sections, consider these strategies from our research paper writer :

  • Structure Your Ideas: Organize your paper into sections or paragraphs, each addressing a specific aspect of your topic. For example, if your term paper explores the impact of social media on interpersonal relationships, you might have sections on communication patterns, privacy concerns, and emotional well-being.
  • Support with Evidence: Back up your arguments with credible evidence, such as data, research findings, or expert opinions. For instance, when discussing the effects of social media on mental health, you can include statistics on social media usage and its correlation with anxiety or depression.
  • Offer Diverse Perspectives: Acknowledge and explore various viewpoints on the topic. When writing about the pros and cons of genetic engineering, present both the potential benefits, like disease prevention, and the ethical concerns associated with altering human genetics.
  • Use Engaging Examples: Incorporate real-life examples to illustrate your points. If your paper discusses the consequences of climate change, share specific instances of extreme weather events or environmental degradation to make the topic relatable.
  • Ask Thought-Provoking Questions: Integrate questions throughout your text to engage readers and stimulate critical thinking. In a term paper on the future of artificial intelligence, you might ask, 'How will AI impact job markets and the concept of work in the coming years?'

Formulate the Conclusion

The conclusion section should provide a satisfying wrap-up of your arguments and insights. To craft a compelling term paper example conclusion, follow these steps:

  • Revisit Your Thesis: Begin by restating your thesis statement. This reinforces the central message of your paper. For example, if your thesis is about the importance of biodiversity conservation, reiterate that biodiversity is crucial for ecological balance and human well-being.
  • Summarize Key Points: Briefly recap the main points you've discussed in the body of your paper. For instance, if you've been exploring the impact of globalization on local economies, summarize the effects on industries, job markets, and cultural diversity.
  • Emphasize Your Main Argument: Reaffirm the significance of your thesis and the overall message of your paper. Discuss why your findings are important or relevant in a broader context. If your term paper discusses the advantages of renewable energy, underscore its potential to combat climate change and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels.
  • Offer a Thoughtful Reflection: Share your own reflections or insights about the topic. How has your understanding evolved during your research? Have you uncovered any unexpected findings or implications? If your paper discusses the future of space exploration, consider what it means for humanity's quest to explore the cosmos.
  • End with Impact: Conclude your term paper with a powerful closing statement. You can leave the reader with a thought-provoking question, a call to action, or a reflection on the broader implications of your topic. For instance, if your paper is about the ethics of artificial intelligence, you could finish by asking, 'As AI continues to advance, what ethical considerations will guide our choices and decisions?'

Edit and Enhance the Initial Draft

After completing your initial draft, the revision and polishing phase is essential for improving your paper. Here's how to refine your work efficiently:

  • Take a Break: Step back and return to your paper with a fresh perspective.
  • Structure Check: Ensure your paper flows logically and transitions smoothly from the introduction to the conclusion.
  • Clarity and Conciseness: Trim excess words for clarity and precision.
  • Grammar and Style: Proofread for errors and ensure consistent style.
  • Citations and References: Double-check your citations and reference list.
  • Peer Review: Seek feedback from peers or professors for valuable insights.
  • Enhance Intro and Conclusion: Make your introduction and conclusion engaging and impactful.
  • Coherence Check: Ensure your arguments support your thesis consistently.
  • Read Aloud: Reading your paper aloud helps identify issues.
  • Final Proofread: Perform a thorough proofread to catch any remaining errors.

Term Paper Format

When formatting your term paper, consider its length and the required citation style, which depends on your research topic. Proper referencing is crucial to avoid plagiarism in academic writing. Common citation styles include APA and MLA.

If unsure how to cite term paper for social sciences, use the APA format, including the author's name, book title, publication year, publisher, and location when citing a book.

For liberal arts and humanities, MLA is common, requiring the publication name, date, and location for referencing.

Adhering to the appropriate term paper format and citation style ensures an organized and academically sound paper. Follow your instructor's guidelines for a polished and successful paper.

Term Paper Example

To access our term paper example, simply click the button below.

The timeline of events from 1776 to 1861, that, in the end, prompted the American Civil War, describes and relates to a number of subjects modern historians acknowledge as the origins and causes of the Civil War. In fact, pre-Civil War events had both long-term and short-term influences on the War—such as the election of Abraham Lincoln as the American president in 1860 that led to the Fall of Fort Sumter in April of the same year. In that period, contentions that surrounded states’ rights progressively exploded in Congress—since they were the initial events that formed after independence. Congress focused on resolving significant issues that affected the states, which led to further issues. In that order, the US’s history from 1776 to 1861 provides a rich history, as politicians brought forth dissimilarities, dissections, and tensions between the Southern US & the people of slave states, and the Northern states that were loyal to the Union. The events that unfolded from the period of 1776 to 1861 involved a series of issues because they promoted the great sectional crisis that led to political divisions and the build-up to the Civil War that made the North and the South seem like distinctive and timeless regions that predated the crisis itself.

Final Thoughts

In closing, approach the task of writing term papers with determination and a positive outlook. Begin well in advance, maintain organization, and have faith in your capabilities. Don't hesitate to seek assistance if required, and express your individual perspective with confidence. You're more than capable of succeeding in this endeavor!

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What is the Difference between a Term Paper and a Research Paper?

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Daniel Parker

is a seasoned educational writer focusing on scholarship guidance, research papers, and various forms of academic essays including reflective and narrative essays. His expertise also extends to detailed case studies. A scholar with a background in English Literature and Education, Daniel’s work on EssayPro blog aims to support students in achieving academic excellence and securing scholarships. His hobbies include reading classic literature and participating in academic forums.

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is an expert in nursing and healthcare, with a strong background in history, law, and literature. Holding advanced degrees in nursing and public health, his analytical approach and comprehensive knowledge help students navigate complex topics. On EssayPro blog, Adam provides insightful articles on everything from historical analysis to the intricacies of healthcare policies. In his downtime, he enjoys historical documentaries and volunteering at local clinics.

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How to Write a Term Paper: A Complete Guide With Examples

You just got your term paper assignment and have no idea what to do or how to start? This guide will navigate you through every step of the process, from idea formation to final editing and proofreading. We will start with outlining, drafting and brainstorming, and get you through the writing part in no time. So, let’s dive into the question of how to write a term paper.

If you want to know everything you will need about term papers, this guide, written by the writers at the best essay writing service will help you along.

Table of Contents

What is a term paper.

A term paper is an academic milestone more so than anything else. As a student, you are tasked with learning and then transmitting that knowledge to others. A term paper is just that, a way to show what you have learnt, and disseminate the knowledge to others. Unlike other types of academic writing , a term paper is more detailed, requires more research, and is generally seen as the hardest piece of written work aside from a thesis.


The aim of a term paper is to showcase your understanding of the subject matter and how well you handle pressure and deadlines. In this context, a term paper proves invaluable. In terms of scope, term papers may zero in on an important historical event – if you’re studying history – a scientific concept, or a contentious argument. The choice hinges on the prompt created by your academic advisor. The typical length of a term paper can stretch to five or seven pages, and is generally the prerequisite to attend end-of-semester examination. But, it is also a part of the weighted grade you’ll receive, which only adds to its importance.

For the average student, writing a term paper takes around two weeks, and is a process many do not fully understand. Term paper starts from a very basic element, a question.

Say your teacher wants you to analyze the arguments for and against US involvement in World War II. How would you start? By asking a question; something like: Why did the US enter the war? Or, why did the US waive its neutrality and entered the war.

This opens the door for you and allows you to find an article or two that then leads to the second step, and so on and so on, until you are done. The problem is many students do not know how the process works, or what skills are needed to get the job done. To write an excellent paper you need to plan carefully, adapt to new conditions, be analytical yet persuasive, and understand how referencing works. In addition, the paper has to be formatted to specifications of your chosen citation style – APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard, etc. This is a lot of work!

What is the Purpose of a Term Paper

At its core, a term paper serves to test your ability to understand arguments and defend them using written constructs within a pre-determined time period. Put simply, it tests your ability to navigate complex ideas when faced with a deadline – something that comes in handy in almost every job you’ll ever have later in life. If you can understand a complex event, a scientific theory, or a debatable stance, based on the directive from your academic mentor, you can manage pretty much anything that is thrown your way.

A typical term paper will be between five to seven pages, and represents the pinnacle of writing tasks in the semester. The process of term paper writing, even when the topic is prescribed, can be an arduous and time-consuming undertaking. To succeed you need meticulous planning, good composition skills, and scrupulous analysis, structure, and edit

Doing the Basics Right Saves You Time

As Seneca famously said, “Luck Is What Happens When Preparation Meets Opportunity.” In short, prepare, prepare, prepare. To create a perfect term paper you need to know, well in advance, how it will look, what will it be about, and how will it be structured. This then allows you to simply fill in the blanks as you go. But, if you start a day before submission, you’re toast – or, you can always ask for help from us J – because the result will be Red Bull frenzy induced compilation of internet’s best hits. And trust me when I say, your teacher has those stored in memory; you’re not the first student to turn a deaf ear on old Seneca….


So, let’s see how to start your term paper:

  • Select your topic – If possible choose something that you’re personally interested in. When you choose early, all the good topics are still free, so keep that in mind.
  • Research your topic – Once chosen, sit at your computer and run through Google Scholar or your University Library for anything that pops up when you type in your exact topic.
  • Create an outline – When you have a basic understanding of the topic, prepare an outline. It’s always going to be fairly standard, so once you get it right, you can re-use whenever you need to in the future.
  • Thesis statement – Now starts the tricky part. Just kidding, this is still the Top Lane, we’re not even close to the Jungle. Thesis statements are always pretty similar. Jolt down your guiding question and then, based on what you’ve read, write a one sentence argument. For example, if writing about solar and wind, you might go with: Solar and wind power are the future of energy production because fossil fuels are unsustainable.
  • Topics, topic sentences, and paragraphs – Every paragraph starts with a topic sentence that describes what the paragraph is talking about. The easiest way to understand is this. If writing a paper about wind and solar, you would need at least three topic sentences – 1)Wind 2)Solar 3)Benefits of using wind and solar. Naturally, a term paper needs much more than just three, but you get the idea.
  •   Conclusion – Once you’ve written down the topic sentences and outlined the paper, note your own expectations of what you’ll find in the conclusion. This will help you understand what is happening, and when you’re actually writing the conclusion it will tell you if you were right or wrong.

Pro tip: If all of this is too much for you, there is always the possibility of asking professionals for help. Our team of term paper writers are here to help, so feel free to reach out!

Structure of a Term Paper

As you’ve probably guessed by now, every paper has to have a specific structure. In general, you can expect to have at least three parts – introduction, body, and a conclusion. However, longer papers may need several sub-sections, perhaps even an abstract or a summary, and a page dedicated to bibliography.

A typical term paper has three to five body paragraphs that form the backbone of your arguments and analytical discourse. A bibliography is always needed, even if your sources predominantly comprise course materials or excerpts from consulted textbooks. Depending on the chosen style, you will need either a Works Cited page (MLA), a Reference page (APA) or a Bibliography (Harvard, Chicago). Given its pivotal role in determining your final course grade, make sure to adhere to the highest writing and editing standards.

Term Paper Outline

  • Title page – this is where you enter your name, teacher name, school, class, and date. The formatting will depend on your chosen style
  • Introduction – Introduction sets the stage for your arguments. This is where you present statistics, define helpful terms, and finally present your thesis statement. IMPORTANT: Thesis statement is always the last sentence in the introduction.
  • Body 1: Historical setting or development
  • Body 2: Current state of knowledge about the problem
  • Body 3: Main argument and potential implications
  • Body 4: Argument for
  • Body 5: Argument against
  • Body 6: Summary
  • Conclusion : Bring all of the body arguments together and restate your thesis statement.
  • Bibliography : Provide references for all sources cited in the term paper using the style of your choice

Now let’s get to the nitty gritty of the writing process.

Topic Selection – In most cases teachers or instructors will provide students with a list of pre-approved topics to choose from. But, in some cases you will get the opportunity to choose for yourself. This is both a blessing and a curse, because it can lead you into a deep pit of despair if you are not careful.

Length – Every paper will have an assigned length. You should never go under the minimum or the maximum word/page count, as that will take points away from your final score. If the prompt asks for 10 pages, write that.

Sources – Consult your school library, Google Scholar, and any other database that has access to journals and books on your topic.

Simplify – While it is admirable to be able to write in a high-brow voice, it’s much better to use plain language as much as possible, but staying within the confines of academic jargon. No don’t’s, couldnt’s, or should’ve. If something is too complicated to explain simply, you do not understand it properly. Ask for clarification.

Do not be afraid to wander – Choosing a common topic may be a safe bet, but your teacher will grade you higher if you take a topic nobody else even though about. Brownie points are there for the taking. Just make sure you know what you’re talking about!

Don’t overextend – While the entire combined histories of all monastic orders may seem like an interesting topic (well, to us at least), it is waaaaaaay too broad to cover in 5 or 10 pages. Heck, that would probably take an entire compendium with multiple volumes. In short, don’t be a megalomaniac and choose a topic that fits in 5 pages.


How to Write a Term Paper: The Writing Process

Before starting your write up, the teacher will expect a proposal. This is a very short summary of the topic, your thesis statement, and a few sources. The goal is to present a topic that you can defend and ask the teacher to approve it.

So how do you write a proposal? Start by writing down your thesis statement and guiding question. Then identify three to four sources and jolt down key statistics and pieces of information that are linked to your thesis statement. The goal is to show you’ve done the work. The proposal will generally have a full outline (see above) so that the teacher knows what you are planning to do. If you explain what the topic is and why it is important in writing , the teacher will accept the proposal.

Introduction, well, Introduces the Term Paper

Your essay has to start strong, which is why 99.99%  of all introductions start with a hook that captivates the audience. A hook can be anything, a statistic (like 40% of people in the US have no savings whatsoever, which means around 140 million people are completely broke – now that’s a hook, line, and sinker).

Once you know the reader is hooked, you present a brief overview of the topic you will discuss. This is where you bring statistics, data, and broader theories or concepts that may relate.

The end of the introduction is always reserved for the thesis statement, which is the last sentence of the introduction.

Try to be concise – not more than ¾ of a page (cca 200-250 words), but detailed enough so that the reader understands what the paper is about.

Writing the Body Sections

When you are certain you can understand the concepts and arguments presented in the literature, it’s time to write your body paragraphs.

The goal is to provide the reader with enough context and argumentation to prove your point. So, if you’re writing about the advantages of nuclear energy, you have to provide evidence from the literature as well as a thorough analysis of all benefits and drawbacks. The goal is to be as objective as possible, while ensuring your results are accurate.

Do not dwell on too much detail, you cannot fit all of the information in a 5 – 10 page paper. Isolate the most important pieces of evidence, maybe 3-4 and focus on those.

As a rule of thumb, you will aim for 4 – 5 body paragraphs minimum, but in most cases you will need more. The first section should be the literature review, where you analyze state-of-the-art of the topic you are writing about.

Following the literature review is your analysis, which draws from the information you’ve collected. It’s important to note, do not try and make up new stuff, or draw conclusions in this section. Simply analyze and summarize the findings in your own voice.

The last paragraph of the body section can be your own summary, where you present a different opinion. Be concise and do not go into too much detail, simply note if you think there are any discrepancies in the literature.

Remember : Always start your paragraphs with a topic sentence and try to contain the information within the paragraph to the topic.

Writing the Conclusion

Conclusion is the most important part of the term paper, even though many do not give it enough attention. This is where you put everything you’ve written together and summarize key findings.

Important : Conclusion is not the place to add new information or knowledge!

To write a good conclusion keep in mind your initial research question and thesis statement. The goal of the term paper is to answer the question and prove your thesis statement is correct. Has your paper done this? Write it down and explain why or why not your initial proposal was correct. A thesis statement can be wrong, and you must acknowledge this in your conclusion.

In the conclusion:

  • Summarize your findings
  • Discuss implications for future reseasrch

Editing and Finalization

The final word of the conclusion has been written, references added and alphabetized, the paper and the title page formatted. You are finally done. Or, maybe not! Now is the time for the final edit.

Teachers, above everything else, hate reading papers with spelling mistakes and poor grammar. To make sure your paper does not annoy the teacher (you don’t want a lower grade), make sure it is completely free of any errors.

The best way to do this is by using a machine learning tool combined with close reading on your own. The machine will weed out the glaring errors, and you will finish the job.

Read through the draft carefully. Remove any fluff or excess words that add nothing to the argument. You will likely find several sentences you will want to change. Do this now. Once done, start the second read-through.

In this read-through you will hone in on the arguments. Do they make sense? Are statistics properly cited, and do you sound coherent? If the answer is no, you will want to fix the mistakes until satisfied.

Now, finally, you are done! Congratulations. Pat yourself on the back. Oh, wait, we forgot about the abstract!

Abstract Comes First, or Last

In no uncertain terms, do not write the abstract before you’ve completed the term paper. This is always the last part of the writing process, but strangely enough the one your paper starts with. Go figure.

When you do get to this stage, use our secret formula. Well, it’s not really secret but we like to think so. The abstract needs three parts to work well, the introduction, the method/procedure, and the conclusion/findings. Depending on the topic these will vary slightly but you will always find them in an abstract.

Introduce your topic and what you plan to do in two to three sentences.

Describe what method you will use – such as literature review, an experiment, or something else. Two to three sentences.

Define the results you obtained after using the method. Two to three sentences.

Remember : The abstract should be between 120 and 200 words in length, no more is needed.

No, they are not. A research paper is an original piece of writing that comes after some type of original research has been done. Maybe you’ve found a new civilization during a dig, or a new chemical element. The research paper is meant to publicize this finding so other scientists can critique, refute, or confirm its validity. A term paper is a much simpler version that requires no original research. But, a term paper is your preparation for writing a research paper later in life.

This will depend on your teacher. In many cases, you will get a pre-defined format to follow, such as APA, MLA, or Chicago. If not, we recommend using APA or Harvard, as they are relatively simple to learn and have a ton of resources to help you along.

It is important to remember you are not writing a book, so keep the topic narrow. For example, if writing about renewable energy, choose only one type of energy or just one region. Do not try to cram everything into 5-10 pages; it won’t work.

Writing a term paper is certainly a challenge, but it is also manageable if you dedicate yourself to the process. Prepare well in advance, read a lot, and do not be afraid to ask for help if you get stuck. Your teachers are paid to help you, so email them if you get stuck. Above everything, make sure you are interested in the topic, as that will make the process so much easier.


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Everything You Need to Know to Write an A+ Term Paper

Last Updated: March 4, 2024 Fact Checked

Sample Term Papers

Researching & outlining.

  • Drafting Your Paper
  • Revising Your Paper

Expert Q&A

This article was co-authored by Matthew Snipp, PhD and by wikiHow staff writer, Raven Minyard, BA . C. Matthew Snipp is the Burnet C. and Mildred Finley Wohlford Professor of Humanities and Sciences in the Department of Sociology at Stanford University. He is also the Director for the Institute for Research in the Social Science’s Secure Data Center. He has been a Research Fellow at the U.S. Bureau of the Census and a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He has published 3 books and over 70 articles and book chapters on demography, economic development, poverty and unemployment. He is also currently serving on the National Institute of Child Health and Development’s Population Science Subcommittee. He holds a Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Wisconsin—Madison. There are 13 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 2,240,720 times.

A term paper is a written assignment given to students at the end of a course to gauge their understanding of the material. Term papers typically count for a good percentage of your overall grade, so of course, you’ll want to write the best paper possible. Luckily, we’ve got you covered. In this article, we’ll teach you everything you need to know to write an A+ term paper, from researching and outlining to drafting and revising.

Quick Steps to Write a Term Paper

  • Hook your readers with an interesting and informative intro paragraph. State your thesis and your main points.
  • Support your thesis by providing quotes and evidence that back your claim in your body paragraphs.
  • Summarize your main points and leave your readers with a thought-provoking question in your conclusion.

term papers table of contents

  • Think of your term paper as the bridge between what you’ve learned in class and how you apply that knowledge to real-world topics.
  • For example, a history term paper may require you to explore the consequences of a significant historical event, like the Civil War. An environmental science class, on the other hand, may have you examine the effects of climate change on a certain region.
  • Your guidelines should tell you the paper’s word count and formatting style, like whether to use in-text citations or footnotes and whether to use single- or double-spacing. If these things aren’t specified, be sure to reach out to your instructor.

Step 2 Choose an interesting topic.

  • Make sure your topic isn’t too broad. For example, if you want to write about Shakespeare’s work, first narrow it down to a specific play, like Macbeth , then choose something even more specific like Lady Macbeth’s role in the plot.
  • If the topic is already chosen for you, explore unique angles that can set your content and information apart from the more obvious approaches many others will probably take. [3] X Research source
  • Try not to have a specific outcome in mind, as this will close you off to new ideas and avenues of thinking. Rather than trying to mold your research to fit your desired outcome, allow the outcome to reflect a genuine analysis of the discoveries you made. Ask yourself questions throughout the process and be open to having your beliefs challenged.
  • Reading other people's comments, opinions, and entries on a topic can often help you to refine your own, especially where they comment that "further research" is required or where they posit challenging questions but leave them unanswered.

Step 3 Do your research.

  • For example, if you’re writing a term paper about Macbeth , your primary source would be the play itself. Then, look for other research papers and analyses written by academics and scholars to understand how they interpret the text.

Step 4 Craft your thesis statement.

  • For example, if you’re writing a paper about Lady Macbeth, your thesis could be something like “Shakespeare’s characterization of Lady Macbeth reveals how desire for power can control someone’s life.”
  • Remember, your research and thesis development doesn’t stop here. As you continue working through both the research and writing, you may want to make changes that align with the ideas forming in your mind and the discoveries you continue to unearth.
  • On the other hand, don’t keep looking for new ideas and angles for fear of feeling confined. At some point, you’re going to have to say enough is enough and make your point. You may have other opportunities to explore these questions in future studies, but for now, remember your term paper has a finite word length and an approaching due date!

Step 5 Develop an outline for the paper.

  • Abstract: An abstract is a concise summary of your paper that informs readers of your topic, its significance, and the key points you’ll explore. It must stand on its own and make sense without referencing outside sources or your actual paper.
  • Introduction: The introduction establishes the main idea of your paper and directly states the thesis. Begin your introduction with an attention-grabbing sentence to intrigue your readers, and provide any necessary background information to establish your paper’s purpose and direction.
  • Body paragraphs: Each body paragraph focuses on a different argument supporting your thesis. List specific evidence from your sources to back up your arguments. Provide detailed information about your topic to enhance your readers’ understanding. In your outline, write down the main ideas for each body paragraph and any outstanding questions or points you’re not yet sure about.
  • Results: Depending on the type of term paper you’re writing, your results may be incorporated into your body paragraphs or conclusion. These are the insights that your research led you to. Here you can discuss how your perspective and understanding of your topic shifted throughout your writing process.
  • Conclusion: Your conclusion summarizes your argument and findings. You may restate your thesis and major points as you wrap up your paper.

Drafting Your Term Paper

Step 1 Make your point in the introduction.

  • Writing an introduction can be challenging, but don’t get too caught up on it. As you write the rest of your paper, your arguments might change and develop, so you’ll likely need to rewrite your intro at the end, anyway. Writing your intro is simply a means of getting started and you can always revise it later. [10] X Trustworthy Source PubMed Central Journal archive from the U.S. National Institutes of Health Go to source
  • Be sure to define any words your readers might not understand. For example, words like “globalization” have many different meanings depending on context, and it’s important to state which ones you’ll be using as part of your introductory paragraph.

Step 2 Persuade your readers with your body paragraphs.

  • Try to relate the subject of the essay (say, Plato’s Symposium ) to a tangentially related issue you happen to know something about (say, the growing trend of free-wheeling hookups in frat parties). Slowly bring the paragraph around to your actual subject and make a few generalizations about why this aspect of the book/subject is so fascinating and worthy of study (such as how different the expectations for physical intimacy were then compared to now).

Step 3 Summarize your argument with your conclusion.

  • You can also reflect on your own experience of researching and writing your term paper. Discuss how your understanding of your topic evolved and any unexpected findings you came across.

Step 4 Write your abstract.

  • While peppering quotes throughout your text is a good way to help make your point, don’t overdo it. If you use too many quotes, you’re basically allowing other authors to make the point and write the paper for you. When you do use a quote, be sure to explain why it is relevant in your own words.
  • Try to sort out your bibliography at the beginning of your writing process to avoid having a last-minute scramble. When you have all the information beforehand (like the source’s title, author, publication date, etc.), it’s easier to plug them into the correct format.

Step 6 Come up with a good title.

Revising & Finalizing Your Term Paper

Step 1 Make your writing as concise as possible.

  • Trade in weak “to-be” verbs for stronger “action” verbs. For example: “I was writing my term paper” becomes “I wrote my term paper.”

Step 2 Check for grammar and spelling errors.

  • It’s extremely important to proofread your term paper. If your writing is full of mistakes, your instructor will assume you didn’t put much effort into your paper. If you have too many errors, your message will be lost in the confusion of trying to understand what you’ve written.

Step 3 Have someone else read over your paper.

  • If you add or change information to make things clearer for your readers, it’s a good idea to look over your paper one more time to catch any new typos that may have come up in the process.

Matthew Snipp, PhD

  • The best essays are like grass court tennis—the argument should flow in a "rally" style, building persuasively to the conclusion. Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 0
  • If you get stuck, consider giving your professor a visit. Whether you're still struggling for a thesis or you want to go over your conclusion, most instructors are delighted to help and they'll remember your initiative when grading time rolls around. Thanks Helpful 1 Not Helpful 1
  • At least 2 hours for 3-5 pages.
  • At least 4 hours for 8-10 pages.
  • At least 6 hours for 12-15 pages.
  • Double those hours if you haven't done any homework and you haven't attended class.
  • For papers that are primarily research-based, add about two hours to those times (although you'll need to know how to research quickly and effectively, beyond the purview of this brief guide).

term papers table of contents

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  • ↑ https://www.binghamton.edu/counseling/self-help/term-paper.html
  • ↑ Matthew Snipp, PhD. Research Fellow, U.S. Bureau of the Census. Expert Interview. 26 March 2020.
  • ↑ https://emory.libanswers.com/faq/44525
  • ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/assignments/planresearchpaper/
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/the_writing_process/thesis_statement_tips.html
  • ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/outline
  • ↑ https://gallaudet.edu/student-success/tutorial-center/english-center/writing/guide-to-writing-introductions-and-conclusions/
  • ↑ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26731827
  • ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/assignments/writing-an-abstract-for-your-research-paper/
  • ↑ https://www.ivcc.edu/stylesite/Essay_Title.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.uni-flensburg.de/fileadmin/content/institute/anglistik/dokumente/downloads/how-to-write-a-term-paper-daewes.pdf
  • ↑ https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185937
  • ↑ https://www.cornerstone.edu/blog-post/six-steps-to-really-edit-your-paper/

About This Article

Matthew Snipp, PhD

If you need to write a term paper, choose your topic, then start researching that topic. Use your research to craft a thesis statement which states the main idea of your paper, then organize all of your facts into an outline that supports your thesis. Once you start writing, state your thesis in the first paragraph, then use the body of the paper to present the points that support your argument. End the paper with a strong conclusion that restates your thesis. For tips on improving your term paper through active voice, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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  • A Research Guide
  • Writing Guide
  • Assignment Writing

How to Write a Term Paper

  • Purpose of a term paper
  • How to start a term paper
  • Structure and outline

Step-by-step writing guide

Standard term paper format.

  • Term paper examples
  • Writing tips

What is the purpose of a term paper?

How to start a term paper correctly.

  • Choose your topic by focusing on what inspires you unless you are already given a topic.
  • Take time to research and analyze your subject.
  • Start with a term paper outline (see our templates in the next sections).
  • Come up with a strong thesis statement before writing anything for body paragraphs.
  • Provide topic sentences and practical examples.
  • Provide a strong lesson in the conclusion if it suits the subject you write about.
  • Edit and proofread available information for trustworthiness.

Term paper structure and outline

  • Introduction. This is where you talk about the subject and a problem you are researching. It helps to introduce your thesis statement and explain the objectives that have been set.
  • Body Paragraphs. As a rule, in writing college term papers, one must write down several subheadings and headings to divide ideas and arguments into several (at least four) paragraphs. As done below, each body paragraph should contain one idea and a strong topic sentence.
  • Heading 1: History of the argument and background.
  • Heading 2: Extent of the problem that you write about.
  • Heading 3: Effects of the problem and possible causes.
  • Heading 4: Possible solutions and outcomes.
  • Conclusion. The final part should represent a strong summary and a response to your thesis statement.

Step 1: Data collection

Step 2: explaining research relevance, step 3: introducing your subject, step 4: literature review preparation, step 5: offering results and conclusions, step 6: structural term paper evaluation, step 7: check your citations and references.


Helpful term paper examples

  • Term paper examples that earned an A grade from the University of Delaware
  • Sample term paper offered by the Justus-Liebig Universitat Giessen
  • Purdue Owl Lab Citation Formats Database
  • Simon Fraser University Sample Term Paper

Term paper writing tips

  • Choose a topic that inspires you if you have an opportunity. If you have been given an already existing prompt to write, research your subject online and ask about the use of course materials. It will help you to narrow things down and already have source materials for referencing purposes.
  • If you can choose a subject to write a final paper for your course, think about something you can support with statistical data and some practical evidence.
  • Most importantly, keep your term paper relevant to the main objectives of your study course.
  • Keep your tone reflective and natural as you write.
  • Double-check your grading rubric regarding limitations and obligatory requirements that must be met.
  • Always proofread your term paper aloud!
  • If you have an opportunity, consider editing your term paper with the help of a friend or a fellow college student.

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How To Write a Term Paper: A Guide That Works

30 June, 2020

16 minutes read

Author:  Mathieu Johnson

Once you’ve started your university career, you are going to be asked to present a term paper. What’s the difference between a term paper and a research paper? How can you write a good term? What’s the best way to structure it? Where can you find some tips to make the writing process faster? In this article, we’ll discuss a few tips to help you prepare a term paper quickly and professionally.

term paper

What Is a Term Paper… And What Is The First Step?

A term paper is a critical and analytical report on the topic or subject that you covered within the course of studies. It usually consists of two separate but equally important aspects: your own thoughts about the topic and a demonstration of your understanding of the existing literature. The main goal of this assignment is to summarize the material you learned and showcase your understanding of the topic. This aspect makes the term paper a universal instrument for assessing a student’s proficiency. It also explains why term papers cost so many points of your course grade.

We usually associate a term paper with a research paper , but although the concepts are quite similar, a research paper requires a more academic approach and a deeper investigation into the literature of your field of study.

To write an outstanding college term paper, you must understand that your professor has requested it in order to test your analytical thinking skills. You must collect relevant data, analyze it, and then make a summary or solve a particular problem. Such skills are highly relevant to the business world, so this type of the task is as practical as it is educational.

So, let’s start the preparation!

Before you begin writing

Dip into the topics and make a research

Unfortunately, there is no magical recipe that allows you to get everything done fast. You will need to choose the best way forward in whatever situation you find yourself, but here are some tips to help you prepare for the assignment.

To begin with, take the research stage seriously . Sometimes, when students are really interested in a topic, they only want to present their personal ideas about the problem. Unfortunately, if you’re not completely familiar with all the data from the various sources, you will need to reinvent the bicycle.

Term paper writing was never an easy ride. Well, not for our expert writers. Place an order with our term paper writing service and secure yourself an “A!”

In the initial stages of your research, investigate everything you can find on the topic . This may sound like a tall order, but you’ll find that it doesn’t actually entail that much reading. At this point you are only compiling the research, so you will be skimming through numerous prospects rather than reading them completely. Bear in mind that your aim is to get acquainted with the various aspects of your problem. The term paper summarizes the knowledge you gained within a course and requires to familiarize yourself with the research that other people have already made on your topic.

Thinking that your opinions are completely original and unique is quite egocentric, and it can get you into trouble. So, “your” thoughts about the problem are usually just somebody else’s statements that you have rephrased (or even a well-established academic concept!). Remember that your professor will be familiar with all the literature surrounding the issue: if you merely rewrite someone else’s thoughts and present them as your own (even if you don’t realize doing it), be prepared for criticism!

Applying a Structure To Your Term Paper

Term paper structure

Once you have read all the leading authors and their approaches to your problem, it’s time to create a structure for your work. This is not yet an outline; you just need to decide what to write about. Sketch out the topic for the theoretical portion of your work and think about practical aspects and how you can approach the research in the best possible way.

At this point, you really need to call or email your supervisor . Your professor will have seen hundreds of term papers like yours (i.e., they have not yet been written, but a definite idea exists!) and will be prepared to give you feedback and advice. He or she will tell you what literature you have omitted, offer suggestions about what you should read, and give you feedback about your paper. It may well be that your approach has already occurred to somebody else, in which case there is no need to repeat it.

Choosing a Topic: Easy as Riding a Bike?

When you choose your topic, make sure you choose something that you are interested in . That’s our advice if you want a painless term paper. If you prefer to investigate a field that you’ve never really explored before, you can challenge yourself to do that, too. That might be sophisticated, but why not?

If you decide to investigate a topic or a problem that you are pretty familiar with, your writing will be more fluid. You will focus your attention on a specific aspect of the chosen field and expand your knowledge within that scope. On the contrary, choosing an unfamiliar subject matter can wash out your expertise.

Be prepared to change the topic if you find out that your research isn’t going anywhere. It might occur that you presuppose that your topic has a potential but somewhere at the stage of initial research, you find that it just won’t work. It’s always a good idea to consider two or three topics when you kick off the term paper writing – even if they are just different ways of examining the same problem. By doing this, you will be able to choose the best version, which may not be the one you started with at all!

Related Post: 100 Persuasive essay topics

Formulating a Thesis statement

Term paper thesis statement

Writing a proper thesis statement can also be challenging. To begin with, write down a couple of prominent ideas or concepts, then try to make rough drafts of them to see how they’ll work in the structural framework. You will probably find that one idea fits your style, interests, and knowledge base: you can choose that one as your thesis statement.

Remember that the thesis statement is the skeleton, the central concept of your paper. It is the elemental attribute of almost any academic paper – from master’s thesis to a simple five paragraph essay. If you do a thorough job on it, you will find that writing (and defending!) your argument is much easier.

Be aware that all of these stages are parts of a procedure – one leads to another. When writing a term paper, you should collect the material and wrap it up at the same time.

Planning – The Key To Success

Some people claim that they can write a term paper without any planning. In our opinion, this is impossible. If you don’t have a postgraduate degree and you aren’t a certified genius, you need to prepare an outline for your project. It may come as a surprise, but even people who claim otherwise actually prepare outlines – in their heads. But if you don’t have that much experience, use a pencil and your notebook to ensure that you don’t forget anything.

Don’t procrastinate on your College or University papers anymore. Get professional help with our essay writer !

That’s when we get to preparing your first draft . There’s only one thing to add here: do as many drafts as you need in order to achieve your goal. Understand that your aim is to create an excellent term paper and keep working at it until you are satisfied.

Term Paper Outline: Write Everything In The Proper Section!

Term paper outline

In the Introduction , state the topic that you are going to investigate and the context of your work. This is the critical ‘selling’ moment of your work. In a nutshell, your introduction combined with a conclusion should give a sneak peek into what the whole paper is about. If your introduction is well-prepared, it will be quite complacent about the body of your project. The introduction must include an abstract that presents your thesis statement . You should explain your motivation (why should the reader be concerned about this problem?) , your methods (what scientific tools did you use?) , and the results (what you achieved) .

The Literature Review totally corresponds to its name – it is here to review the literature you compiled. Your professor will double check it to make sure that you understand the context of your argument. One more thing to add is: collect all the information you can! Ideally, you should read or at least glance through every book and author that you can find on the topic. Think of your task as a fascinating journey: if you approach it like that, reading hundreds of pages won’t seem like that much of a challenge.

In the Discussion , you must present the interpretations of the problem. Be honest, explain what you pieces of data you don’t agree with and what ideas and concepts you support. This section connects the dots between theory and practice when writing a term paper. Wherever possible, provide several interpretations of the subject matter, then choose the one(s) that are most relevant to the case you are presenting.

In the Body , focus on those arguments that prove your thesis statement. This section must be absolutely logical. If you have chosen a more complicated topic, use heading and sub-headings to improve the appearance of this section. While writing the body, keep your target audience (your professors) in mind. In other words, don’t just record the obvious causes/effects/solutions but also showcase your own findings – what you have discovered and how that proves your thesis statement. Demonstrate that you are familiar with the details and you will stun your readers with the prolific mastery of the topic.

Now, the Conclusion   is her to summarize both the content and the purpose of the paper. The most challenging part is not to make it too dry. Reiterate your thesis statement and briefly show how your results justified your proposition. At the very end, you can suggest a call to action or pose a rhetorical question or statement that leaves your reader wanting more.

What to do next?

When you have finished, reread your work a couple of times. You will almost certainly find a few faults, whether they are contextual, factual, syntactical, grammatical, or even simple spelling mistakes. A very useful tip is to wait for two or three days after writing your final draft to proofread it afterward. Your brain will have time to process the information, and you’ll be able to look at it with a fresh view.

How to write a good term paper

When proofreading, take care to polish the structural problems. The skeleton (the logic and the thesis statement) should make sense. If they don’t, try to approach the problem from another perspective. The changes may take some time, but bear in mind that your objective is to produce professional work. Be patient!

After that, print the term paper. The human eye processes information differently on the paper than on a computer screen; that’s why you need to print it and take one final look for any possible mistakes. Even if you don’t see any serious defects, pay attention to formatting, punctuation, and synonyms. It’s an academic text, so make it shine!

Term Paper Sample

Be sure to check the sample of a term paper, completed by our writers. Use it as an example to perfect your own writing. Link:  Term Paper Sample: Consumer Buying Behavior .

The Do’s and Don’ts of Term Paper Writing

. It’s a handy tool for finding quotes from notable works. knowledge, too.

There you have the most important tips to help you succeed in writing a term paper. Now it’s up to you to stop reading and start writing!

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How to Write a Successful Term Paper

By: Tasha Kolesnikova

How to Write a Successful Term Paper

Studying at college or university, you have to deal with a variety of assignments. They are necessary to gain new knowledge, skills, and experience important for your future career. Some tasks may be pretty easy, while others require a lot of time and effort. However, you should challenge yourself because it is when you’re developing and becoming better.

Can I Ignore the Length Requirements?

Introduction, make sure you have enough time, start by creating an outline, use a strong tongue, don't forget about proofreading, how to write a term paper proposal, how to start a term paper, how to finish a term paper, term paper apa formatting, term paper mla formatting, term paper chicago formatting, social issues topics.

Regardless of the major you choose, each discipline has a specific structure and goals. You’ll have lectures, practical lessons, internships, and so on. Your professor may use different strategies to test your knowledge, and writing is one of them.

It is not so hard when it goes about regular essays. But the term paper is something the most students are afraid of. It is a voluminous piece that synthesis all your knowledge received during the course.

We’re ready to provide you with an ultimate guide to write a term paper. Let’s start from the beginning.

Definition of a Term Paper

A term paper is a research document that you write after a semester or year of work. This assignment helps you determine your understanding of the course content and the aspects required by the curriculum.

Writing a term paper has other purposes as well. Working on your task, you delve deeper into the discipline, get acquainted with its main problems and challenges. It also improves your analytical, critical thinking, and writing skills, which are useful both during your studies and after university.

Your professor can assign you a specific topic, depending on the material being studied. Sometimes the choice is up to you, or you can choose a narrower theme from a broader list of options.

Regardless of the title, it would help if you delved in. We’ve prepared some actionable tips to come up with outstanding writing. You may follow them or send us your “ write my essay ” message if you need professional assistance. Our authors are eager to share their experiences and help you to boost academic performance.

How Long Is a Term Paper?

There is no universal standard for the volume you should adhere to. It depends on the requirements of your institution.

If you search for this information on the Internet, you will see that different sources offer different data. One website claims that you need to submit a 10-page document, while another writes about 45 pages. This is why it is important to read your professor's requirements carefully.

The volume determines which approach you take to writing. For example, if your paper is short, you need to state your thoughts concisely and clearly, going straight to the point. If it is long, do not fill the pages with hot air, but try to do thorough research and look at the issue from different angles.

You may write about 10% less or more, but overall try to adhere to the particular number of pages or words. All students are in identical conditions, so your article should be standardized. If you don’t know what to write about, ask your professor about additional instructions.

It would also be a great idea to read some examples written by other students or professional authors. Filter out the documents with the same volume as you need and pay notice to the paper writer's structure .

Term Paper and Research Paper - Differences

We understand if you are confused after reading our introduction. If you need to conduct research, why are you writing a term paper and not a research one?

Many students confuse these two types of assignments. But certain aspects indicate the differences between them.

Writing a research paper takes months or even years. It covers various aspects of the topic, up to the development of new strategies and innovative ideas.

The term paper should be submitted by the end of the semester or year. Its content is based on the material covered. Of course, you can use additional resources, but in general, custom term paper assignment is only relevant to the themes you discussed in class.

The purpose is another crucial difference between the two assignments.

When you work on a research paper, you need to work through the problem and find a viable solution. You are dealing with a hypothesis that needs to be confirmed or refuted.

The term papers have the task of reflecting your knowledge of the discipline. It is more straightforward but influences the final score much more.

What Are Parts of Term Paper?

Each student paper has its structure you should strictly adhere to. It is useful to organize your thoughts and to provide your readers with a clear and understandable text. Here is the list of the main parts you should include in your term assignment.

The cover or title page is necessary to introduce your paper and provide the basic information about it, including your data, professor’s name, topic, etc. More detailed requirements depend on the particular formatting style, so read your instructions carefully.

This part is something like a short introduction to your paper. It lets your readers understand the overall direction, the issue you explore, and why you have decided to choose this particular theme. If you have additional comments that may be interesting for your audience, provide them here as well.

Start your paper with an exciting and engaging statement. The main thing you should know about the thesis is that it is a pivot point of your writing. You build all body paragraphs and the primary research around it.

If you don’t know how to write a thesis , you may read some articles or ask for professional help.

The body consists of the main paragraphs. The traditional essay structure includes 3 of them; however, if you’re writing a 10-pages or even 40-pages paper, you should change your structure according to requirements.

You should develop your findings, ideas, or arguments, considering the final goal. For example, if your task is to analyze some issues and perceive readers to accept your point of view, you should provide compelling evidence-based arguments. If you need to explore the theme, write down, and develop the main ideas it covers. Make sure each paragraph is devoted to one aspect only.

This part is of great significance because you should show particular progress. Have you accepted certain things about your topic? Have you changed your view from the moment you started working on the piece? Any insights you’ve gained you should describe in the Results section. If you’re not satisfied with them, you can explain the reasons here as well.

It is a conclusion chapter where you can wrap up. You should analyze your text and provide readers with the next steps one should follow to continue one’s research on the subject you’re working through.

As an unusual essay conclusion, the discussion doesn’t contain any new information.

Main Tips to Write a Killer Term Paper

Do not hope that you will complete this task in a day or an hour. Some students make the mistake of starting paper right away. This is a beginner's mistake. You may think that if you have already written a few lines, this indicates significant progress. But these proposals will be weak, meaningless.

Any work takes time. Think of it as a project with specific goals. You can split a task into multiple milestones and set a deadline for each one.

If you realize that you cannot write this piece on time, hire an experienced writer. The more experience you have, the faster the process lasts.

So, you've gathered enough information. We understand if you don't know what to do next and what your first step should be.

Get a sense of control with a paper outline. This is your plan that describes all stages of the process. It also helps you organize your time and information.

In the end, you can come back to this plan again to check how the final version matches your initial expectations. If you have developed a high-quality outline, you can quickly determine which aspects of the document are needed and which are just filling the space.

You should write the term paper competently. You have done the research, collected enough information, analyzed it. Any of your doubts will indicate a lack of professionalism.

This is why you need to keep an eye on your writing style. Formal academic writing involves an active voice, professional vocabulary, and no fluffy words. You don't need to write something that doesn't make any sense for the main task.

Remember, we said that writing a term paper is long and complicated? Most students hate this. They spent a lot of time writing all sections of the article and do not feel like proofreading the entire text.

But if you have not yet encountered academic writing, you may not imagine how many mistakes a text can contain. Even if you are a very literate person, you may not notice some typos and occasional flaws. Of course, this does not make you incompetent, but readers can lose confidence in your paper.

Proofread the piece very thoroughly and carefully. Wait a few days before doing this; your brain should not be tired.

How to Make a Term Paper Outline

An outline is the part of the writing process that deserves a little more attention.

Use it as the guiding map that is always ready to point you in the right direction if you get confused.

There are several ways to design an outline, and you can download different templates from the Internet.

Some methods are suitable for people who like to organize all information in a coherent plan. But if you are a creative person, you can also choose a suitable template for yourself. For example, a mind map.

An outline is not something that your professor will check, so you don't have to worry about the exact format and details. The main thing is to make sure that you fully understand the content and use it for your writing.

Even before you start researching a topic and writing, you need to prepare a college term paper proposal. This is a document that will help you defend your idea in front of the professor. Even before starting the main work, you will submit this proposal to get approval.

You need to show the importance of this theme by including recent data with correct links. Why do you think your piece will correlate with the course syllabus? How is it useful for you and your fellow students?

Set goals for your college assignment and organize your ideas into one article. This will let the professor know that you have understood the assignment correctly.

It's okay if you fail at this stage. It is needed just so that the professor checks whether you are on the same wavelength and can provide you with any further instructions.

So, you received confirmation from your professor, came up with a topic, conducted initial research, and made an outline. What's next?

  • Try to narrow down your topic. You need a learning perspective that allows you to organize and structure your thoughts.
  • Create bait for your readers. Have a brainstorming session and write down different ideas: rhetorical questions, anecdotes, statistical facts, etc
  • Come up with a thesis statement. If you cannot summarize your article's main idea in 1-2 sentences, you need to return to the first step and think about narrowing the topic.
  • Check out the style requirements. Your piece must be in a standardized format. Below you will learn more about APA format and others.
  • Do more research. You can go deeper because now you know your goals better. Use quality and trusted sources only.
  • Write the first sentence. If you worry too much, just start. You may delete the first sentences later, but don’t look for a perfect moment: start as soon as you have enough information.

You may think that the conclusion chapter is not so important because it doesn’t provide your readers with any new information. However, each section has its tasks and goals, so don't relax too early.

The last paragraphs should provide an answer to a fundamental question. This question is “So what?”. Just imagine your regular reader who finishes the text and doesn’t understand what is next. Was your text just a pleasant evening reading? Is it one more piece to improve academic performance? Or is it something more that was created to contribute to the field you’ve studied?

If you don’t have strict instructions from your professor, you can decide on your own. Think about questions your work creates, and provide the audience with steps to follow.

Term Paper Format

All college and university papers must be standardized. The requirements are the same for all students regardless of their educational institutions. If you plan to pursue a scientific career, you’ll deal with these standards all the time.

Formatting is not the most straightforward task because you need always be concentrated on some details that seem to be useless for you. It is clear why you should develop a unique thesis statement, but some students can’t get why they should use the particular font type or double-spacing.

That’s why formatting is one of the most popular writing services. While you’re working on tasks you like, the professional author and editor provide you with quality formatting.

Several styles are typical for the modern scientific society. Let’s look at them to get a basic understanding.

If you are studying psychology or other social sciences, the APA format is your choice. Here's a shortlist of the main things to consider:

  • White A4 sheet 8.5 x 11 inches.
  • Times New Roman or other easily readable 12 point font.
  • Double spacing for all text.
  • 1 "margins on the left, right, top, and bottom of the sheet.
  • Indent the paragraph by 1/2 inch.
  • The first-page heading, which includes the capitalized running head and the page number.

The MLA style is the preferred guideline for dealing with the humanities such as English and Literature, Arts, etc. Some of the features of this style are:

  • Times New Roman, Arial or similar, 12 point font.
  • Double spacing for the entire document. Get rid of single or one and a half intervals.
  • Enter your contact details and instructor in the upper left corner.
  • Take care of 1 "padding on all sides of the sheet.
  • Add your last name and page number to all pages in the upper right corner.
  • Align the title of the article in the center. Don't use bold, italic, quotation marks, underlines, etc.
  • Align the entire article to the left.
  • Indent all paragraphs to the right 1/2 inch.

Chicago or Turabian styles are used when it goes about the law assignments. The requirements are similar, but there are some differences as well. Take a look at this list:

  • Times, Times New Roman 12 pt font.
  • 1-inch margins on all sides.
  • Double-spacing.
  • Left-justified text with a ragged right edge.
  • 12 inch indent for the first sentence of each paragraph.
  • Provide page numbers in the top right corner.

Of course, we can’t provide you with all the format requirements in this article. You should have an official relevant guide with all details and examples to follow. Ask your professor if you have any questions. And don’t forget about correct citing, it is necessary to avoid plagiarism.

  • The main arguments for and against the death penalty.
  • What is more important: national identity or globalization?
  • Social isolation and its consequences.
  • Should church and state function together?
  • Could modern advertising be dangerous?

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Term paper – master your fear of writing.

Just be honest and tell me, how many words? And how much time have you got to do it? If you’re about to embark on writing a term paper, I have excellent news for you – this is a crash course! I’m about to introduce you to the fine art of writing term papers for any topic. We will look at an airtight outline example, some life hacks, and the usual formatting tips. Let’s dive right in!

term paper - studysmarter magazine

What Is a Term Paper? Definition and Guidelines

If you’ve only just started university and have already been slammed by this frightful word, welcome to this new level of study! University is not only about cramming from tons of books: It should also, ideally, foster critical thinking, teach you how to argue your points effectively, and help you develop research skills. And you will need all three of these to write a stellar term paper!

But hang on a sec, what is a term paper? A term paper is a longer type of research-based homework on a particular topic. Term papers range from 15 to 25 pages because any less is considered lazy and any more is too much for any professor to read (trust me, I teach at a university).

In general, you should be free to select a topic for your term paper, but regardless of whether you’re free to do it or are assigned one, term papers mostly have the same goal. Namely, they test your ability to formulate and support your arguments and locate yourself in a particular theoretical framework. Sound scary yet? Don’t worry! I’m here to illuminate some of the vaguer aspects of term paper writing.

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Structuring Your Term Paper Outline (+ Sample Term Paper Outline PDF)

Before you begin writing, it’s advisable to have an idea about where exactly your writing is going. The best way to achieve this is to write an outline, or (as we sleep-deprived academics like to call it) an abstract. An abstract is a short description of your paper/article/project that outlines your main research questions and the theoretical framework you will be working with.

I generally suggest that people start with a very simple pyramid structure when writing an abstract:

  • The foundation. This is where you introduce a broad, general statement on the topic of your choice. You can clarify and specify this in a few more sentences to ease your readers into the research project.

Example: Contemporary drama boasts the power to transform the audience through careful selection and crafty delivery of impactful images. By creating faux-reality, drama sometimes appeals to the affective side of the audience in order to provide commentary on a number of social and psychological issues. Duncan Macmillan’s Every Brilliant Thing capitalises on its affect-inducing potential, tackling the issue of suicidal depression.

  • The middle. In this part of the outline, you state the aims of your study. Some of my favourite phrases to signal your intentions include: this paper aims to shed light on, the goal of this research paper is, the idea behind this term paper is, etc. Feel free to add some powerful verbs of action such as examine, assess, illuminate, discern, analyse, cross-reference, etc. to emphasise your ideas.

Example: This paper aims to explore how the play creates a more realistic setting by deviating from the audience’s expectations, thus blurring the line between drama and real life. It may be argued that simulated reality, exemplified through a number of exaggerations, impacts the affective component in the audience’s attitude formation and that its neglect of the cognitive reinforces the transformative power of Every Brilliant Thing .

  • The top. The final part of your outline should highlight coherent hypotheses or research questions that your study will answer. While academic papers usually dream of some originality, this should not concern you yet – you don’t need to invent hot water in your term papers, but as you gain experience, novel conclusions will become easier to form.

Example: This paper will then take a final look at how the structure of the play simulates depression in order to sensitise the audience and to which extent it attains its goal of conveying the message of the universality and repercussions of the disease.

Writing an outline is a good way to organise your thoughts, figure out what kind of books you need, and anticipate your results.

In the abovementioned examples, the books you’d need would have to do with theatre, psychological influences, and simulation of reality.

This process applies to any subject. The outline can be more detailed, but it needn’t go over 300 words. A word of advice: if you cannot summarise the key points of your topic in 300 words, you should do some more brainstorming until you reach the specific goal.

PS Check out this excellent term paper outline sample !

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Term Paper Format – The Safety Net

Each term paper should follow a relatively familiar structure and way of arguing your points. Let’s start with the basics:

  • Cover page. This is where your title goes (centred, bolded, pt24 ideally). The cover page should also list your personal details, such as name, address, email, student ID number, phone number (maybe), and the institution and the department for which you are writing your term paper. Each university tends to have its own layout for the cover page, but the rule of thumb is that institutional information goes above the title, whereas personal information is below.
  • Table of contents – your readers need to know what to expect!
  • Introduction. This is a more elaborate version of your project outline. You should specify what the paper is dealing with, what theoretical framework you’re using, and what your hypothesis is. My pro tip is to write the introduction last because term papers tend to grow as you write and you may end up with vastly different results from those you had expected.
  • Theoretical framing. Explain which theories or ideas you’re using.
  • Methodology. This is mostly present in scientific papers where you must explain what methods will guide your study (i.e. experiments).
  • Analysis. Close readings, experiments, data surveys – whatever your project is doing, it should be doing it here.
  • Discussion . Feel free to start interpreting your results in this section. A great paper does not simply list data – it compares and contrasts. You must be able to draw conclusions about what your analysis has shown you. Results as expected? Hypothesis confirmed. Results not ideal? There’s something to write about. Consider why something turned out differently and what that means for future studies.
  • Optional: pitfalls and future improvements. Again, this is more present in sciences than humanities, but you could address possible pitfalls or blind spots in your study and suggest how they can be improved upon in the future. You can also talk about what lines of research your project can inspire.
  • Conclusion . Time to wrap it all up. Briefly summarise the key points of research and main results. If you haven’t already devoted a separate section of the paper to this, you can also write about indications for future research in your conclusion.

Term Paper Structure Example

To give you a more precise example of a structured term paper, here’s a more detailed structure of the above-described example on theatre:

term paper - studysmarter magazine

Still Unsure about How to Write a Term Paper?

Excellent, I love good questions! The truth is, writing a term paper is a labour of love (it is hard labour, especially if you’re carrying all the books!), so I will give you some tips on how to make it an enjoyable experience.

  • Pick a topic you’re interested in. There’s nothing you can say to convince me that your subject is so absolutely wretchedly uninteresting that you simply cannot find such a topic. You just haven’t done your work yet. Start digging and follow the internet clicking abyss until you stumble upon something that takes your fancy. My master thesis idea was based on a single line I read in a magazine about Neil Gaiman’s American Gods – I managed to turn it into 80 pages, two scientific articles, and two talks just fine, even though it may not have been researched previously. So, whatever you’re writing about, there’s got to be a fun angle to it.
  • Start reading. You cannot write a term paper from nothing. Once you have a general topic and an outline, you should start collecting your materials. Check out your library and inform yourself about the inter-library loan. Get acquainted with various scientific databases like JSTOR and ResearchGate – your university probably has wide access to many knowledge repositories you can use through an official VPN or library computers. Search by keywords and titles and save everything that sounds interesting. Learn to recognise important elements and ideas in those texts and be ready to use them to support your arguments.
  • Know when to stop, too. Sometimes you’ll find yourself deep in the excitement of learning something new, but there will come a point when you realise you’re ready to put what you’ve found into your own words. Set up an experiment, survey, or study and follow up on the results. In humanities, this may mean a closer analysis of selected texts. This is where you start writing – again, leave the introduction for later and jump right into the core of the work.
  • Mind the style. When writing a term paper, you need to keep certain standards up. Term papers are written in the ‘academic’ style and involve lots of passive voice, verbs of enlightenment (illustrate, examine, assess), and words marking cause-effect relationships. Don’t be afraid to use transition words to make your text and conclusions flow easily.
  • Cite properly! Oh, how I hated learning all the citation styles when I was just starting out, but once you do learn the ropes, it gets easier. It’s a bit of drudgery, but my advice is to write down your sources meticulously as you go along. As soon as you cite someone, make sure you add the full citation at the end of the text (I like having them in a separate document), and don’t forget in-text citations. Depending on what field you’re studying in, you will have different citation styles (like MLA, Chicago, APA) at your disposal – make sure you check the requirements for each course and consult the corresponding websites with guidelines.

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Don’t Forget about Term Paper Editing!

And there goes the last-minute churning of text and hitting send before passing out for the next two days. Writing a term paper at university should not be left for the last minute. If you’re a chronic procrastinator, it’s time to learn to organise your time and devote enough of it to your assignments.

When you’re done with writing, you should leave your paper alone for a few days – sleep on it, as they say. You can treat this distance like any good study break – it’ll help you clear your mind, prevent resentment towards the subject, and allow you to see it through new eyes. Before submitting, re-read your text carefully and edit the writing. Weed out spelling and grammatical errors and prune unnecessary examples or repetitive statements. A good way to do this is to change the font or even font size in your writing software – this engages your perception and makes spotting mistakes easier.

Editing is also the time to consider how your arguments are holding together and whether you need to add or replace some text and/or rearrange your points. It’s an extremely important part of the writing process, but you shouldn’t overdo it either. Perfectionism can get you into the editing spiral that usually leads to messing up parts that were initially good. A few re-reads are fine, but anything more and you might as well start to rewrite the whole thing.

The last question to consider is whether you are happy with your result. Remember, this is a term paper and you’re still learning, so nobody expects it to be perfect, but you should be satisfied with what you’ve accomplished.

The Key Takeaways of Writing a Term Paper

Writing a term paper is a longer commitment than a simple essay. To ensure your success, start well ahead of time or you might find yourself rushed and stressed .

  • Try to find a topic of personal interest to you.
  • Scribble an outline to work out your angle or general direction of the paper.
  • Read enough materials. Your library and online databases are your friends.
  • Form hypotheses and set up experiments or analyses.
  • Get down to business (and stop procrastinating !).
  • Don’t forget to edit the paper well and format it correctly.

Source: Danica Stojanovic, ‘Theatrical (Hyper)Reality: The Effects of Breaking Formal Boundaries in Every Brilliant Thing ’, Over The Horizon, London, 2020, pp. 81‑100.

term papers table of contents

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What is a term paper?

How do you write a term paper, how do you write a term paper proposal, how do you write a term paper outline, how long should a term paper be, how do you prepare a term paper, how do you write a conclusion for a term paper, how do you write a term paper introduction.

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How to Structure the Table of Contents for a Research Paper

How to Structure the Table of Contents for a Research Paper

4-minute read

  • 16th July 2023

So you’ve made it to the important step of writing the table of contents for your paper. Congratulations on making it this far! Whether you’re writing a research paper or a dissertation , the table of contents not only provides the reader with guidance on where to find the sections of your paper, but it also signals that a quality piece of research is to follow. Here, we will provide detailed instructions on how to structure the table of contents for your research paper.

Steps to Create a Table of Contents

  • Insert the table of contents after the title page.

Within the structure of your research paper , you should place the table of contents after the title page but before the introduction or the beginning of the content. If your research paper includes an abstract or an acknowledgements section , place the table of contents after it.

  • List all the paper’s sections and subsections in chronological order.

Depending on the complexity of your paper, this list will include chapters (first-level headings), chapter sections (second-level headings), and perhaps subsections (third-level headings). If you have a chapter outline , it will come in handy during this step. You should include the bibliography and all appendices in your table of contents. If you have more than a few charts and figures (more often the case in a dissertation than in a research paper), you should add them to a separate list of charts and figures that immediately follows the table of contents. (Check out our FAQs below for additional guidance on items that should not be in your table of contents.)

  • Paginate each section.

Label each section and subsection with the page number it begins on. Be sure to do a check after you’ve made your final edits to ensure that you don’t need to update the page numbers.

  • Format your table of contents.

The way you format your table of contents will depend on the style guide you use for the rest of your paper. For example, there are table of contents formatting guidelines for Turabian/Chicago and MLA styles, and although the APA recommends checking with your instructor for formatting instructions (always a good rule of thumb), you can also create a table of contents for a research paper that follows APA style .

  • Add hyperlinks if you like.

Depending on the word processing software you’re using, you may also be able to hyperlink the sections of your table of contents for easier navigation through your paper. (Instructions for this feature are available for both Microsoft Word and Google Docs .)

To summarize, the following steps will help you create a clear and concise table of contents to guide readers through your research paper:

1. Insert the table of contents after the title page.

2. List all the sections and subsections in chronological order.

3. Paginate each section.

4. Format the table of contents according to your style guide.

5. Add optional hyperlinks.

If you’d like help formatting and proofreading your research paper , check out some of our services. You can even submit a sample for free . Best of luck writing your research paper table of contents!

What is a table of contents?

A table of contents is a listing of each section of a document in chronological order, accompanied by the page number where the section begins. A table of contents gives the reader an overview of the contents of a document, as well as providing guidance on where to find each section.

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What should I include in my table of contents?

If your paper contains any of the following sections, they should be included in your table of contents:

●  Chapters, chapter sections, and subsections

●  Introduction

●  Conclusion

●  Appendices

●  Bibliography

Although recommendations may differ among institutions, you generally should not include the following in your table of contents:

●  Title page

●  Abstract

●  Acknowledgements

●  Forward or preface

If you have several charts, figures, or tables, consider creating a separate list for them that will immediately follow the table of contents. Also, you don’t need to include the table of contents itself in your table of contents.

Is there more than one way to format a table of contents?

Yes! In addition to following any recommendations from your instructor or institution, you should follow the stipulations of your style guide .

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How to Write a Term Paper

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A term paper is a research project written by students over an academic term, typically accounting for a significant part of a grade. It is intended to describe an event, a concept, or argue a point. The paper is usually original research involving a detailed study of a subject, requiring a considerable amount of preparation and effort.

The length and complexity of a term paper can vary but it's generally more comprehensive and detailed than regular academic essays. It usually includes an introduction, body, conclusion, and a bibliography citing the sources used.

Writing a term paper can be a piece of cake if you know how to properly structure it and where to begin. Browse this guide and learn how to write a term paper worth a A+.

Discover How to Write a Term Paper & What It Is

Students who earn Cs (70 per cent equivalent) do obtain degrees, but they barely get valuable, interesting job offers. Tell Granny to get ready with the magnets: we are about to start our amazing academic adventure! What is a term paper ? It is an effective method to increase the overall great point average and professional skills every student should not ignore. What is a term paper? Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines the word this way: “A major written assignment in a school/college course representative of a student's achievement during a semester.” No matter which is your personal answer to “what is a termpaper,” it is the last chance to fix the final course grade. There will be no other chance to improve the academic performance as it is the final assignment to pop up during the semester. The need to learn how to write a term paper appears closer to of the educational year’s finish; try to be ahead of your class by reviewing the steps to writing a term paper earlier! Or you can simply get the best term paper writing service .

Accepted Essay’s Format

How to write an outline for a term paper? Do not bother – have a look at the helpful guide prepared by the talented scholars to understand what the main parts of the good final projects are! Here are five main parts of this process. Please do not be confused with five paragraph essay. Term paper help can get your assignment written in half a day, by the way.

Brief (1/3 of A4 page) description of the written work. Wonder how to write an abstract ? Write down what the topic is, reasons to discuss it (how it is related to the core college discipline/major), and your results.


What is a termpaper without a powerful introduction? It does not make any sense; stick to the following checklist to avoid missing an important introduction element: 

  • Define the problem.
  • Include a literature review made of recent thoughts, findings, and approaches to the solution.
  • Is the chosen issue significant?
  • Write about the ways you plan to handle the existing problem.

Buy term papers online if that doesn't seem interesting for you at the moment. 

  • Explain the methods used to research corresponding sources plus the ways you selected the relevant data.
  • Describe the impression of the tool, relevance, and quality of the gathered information.
  • Write down the steps required to choose/utilize the information.

In this section, list the results of the experiment (trying to solve the problem) and the obstacles faced on the way while trying to answer every related question.

In the final part, the student is willing to do whatever they think is relevant. In personal words, it is important to explain what the findings mean, make a summary of the main points, draw some conclusions, & interpret the role of the findings in the context of the studied subject. The outline will prevent the student from falling off the topic, forgetting the next item in the line to discuss. Need some help with it? Call online academic writing services to allow them explain how to write a term paper by developing the most powerful essay!

“What Is a Term Paper?” on the Essay Examples

To understand a topic better, it is critical to have great examples in front of your nose. You may know how to write a term paper, having an idea of the outline, but choosing a good topic might be a challenge. A topic reflects the title, which is the face of your writing. Do not hope that your teachers/professors will give a list of great topics every time the end of the semester is closer. Modern instructors prefer to leave freedom of choice to their students. Many ways exist to help with the choice of topic:

  • Recent articles
  • Current news
  • Favorite literature
  • Movies & documentaries
  • Conferences

If you decide to pick one of the sources as your primary source of information, do not forget to cite the quotes. It is important to add a Reference list on the last page. The basic rule of choosing the appropriate topic is to have the one, which fulfills the purposes of the college course and is the subject of the student’s interest. It makes no sense to select the topic you do not know at the advanced level. It is important to understand the criteria of choosing a topic to realize how to write a term paper. In case your head goes spinning from all the new information, simply shop for custom written term papers and call it a day.

Selecting the Topic: Criteria

What length are you planning to handle? What is a termpaper regarding of volume? It is not a typical argumentative, narrative essay ; a project of this type is a lengthy document, which contains no less than 5-10 pages. If your teacher asks for the certain amount of words, leave the word count to your Microsoft Word app. If writing huge pieces does not inspire you, try to select narrower topics. Take into account the length and plan how many words you plan to include into each part. Resources: school, college, or community libraries are no longer the best places to look for the relevant information. The modern world offers high technologies! Go to the Internet, open Google, type whatever you wish to research, and you will get millions of results. Remember: every source requires a reference. These are the top resources that will help to write a great term paper: 

  • Class notes
  • Academic journals
  • Documentaries

The final page of your essay should contain a full Bibliography made of the cited sources. The last thing to think about is the complexity level. It is better to avoid topics you are not expert in; try choosing something you know from your personal experience & life examples, what can be explored in details. In case of any questions, professionals working in the field of your study may help. Teachers put extra credits to the works with interviews & surveys. Do not use primary sources only! Wish to learn how to write a history term paper, biology lab report , art movie review, capstone project , or how to write a dissertation in psychology? Buy a ready solution online!


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Everyone goes through a term paper. Whether you are a student of Business faculty or History, it is an essential writing assignment to complete during the semester. And if you are up to something more than just finishing high school, you need to befriend this type of assignment.

Why? According to recent studies, the student should have at least three publications from their work before graduation to become a strong Ph.D. candidate and ensure their future academic career is prone to get some substantial grants. Whereas another survey suggests, students who have tamed this beast boast of having the best job offerings among peers. Like it or not, a term paper is a path to success.

Let's break it into pieces to understand what is term paper proposal, why is it important, and what term paper format should look like?

Term Paper Basics: What Is Term Paper Format?

First things first – a college term paper is a scientific report of an assigned topic that is based on an extensive research. It shows students' technical writing expertise and, most importantly, in-depth knowledge of a specific course and subject.

The Importance of Term Paper

So, why do you need to nail term paper? As we have already pointed out, according to recent surveys, students with strong term paper profiles are more often being sought out for offers of employment. Though, that's not all. It is crucial for a student's academic career for such reasons as:

  • It carries enormous significance to the overall grade.
  • It makes a difference between passing or failing the class.
  • It compels students to sort out their thoughts on the subject, making things much more apparent.
  • It pushes students to practice their writing and editing skills.
  • It provides students with lots of new material and compels them to expand their knowledge and strengthen their academic background.
  • It levels up research skills.
  • It improves organizational skills that are crucial for communicating ideas and concepts. This quality is necessary for those who want to control their career path and get regular promotions at work.

Term Paper Format: The Definition

Term paper format is a set of writing style guidelines that students need to stick to when describing their research and results and expressing their arguments and findings during the process. There are four types: APA style (it is used in all sorts of disciplines), MLA style (it is another typical style native to various fields), Chicago Style (it is primarily used in History and occasionally in Science and Social Science), and Turabian Style (it is commonly used in Business and Fine Arts).

How to Ensure a Perfect Term Paper?

Our curated collection of samples term papers may provide everyone with some good insights on how to nail this task. Our collection is diverse, so chances are you will find the term paper example that fits your needs. However, do not get too comfortable. This is only half of the battle. To emerge victorious, it is crucial to understand the basics of this writing assignment. Let's consider it closely.

The Basics of a Term paper

Term paper consists of such vital sections:

  • The term paper cover page, also known as the term paper title page, is the front face of the writing assignment. It includes the student's name, the title of the paper, the professor's name, course name, and due date. Follow the instructions provided by your teacher and guides of the chosen style to make it fit the university's standards.
  • A table of contents. It lists main headings and subheadings to reveal the structure and information hierarchy of the document.
  • It describes work on one page and covers the main issue, the subject, and why it is vital for a student's career.
  • This section features a thesis or statement of the discussed topic or problem.
  • It is the most significant part that uncovers the topic. It includes the main points of the research, information about the problem, analysis of the research, and the author's conclusion.
  • This section is about the result of the research and how students' view has changed. It echoes with the introduction and conclusion.
  • Every writing assignment ends with a summary; the term paper is no exception. The discussion part is like conclusion: it sums up everything about the research including student's opinion and thoughts about the subject.

Professional Term Paper Outline Template – Where to Get One?

The term paper outline template is a great starting point, especially for first-year students who have never dealt with this assignment before. However, it is also beneficial for senior students. Having a representative example of term paper for college at hand helps undergraduates to kick-start their projects right away and lay the solid foundation to share research results and findings.

So, where to find one? You can surf the web; however, the most effective way is to peek inside our collection of free educational material. Along with free sample essay papers , it has many term paper samples.

Successful Term Paper: Tips and Best Practices

As we have already pointed out, our enormous database provides students with term paper help. Here you can find the term paper template that ideally fits your purpose. However, you cannot use it as it is. It can be only the base for your project. To make it work for you, follow these tips:

  • Pick a topic astutely. Choose a topic that is either difficult or unique. This allows you to find some interesting facts that may positively impact your instructor.
  • If the topic is assigned, make sure to read the instructions carefully. Identify the purpose of the paper.
  • Come up with a thesis statement that shows the exact idea and reflects the type of paper. Place it at the end of the introduction.
  • Start with research earlier. Discover auxiliary and essential sources for your research. Gather materials before creating a term paper outline. Search through credible resources such as books, peer-reviewed journals, and official websites of government or universities. Be careful with articles in journals and magazines since they may express the author's personal opinion.
  • Choose statements that are informative, directional, meaningful, and engaging.
  • Start each paragraph with the statement.
  • Create the first-level outline. After that, fill in subpoints and the second-level outline.
  • Include arguments and counter-arguments.
  • Cite your resources according to the chosen style.
  • Format bibliography.
  • Cover page,
  • Presentation;
  • Procedure area,
  • Discoveries;
  • Conversation;
  • Double-check everything and read the paper twice.
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Examples List on Term Paper

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Term Paper Structure Essentials: Main and Optional Parts

Everything You Need to Know About Term Paper Structure

Unlike essays and short assignments, term papers allow for a larger word count. Without a logical term paper structure, the writing can stray from the core points and become disjointed and incomprehensible. Besides, sticking to a deliberate outline makes the writing process easier and faster.

Therefore, the OrderTermPaper team has developed this guide to explain the writing process for you.

How to Structure a Term Paper

To make term paper writing more manageable, it helps to divide the paper into the essential and formatting parts. 

The essentials include the introduction, body, and conclusion. These hold the contents of your paper, core ideas, research methodology, and findings. Your professor will focus on these sections to gauge how well you understand the topic. 

Body sections are the most challenging to structure because the options are near limitless. Still, unless you’re working on a historical overview, the thematic structure is universally acceptable. Instead of discussing the issues as they appear chronologically or by source, you need to locate similar themes across several sources and set them in the order that makes sense. It helps to write out the core themes on post-it notes and shuffle them around until you find the proper order. If the transitions between points seem weird or disjointed, your structure needs more work. 

The formatting parts are only there to make your paper look nice and make it easier to assess for your professor and other potential readers. These are the parts of the structure of term paper like the title page, abstract, reference list, and table of contents. With the exception of the abstract, they do not hold much meaning, but they demonstrate your soft skills, including the ability to follow formatting requirements. The specifics of the formatting sections differ between schools and styles, so ask your professor which parts are obligatory and which can be eliminated. For example, some instructors allow students to skip the abstract and table of contents.

Term Paper Outline Example Structure

In the term paper structure example below, you’ll notice the typical sections, as well as a detailed outline of the body that includes four chapters, one of which holds three subchapters.

  • Table of contents
  • Introduction
  • The principles of EFL education at the secondary level
  • The implementation of film in secondary education
  • Transcultural education in the secondary EFL classroom
  • The analysis of using the film A Fond Kiss in the classroom
  • The beneficial characteristics of the film for secondary education
  • Transcultural education potential of the film
  • Classroom cases for using the film in the secondary classroom

How to Fill Out the Main Parts of a Term Paper

With the basics of how to structure a term paper out of the way, let’s discuss what each of them entails.

  • The title page is easy and takes no time at all. All you need is the paper title, your name, class, professor’s name, school, and year. Look up the formatting handbook to find a template for APA or MLA.
  • The abstract is a one-page summary of 150 to 250 words long. It should summarize the entirety of the term paper, including the research question, some background info, and the results achieved. The list of keywords is also a must.
  • The table of contents includes the chapter and subchapter names and page numbers. The formatting depends on the chosen style.
  • The term paper introduction takes up no more than 10% of the word count and introduces the topic of the term paper. The typical approach is opening with a broad discussion and narrowing it down to a specific research question.
  • The body is the most flexible section of the structure of a term paper. It can be structured chronologically, thematically, or methodologically. You can also employ the traditional research paper structure that includes literature review, methodology, and study results. Consult your professor if unsure which outline fits your term paper best.
  • The conclusion should take 5% to 10% of the word count. It usually restates the research question, highlights the core points of the body, and finishes with a strong parting thought or idea. You can also include the implications of the study, its limitations, drawbacks, or future research potential.
  • The term paper bibliography or reference list is an obligatory part of the term paper structure. It should include an alphabetized list of every source used throughout the paper formatted according to the required style. You can use automatic citation generators, but make sure they produce valid results that fit APA or MLA guidelines before you add the entries to your paper.
  • Appendices are an optional part of the term paper. You can include any additional or supplemental data necessary for understanding the paper that does not fit the narrative flow. Remember to name and assign letters to each appendix and include them in the table of contents.

What are the main parts that should be included in term paper?

Your professor or department should indicate the specifics of the term paper structure in the prompt. However, most term papers will include seven main parts: title page, abstract, table of contents, introduction, body, conclusion, and reference list. 

How to structure a table of contents for a term paper?

The specific layout and requirements depend on the required formatting style. But you must include exact chapter and subchapter names and starting pages. Chapter numbers, idents, periods, and dot leaders are optional. If you use the heading styles correctly, most word processing software can automatically generate the table of contents.

When should you add titles to parts of your term paper?

APA, MLA, and other formatting styles allow for several levels of headings. You can use them to divide the term paper into logical sections. For example, the body may include a literature review, background information, historical overview, research methodology, results, and discussion subchapters.


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Home » Table of Contents – Types, Formats, Examples

Table of Contents – Types, Formats, Examples

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Table of contents (TOC) is a list of the headings or sections in a document or book, arranged in the order in which they appear. It serves as a roadmap or guide to the contents of the document, allowing readers to quickly find specific information they are looking for.

A typical table of contents includes chapter titles, section headings, subheadings, and their corresponding page numbers.

The table of contents is usually located at the beginning of the document or book, after the title page and any front matter, such as a preface or introduction.

Table of Contents in Research

In Research, A Table of Contents (TOC) is a structured list of the main sections or chapters of a research paper , Thesis and Dissertation . It provides readers with an overview of the organization and structure of the document, allowing them to quickly locate specific information and navigate through the document.

Importance of Table of Contents

Here are some reasons why a TOC is important:

  • Navigation : It serves as a roadmap that helps readers navigate the document easily. By providing a clear and concise overview of the contents, readers can quickly locate the section they need to read without having to search through the entire document.
  • Organization : A well-structured TOC reflects the organization of the document. It helps to organize the content logically and categorize it into easily digestible chunks, which makes it easier for readers to understand and follow.
  • Clarity : It can help to clarify the document’s purpose, scope, and structure. It provides an overview of the document’s main topics and subtopics, which can help readers to understand the content’s overall message.
  • Efficiency : This can save readers time and effort by allowing them to skip to the section they need to read, rather than having to go through the entire document.
  • Professionalism : Including a Table of Contents in a document shows that the author has taken the time and effort to organize the content properly. It adds a level of professionalism and credibility to the document.

Types of Table of Contents

There are different types of table of contents depending on the purpose and structure of the document. Here are some examples:

Simple Table of Contents

This is a basic table of contents that lists the major sections or chapters of a document along with their corresponding page numbers.

Example: Table of Contents

I. Introduction …………………………………………. 1

II. Literature Review ………………………………… 3

III. Methodology ……………………………………… 6

IV. Results …………………………………………….. 9

V. Discussion …………………………………………. 12

VI. Conclusion ……………………………………….. 15

Expanded Table of Contents

This type of table of contents provides more detailed information about the contents of each section or chapter, including subsections and subheadings.

A. Background …………………………………….. 1

B. Problem Statement ………………………….. 2

C. Research Questions ……………………….. 3

II. Literature Review ………………………………… 5

A. Theoretical Framework …………………… 5

B. Previous Research ………………………….. 6

C. Gaps and Limitations ……………………… 8 I

II. Methodology ……………………………………… 11

A. Research Design ……………………………. 11

B. Data Collection …………………………….. 12

C. Data Analysis ……………………………….. 13

IV. Results …………………………………………….. 15

A. Descriptive Statistics ……………………… 15

B. Hypothesis Testing …………………………. 17

V. Discussion …………………………………………. 20

A. Interpretation of Findings ……………… 20

B. Implications for Practice ………………… 22

VI. Conclusion ……………………………………….. 25

A. Summary of Findings ……………………… 25

B. Contributions and Recommendations ….. 27

Graphic Table of Contents

This type of table of contents uses visual aids, such as icons or images, to represent the different sections or chapters of a document.

I. Introduction …………………………………………. [image of a light bulb]

II. Literature Review ………………………………… [image of a book]

III. Methodology ……………………………………… [image of a microscope]

IV. Results …………………………………………….. [image of a graph]

V. Discussion …………………………………………. [image of a conversation bubble]

Alphabetical Table of Contents

This type of table of contents lists the different topics or keywords in alphabetical order, along with their corresponding page numbers.

A. Abstract ……………………………………………… 1

B. Background …………………………………………. 3

C. Conclusion …………………………………………. 10

D. Data Analysis …………………………………….. 8

E. Ethics ……………………………………………….. 6

F. Findings ……………………………………………… 7

G. Introduction ……………………………………….. 1

H. Hypothesis ………………………………………….. 5

I. Literature Review ………………………………… 2

J. Methodology ……………………………………… 4

K. Limitations …………………………………………. 9

L. Results ………………………………………………… 7

M. Discussion …………………………………………. 10

Hierarchical Table of Contents

This type of table of contents displays the different levels of headings and subheadings in a hierarchical order, indicating the relative importance and relationship between the different sections.

    A. Background …………………………………….. 2

      B. Purpose of the Study ……………………….. 3

      A. Theoretical Framework …………………… 5

             1. Concept A ……………………………….. 6

                    a. Definition ………………………….. 6

                     b. Example ……………………………. 7

              2. Concept B ……………………………….. 8

       B. Previous Research ………………………….. 9

III. Methodology ……………………………………… 12

       A. Research Design ……………………………. 12

             1. Sample ……………………………………. 13

               2. Procedure ………………………………. 14

       B. Data Collection …………………………….. 15

            1. Instrumentation ……………………….. 16

            2. Validity and Reliability ………………. 17

       C. Data Analysis ……………………………….. 18

          1. Descriptive Statistics …………………… 19

           2. Inferential Statistics ………………….. 20

IV. Result s …………………………………………….. 22

    A. Overview of Findings ……………………… 22

B. Hypothesis Testing …………………………. 23

V. Discussion …………………………………………. 26

A. Interpretation of Findings ………………… 26

B. Implications for Practice ………………… 28

VI. Conclusion ……………………………………….. 31

A. Summary of Findings ……………………… 31

B. Contributions and Recommendations ….. 33

Table of Contents Format

Here’s an example format for a Table of Contents:

I. Introduction

C. Methodology

II. Background

A. Historical Context

B. Literature Review

III. Methodology

A. Research Design

B. Data Collection

C. Data Analysis

IV. Results

A. Descriptive Statistics

B. Inferential Statistics

C. Qualitative Findings

V. Discussion

A. Interpretation of Results

B. Implications for Practice

C. Limitations and Future Research

VI. Conclusion

A. Summary of Findings

B. Contributions to the Field

C. Final Remarks

VII. References

VIII. Appendices

Note : This is just an example format and can vary depending on the type of document or research paper you are writing.

When to use Table of Contents

A TOC can be particularly useful in the following cases:

  • Lengthy documents : If the document is lengthy, with several sections and subsections, a Table of contents can help readers quickly navigate the document and find the relevant information.
  • Complex documents: If the document is complex, with multiple topics or themes, a TOC can help readers understand the relationships between the different sections and how they are connected.
  • Technical documents: If the document is technical, with a lot of jargon or specialized terminology, This can help readers understand the organization of the document and locate the information they need.
  • Legal documents: If the document is a legal document, such as a contract or a legal brief, It helps readers quickly locate specific sections or provisions.

How to Make a Table of Contents

Here are the steps to create a table of contents:

  • Organize your document: Before you start making a table of contents, organize your document into sections and subsections. Each section should have a clear and descriptive heading that summarizes the content.
  • Add heading styles : Use the heading styles in your word processor to format the headings in your document. The heading styles are usually named Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3, and so on. Apply the appropriate heading style to each section heading in your document.
  • Insert a table of contents: Once you’ve added headings to your document, you can insert a table of contents. In Microsoft Word, go to the References tab, click on Table of Contents, and choose a style from the list. The table of contents will be inserted into your document.
  • Update the table of contents: If you make changes to your document, such as adding or deleting sections, you’ll need to update the table of contents. In Microsoft Word, right-click on the table of contents and select Update Field. Choose whether you want to update the page numbers or the entire table, and click OK.

Purpose of Table of Contents

A table of contents (TOC) serves several purposes, including:

  • Marketing : It can be used as a marketing tool to entice readers to read a book or document. By highlighting the most interesting or compelling sections, a TOC can give readers a preview of what’s to come and encourage them to dive deeper into the content.
  • Accessibility : A TOC can make a document or book more accessible to people with disabilities, such as those who use screen readers or other assistive technologies. By providing a clear and organized overview of the content, a TOC can help these readers navigate the material more easily.
  • Collaboration : This can be used as a collaboration tool to help multiple authors or editors work together on a document or book. By providing a shared framework for organizing the content, a TOC can help ensure that everyone is on the same page and working towards the same goals.
  • Reference : It can serve as a reference tool for readers who need to revisit specific sections of a document or book. By providing a clear overview of the content and organization, a TOC can help readers quickly locate the information they need, even if they don’t remember exactly where it was located.

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Essays and Term Papers


When you are first faced with the task of writing a long essay or term paper it can be intimidating, but you make your job and the reader’s job much easier by following some basic rules of thumb. Of course, if your professors offer you any specific guidelines about writing be sure to follow those first. Otherwise, incorporate the advice that follows into your papers wherever appropriate.

Here are some excellent websites for further advice about writing term papers:

"Term Paper Guidelines" article from Lock Haven University

"How to Write Academic Term Papers" article from theuniversitypapers.com

Of course, papers should always be typed, double-spaced on 8-1/2 x 11 paper on one side of the page only, and letter-quality print or better is always expected. Often you are expected to supply a cover sheet giving the date, your name, the title of the paper, the class, and the professor’s name. Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively throughout the text, and if there are a good number of them, then separate lists of tables and figures at the beginning of the paper may be expected. Tables and figures should always have descriptive captions, and if they come directly from sources, the sources must be specifically credited in the captions with the same citation style that you use throughout the paper.

A paper’s title should be succinct and definitive, individual and informational. Clearly, the title "An Overview of the Hydraulic Fracturing of Methane-Bearing Coal Formations" is more complete, satisfying, and informative than "Hydraulic Fracturing." The title is important because it announces the paper’s specific content and typically serves as a pathway to the paper’s thesis.


Your introduction is your opportunity to be at your most individual. You should get your reader’s attention immediately by announcing the paper’s subject or by launching into a relevant scenario or narrative that informs or illustrates your overall argument. A paper illustrating the costly effects of poor mine design, for instance, might open with the scenario of how a poorly designed pillar at a salt mine in Louisiana once collapsed, fracturing the surface above and draining an entire lake into the mine. A paper on the supply and demand of nickel might begin by straightforwardly announcing that the paper will explain the uses of nickel, detail its market structure, and use data to forecast the future supply and demand of the metal.

In brief, a paper’s introduction should define and limit the paper’s scope and purpose, indicate some sense of organization, and, whenever possible, suggest an overall argument. Another important principle in technical writing is that the introduction should be problem-focused, giving the reader enough background so that the paper’s importance and relationship to key ideas are clear. A rule of thumb about the introduction’s length: about 5-10% of the entire paper.

As examples of how creative an introduction can be, here are the opening lines from a geography paper and a paper on optics, both of which use narrative technique to arouse our interest. Note how the first excerpt uses an "I" narrator comfortably while the second excerpt does not use "I" even though the writer is clearly reflective about the subject matter. The first excerpt is from a paper on the generic nature of America’s highway exit ramp services; the second is from a paper on shape constancy.

The observation struck me slowly, a growing sense of déjà vu. I was driving the endless miles of Interstate 70 crossing Kansas when I began to notice that the exits all looked the same. . . . Our eyes often receive pictures of the world that are contrary to physical reality. A pencil in a glass of water miraculously bends; railroad tracks converge in the distance. . . .

Thesis Statement / Objective

Most papers have outright thesis statements or objectives. Normally you will not devote a separate section of the paper to this; in fact, often the thesis or objective is conveniently located either right at the beginning or right at the end of the Introduction. A good thesis statement fits only the paper in which it appears. Thesis statements usually forecast the paper’s content, present the paper’s fundamental hypothesis, or even suggest that the paper is an argument for a particular way of thinking about a topic. Avoid the purely mechanical act of writing statements like "The first topic covered in this paper is x. The second topic covered is y. The third topic is . . ." Instead, concretely announce the most important elements of your topic and suggest your fundamental approach—even point us toward the paper’s conclusion if you can. Here are two carefully focused and thoughtfully worded thesis statements, both of which appeared at the ends of introductory paragraphs:

This paper reviews the problem of Pennsylvania’s dwindling landfill space, evaluates the success of recycling as a solution to this problem, and challenges the assumption that Pennsylvania will run out of landfill space by the year 2020.
As this paper will show, the fundamental problem behind the Arab-Israeli conflict is the lack of a workable solution to the third stage of partition, which greatly hinders the current negotiations for peace.

From the flat state of Indiana, here are two pages on how to write sound thesis statements:

"How to Write a Thesis Statement" article from Indiana University, Bloomington

"Tips and Examples for Writing a Thesis Statement" article from Purdue's Online Writing Lab (OWL)

Body Paragraphs / Section Headings

Never simply label the middle bulk of the paper as "Body" and then lump a bunch of information into one big section. Instead, organize the body of your paper into sections by using an overarching principle that supports your thesis, even if that simply means presenting four different methods for solving some problem one method at a time. Normally you are allowed and encouraged to use section headings to help both yourself and the reader follow the flow of the paper. Always word your section headings clearly, and do not stray from the subject that you have identified within a section.

As examples, I offer two sets of section headings taken from essays. The first is from Dr. Craig Bohren’s "Understanding Colors in Nature" (1), which appeared in a 1990 edition of Earth & Mineral Sciences ; the second is from a student’s paper on the supply and demand of asbestos.

Section Headings From "Understanding Colors In Nature"

  • Color By Scattering: The Role of Particle Size
  • Color By Scattering: The Positions of Source and Observer
  • The Blue Sky: The Role of Multiple Scattering
  • Color By Absorption in Multiple-Scattering Media
  • Color by Absorption: Microscopic Mechanisms are Sometimes Elusive

Section Headings From "Asbestos: Supply and Demand"

  • Industry Structure
  • The Mining and Properties of Asbestos
  • World Resources and Reserves
  • Byproducts and Co-products
  • Economic Factors and Supply and Demand Problems
  • Uses of and Substitutes for Asbestos
  • The Issue of Health on Supply and Demand

Just by considering the section headings in the above examples, we can begin to see the fundamental structures and directions of the essays, because both sets of headings break the paper topic into its natural parts and suggest some sort of a movement forward through a topic. Note how these headings—as all section headings should—tell us the story of the paper and are worded just as carefully as any title should be.

Most importantly, then, you must use your section headings in the same way that you use topic sentences or thesis statements: to control, limit, and organize your thinking for your reader’s sake.

Most papers use "Conclusion" as a heading for the final section of the text, although there are times when headings such as "Future Trends" will serve equally well for a paper’s closing section. When you are stuck for a conclusion, look back at your introduction; see if you can freshly reemphasize your objectives by outlining how they were met, or even revisit an opening scenario from the introduction in a new light to illustrate how the paper has brought about change. Your conclusion should not be a summary of the paper or a simple tacked-on ending, but a significant and logical realization of the paper’s goals.

Beware of the temptation to open your final paragraph with "In conclusion," or "In summary," and then summarize the paper. Instead, let your entire conclusion stand as a graceful termination of an argument. As you write your conclusion, concentrate on presenting the bottom line, and think of the word’s definition: a conclusion is an articulated conviction arrived at on the basis of the evidence you have presented.

What follows is an excerpt from a conclusion to a paper entitled "Exercise in the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis in Women." Note how the conclusion reflects directly on the paper’s hypothesis and spells out the bottom line, gracefully bringing closure to the paper’s argument:

The majority of evidence presented in this paper supports the hypothesis that exercise positively affects bone mineral density in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Significantly, exercise has been shown to increase bone mineral density in premenopausal women even after the teenage years, and it helps preserve the bone mass achieved in the following decades. There is also evidence that exercise adds a modest, yet significant amount of bone mass to the postmenopausal skeleton. As these findings demonstrate, women of all ages can benefit by regular weight-bearing exercise, an increased intake of calcium-rich foods, and—for postmenopausal women—the maintenance of adequate estrogen levels. For all women, it is never too late to prevent osteoporosis or lessen its severity by making appropriate lifestyle choices.

Any sources cited must be correctly listed on a References page using the Author-Year or Number system (see Chapter 5 of this handbook).


Term Paper Outline: The Main Components Of A Term Paper

  • Author Sandra W.

Different courses will have different requirements for writing a term paper. Therefore, you need to look for the style guide given by your lecturer and comply with it.

However, if no specific outline or guideline has been given to you, you can follow this basic outline, which contains all the principles and elements for a proper term paper.

A term paper will have four three main sections:

  • Preliminaries
  • The body or Text
  • Reference Page

1.0. Preliminaries In APA Format

The preliminaries refers to all the content that appears at the beginning of the paper.

These includes:

1.1. Title Page

A title page contains:

  • The title of your paper
  • Your name and student number
  • The course name and code,
  • The instructor’s name
  • The due date

1.2. Abstract

An abstract is a brief summary of the main ideas of your term paper usually in about 100 to 200 words.

  • The main elements of an abstract are as follows:
  • A short statement of your research nature or subject
  • A brief description of your general theoretical approach and research methods
  • A short summary of your main arguments and research findings
  • In an APA paper, the abstract should be written in a page of its own

1.3. Table of Contents

A table of contents for a term paper provides an analytical outline of your paper with the sequence of your presentation.

A table of contents for a term paper should list out:

  • The heading of every division of the term paper
  • The subheadings of every subsection within the divisions (if any)
  • Page number for every division and subsection of the term paper

2.0. Guidelines for Writing the Body of a Term Paper

2.1. Introduction

An introduction should be an interesting opening to show the main theme and specific topics of your term paper.

The main elements that must be in the introduction include:

  • A concise and complete statement of your research question or the general purpose of your term paper.
  • A justification for your study  or the significance of the topic of your term paper
  • A background to your research question and a review of the relevant literature on it (literature review)
  • A brief statement of the sources of data, the procedure or methods of analysis (methodology)
  • A preview of the organization of the paper

2.2. Literature review

A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a specific topic or research question.

The basic components of a literature review include:

  • A description of the publication;
  • A summary of the publication’s main points;
  • A discussion of gaps in research;
  • An evaluation of the publication’s contribution to the topic of the term paper.

2.3. Methods

  • How did you search for information or data on the topic?
  • What is your impression of the utility, relevance, or quality of the data you collected?
  • What special steps did you take to select or utilize the data?

2.4. Results

  • What are your findings?
  • Are their problems with your findings in terms of answering the questions posed in the introduction?

2.5. Discussion

  • What do your observations mean?
  • Summarize the most important findings.
  • What conclusions can you draw?
  • How do your results fit into a broader context?

2.6. Conclusion

A conclusion should provide a firm ending of what you have discussed in the paper and, preferably, further to reach a judgment, to endorse one side of an issue, or to offer directives.

A good conclusion usually contains:

  • A recapitulation of the main findings or main themes  
  • Statements about the specific values or alternative insights of your paper for understanding the subject matter
  • Indications of the important relevance to the current circumstance or future possibility
  • Suggestions for policy in points to your findings

3.0. Guidelines for Reference Page

Different institutions have different styles of documentation. If no referencing style is requested, you should choose one and use it consistently in your paper. American Psychological Association (APA system) is the most common type of referencing system used in term papers.

Here is how to use it for various types of works:

1. Book reference

Author’s name. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher

2. A chapter or an article in an edited book

Author’s name. (Year). Title of chapter or article. In Editor’s name (Ed.), Title of book (page numbers). Location: Publisher.

3. Periodical (e.g., journal articles)

Author’s name. (Year). Title of article . Title of periodical , Volume Number, Page.

3. Daily newspaper report or article

Heading of the report or the article. (Year, month and date). Title of the newspaper, page.  

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  • Dissertation Table of Contents in Word | Instructions & Examples

Dissertation Table of Contents in Word | Instructions & Examples

Published on May 15, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on July 18, 2023.

The table of contents is where you list the chapters and major sections of your thesis, dissertation , or research paper, alongside their page numbers. A clear and well-formatted table of contents is essential, as it demonstrates to your reader that a quality paper will follow.

The table of contents (TOC) should be placed between the abstract and the introduction . The maximum length should be two pages. Depending on the nature of your thesis , paper, or dissertation topic , there are a few formatting options you can choose from.

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Table of contents

What to include in your table of contents, what not to include in your table of contents, creating a table of contents in microsoft word, table of contents examples, updating a table of contents in microsoft word, other lists in your thesis, dissertation, or research paper, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about the table of contents.

Depending on the length of your document, you can choose between a single-level, subdivided, or multi-level table of contents.

  • A single-level table of contents only includes “level 1” headings , or chapters. This is the simplest option, but it may be too broad for a long document like a dissertation.
  • A subdivided table of contents includes chapters as well as “level 2” headings, or sections. These show your reader what each chapter contains.
  • A multi-level table of contents also further divides sections into “level 3” headings. This option can get messy quickly, so proceed with caution. Remember your table of contents should not be longer than 2 pages. A multi-level table is often a good choice for a shorter document like a research paper .

Examples of level 1 headings are Introduction, Literature Review , Methodology , and Bibliography. Subsections of each of these would be level 2 headings, further describing the contents of each chapter or large section. Any further subsections would be level 3.

In these introductory sections, less is often more. As you decide which sections to include, narrow it down to only the most essential.

Including appendices and tables

You should include all appendices in your table of contents. Whether or not you include tables and figures depends largely on how many there are in your document.

If there are more than three figures and tables, you might consider listing them on a separate page. Otherwise, you can include each one in the table of contents.

  • Theses and dissertations often have a separate list of figures and tables.
  • Research papers generally don’t have a separate list of figures and tables.

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All level 1 and level 2 headings should be included in your table of contents, with level 3 headings used very sparingly.

The following things should never be included in a table of contents:

  • Your acknowledgements page
  • Your abstract
  • The table of contents itself

The acknowledgements and abstract always precede the table of contents, so there’s no need to include them. This goes for any sections that precede the table of contents.

To automatically insert a table of contents in Microsoft Word, be sure to first apply the correct heading styles throughout the document, as shown below.

  • Choose which headings are heading 1 and which are heading 2 (or 3)!
  • For example, if all level 1 headings should be Times New Roman, 12-point font, and bold, add this formatting to the first level 1 heading.
  • Highlight the level 1 heading.
  • Right-click the style that says “Heading 1.”
  • Select “Update Heading 1 to Match Selection.”
  • Allocate the formatting for each heading throughout your document by highlighting the heading in question and clicking the style you wish to apply.

Once that’s all set, follow these steps:

  • Add a title to your table of contents. Be sure to check if your citation style or university has guidelines for this.
  • Place your cursor where you would like your table of contents to go.
  • In the “References” section at the top, locate the Table of Contents group.
  • Here, you can select which levels of headings you would like to include. You can also make manual adjustments to each level by clicking the Modify button.
  • When you are ready to insert the table of contents, click “OK” and it will be automatically generated, as shown below.

Table of contents example

The key features of a table of contents are:

  • Clear headings and subheadings
  • Corresponding page numbers

Check with your educational institution to see if they have any specific formatting or design requirements.

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Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

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term papers table of contents

Write yourself a reminder to update your table of contents as one of your final tasks before submitting your dissertation or paper. It’s normal for your text to shift a bit as you input your final edits, and it’s crucial that your page numbers correspond correctly.

It’s easy to update your page numbers automatically in Microsoft Word. Simply right-click the table of contents and select “Update Field.” You can choose either to update page numbers only or to update all information in your table of contents.

In addition to a table of contents, you might also want to include a list of figures and tables, a list of abbreviations, and a glossary in your thesis or dissertation. You can use the following guides to do so:

  • List of figures and tables
  • List of abbreviations

It is less common to include these lists in a research paper.

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All level 1 and 2 headings should be included in your table of contents . That means the titles of your chapters and the main sections within them.

The contents should also include all appendices and the lists of tables and figures, if applicable, as well as your reference list .

Do not include the acknowledgements or abstract in the table of contents.

To automatically insert a table of contents in Microsoft Word, follow these steps:

  • Apply heading styles throughout the document.
  • In the references section in the ribbon, locate the Table of Contents group.
  • Click the arrow next to the Table of Contents icon and select Custom Table of Contents.
  • Select which levels of headings you would like to include in the table of contents.

Make sure to update your table of contents if you move text or change headings. To update, simply right click and select Update Field.

The table of contents in a thesis or dissertation always goes between your abstract and your introduction .

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What are Term Papers: A Comprehensive Guide for Success

term papers table of contents

You have to deal with various assignments when you're a college or university student. These assignments are essential for gaining new knowledge, abilities, and experiences. While some activities may be rather simple, others may require much time and effort. Nevertheless, you should push yourself because it is the phase when you're improving yourself and becoming better. Your professor may use different strategies to test your knowledge, and writing is one of them. It is not too challenging when it comes to standard essay writing. However, the majority of students are afraid of writing term papers. It is a large essay that summarizes all the material you studied for the semester. Term paper writing is a difficult task. We don't want to sugarcoat it. Moreover, you've come to the perfect site if you don't know how to compose college or university term papers.

In this blog, our experts who help students with their ' write my term paper ' requests will discuss what is a term paper and how to write a term paper. Continue reading!

What is a term paper?

A term paper is a research project that a lecturer assigns to students at the end of a semester or academic year. Writing a term paper aims mainly to examine the student's understanding of what was covered and what lessons have been learned. A well-organized term paper requires you to perform thorough research and deliver results in a clear and analytical manner. Term papers contribute significantly to a subject's overall grade.

How to Write a Term Paper: 7 Simple Steps

Before writing a term paper, always keep in mind the instructions provided to you. If you have any issues in understanding the instructions, don't hesitate to ask your professor. Moreover, if you want to compose a top-notch term paper and secure an excellent grade, then plan ahead and allocate dedicated time each day to work on it. Here are some necessary steps that one must take to write a term paper.

Topic selection

The first step in term paper writing is to select a topic relating to what you have learned throughout the semester. Sometimes, instructors assign topics themselves. To select the best topic for term paper writing, gather ideas by exploring the web, articles, news, and magazines. Moreover, it's important to select a topic that aligns with your course objective and genuinely interests you. The research and writing processes are more enjoyable and natural when a topic piques your interest.

After selecting a topic, conduct thorough research to gather information and sources related to your topic. This helps make your term paper strong so your arguments are well-supported and convincing. 

Thesis Statement

Make a thesis statement that concisely summarizes your paper's core argument or objective. A good thesis statement clearly tells everyone what your paper is about and why you're writing it. You can set the direction of your paper with the help of the thesis. The structure and content of your term paper should be driven by your thesis.

Term paper outline

An essential step in the writing process that needs more focus is the outline. Make an outline that groups the key ideas and supporting details of your term paper. This will serve as a guide for your assignment. Additionally, you can write faster as a result. A term paper outline guarantees that your arguments are presented clearly and coherently. 

Start Writing

When writing your first draft, include citations for each of your main points. Keep in mind that your first draft doesn't have to be perfect. Put all of your effort into writing down your ideas. In later drafts, you'll have the chance to edit and polish your work.

Proofreading & editing

Check your term papers for clarity, punctuation, grammar, and spelling mistakes. Don't rely on tools alone. Proofreading & editing are vital to guarantee that your paper is polished and delivers your ideas properly.

Follow the formatting guidelines provided by your professor. This can include font size, margin, line spacing, and other formatting components, as well as citation formats like APA and MLA.

Give Your Paper Final Review

Give your term paper a final look to check that all components are in place and that the document flows logically from start to end.

☑️Reading suggestion: How to write a Research Paper in APA Format

Importance of Term Paper

A term paper is a crucial component in evaluating the final grade of the student. Moreover, it is important for students to keep up with their education. When deadlines are looming and you're feeling overwhelmed, seeking help to ' write my college paper ' can be a game-changer.

✔️Clear Goals

Students can understand the importance of their studies with the help of assignments. In addition, assignments assist the students in achieving their academic goals. In order to give direction to their thoughts and actions, students should determine the course objectives. Term papers have defined objectives and deadlines. Having clear goals and a time frame to achieve them can motivate the students to stay on track and manage timelines. This clarity of purpose is essential not only for term papers but also for other coursework .


Students need motivation to do well. Without a plan and motivation, they can't achieve their goals. In education, this is not a good way to go. When students are allowed to choose a topic, they are more likely to be motivated. A personal connection to the topic can pique interest. Writing term papers is a chance for students to show what they can do.

✔️Overcoming the challenges of advanced lessons

Some students may not be able to grasp and keep up with depth understanding due to the difficulty of some advanced topics. Writing numerous term papers may help a student get beyond difficult academic challenges and find motivation to learn more about these curricular topics. To avoid the pressure and time required to compose term papers, you should think about hiring an essay writer.

✔️Finding out the interest

One of the most challenging tasks a student will undertake during their academic career is determining their areas of interest. Students learn about their interests and how to pursue them through the many term papers they do. The students can choose their topic, and they will determine the approach based on their skill level.

Still Struggling With Term Paper Writing?

We here at Nerdpapers, which is a write my essay for me service, understand the struggles of academic learning. Sometimes, being a student, you simply do not have the time to deal with a specific paper style. American college graduates who have extensive knowledge in a range of topics and styles make up our team of qualified term paper writers. They've been dealing with the challenge of impressing college teachers for years and have all learned their secret golden recipe. 

Table of Contents

Persuasive essay topics – how to choose one for you, how to write a persuasive essay- expert tips.

term papers table of contents

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Federalist Papers: Primary Documents in American History

Full text of the federalist papers.

  • Introduction
  • Federalist Nos. 1-10
  • Federalist Nos. 11-20
  • Federalist Nos. 21-30
  • Federalist Nos. 31-40
  • Federalist Nos. 41-50
  • Federalist Nos. 51-60
  • Federalist Nos. 61-70
  • Federalist Nos. 71-80
  • Federalist Nos. 81-85
  • Related Digital Resources
  • External Websites
  • Print Resources

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The Federalist , commonly referred to as the Federalist Papers, is a series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison between October 1787 and May 1788. The essays were published anonymously, under the pen name "Publius," in various New York state newspapers of the time.

The Federalist Papers were written and published to urge New Yorkers to ratify the proposed United States Constitution, which was drafted in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787. In lobbying for adoption of the Constitution over the existing Articles of Confederation, the essays explain particular provisions of the Constitution in detail. For this reason, and because Hamilton and Madison were each members of the Constitutional Convention, the Federalist Papers are often used today to help interpret the intentions of those drafting the Constitution.

The Federalist Papers were published primarily in two New York state newspapers: The New York Packet and The Independent Journal . They were reprinted in other newspapers in New York state and in several cities in other states. A bound edition, with revisions and corrections by Hamilton, was published in 1788 by printers J. and A. McLean. An edition published by printer Jacob Gideon in 1818, with revisions and corrections by Madison, was the first to identify each essay by its author's name. Because of its publishing history, the assignment of authorship, numbering, and exact wording may vary with different editions of The Federalist .

The electronic text of The Federalist used here was compiled for Project Gutenberg by scholars who drew on many available versions of the papers.

One printed edition of the text is The Federalist , edited by Jacob E. Cooke (Middletown, Conn., Wesleyan University Press, 1961). Cooke's introduction provides background information on the printing history of The Federalist; the information provided above comes in part from his work.

This web-friendly presentation of the original text of the Federalist Papers (also known as The Federalist) was obtained from the e-text archives of Project Gutenberg. Any irregularities with regard to grammar, syntax, spelling, or punctuation are as they exist in the original e-text archives.

Table of Contents

No. Title Author Publication Date
1. Hamilton For the --
2. Jay For the --
3. Jay For the --
4. Jay For the --
5. Jay For the --
6. Hamilton For the --
7. Hamilton For the --
8. Hamilton From the Tuesday, November 20, 1787
9. Hamilton For the --
10. Madison Frm the Friday, November 27, 1787
11. Hamilton For the --
12. Hamilton From the Tuesday, November 27, 1787
13. Hamilton For the --
14. Madison From the Friday, November 30, 1787
15.  Hamilton For the --
16. Hamilton From the Tuesday, December 4, 1787
17.  Hamilton For the --
18. Hamilton and Madison For the --
19. Hamilton and Madison For the --
20. Hamilton and Madison From the Tuesday, December 11, 1787
21. Hamilton For the --
22. Hamilton From the Friday, December 14, 1787
23. Hamilton From the Tuesday, December 17, 1787
24. Hamilton For the --
25. Hamilton From the Friday, December 21, 1787
26. Hamilton For the --
27. Hamilton From the Tuesday, December 25, 1787
28.  Hamilton For the --
29. Hamilton From the Thursday, January 10, 1788
30. Hamilton From the Friday, December 28, 1787
31. Hamilton From the Tuesday, January 1, 1788
32. Hamilton From the Thursday, January 3, 1788
33. Hamilton From the Thursday, January 3, 1788
34. Hamilton From the Friday, January 4, 1788
35. Hamilton For the --
36. Hamilton From the Tuesday, January 8, 1788
37. Madison From the Friday, January 11, 1788
38.  Madison From the Tuesday, January 15, 1788
39.  Madison For the --
40. Madison From the Friday, January 18, 1788
41. Madison For the --
42. Madison From the Tuesday, January 22, 1788
43. Madison For the --
44. Madison From the Friday, January 25, 1788
45. Madison For the --
46.  Madison From the Tuesday, January 29, 1788
47. Madison From the Friday, February 1, 1788
48. Madison From the Friday, February 1, 1788
49. Hamilton or Madison From the Tuesday, February 5, 1788
50. Hamilton or Madison From the Tuesday, February 5, 1788
51. Hamilton or Madison From the Friday, February 8, 1788
52.  Hamilton or Madison From the Friday, February 8, 1788
53. Hamilton or Madison From the Tuesday, February 12, 1788
54. Hamilton or Madison From the Tuesday, February 12, 1788
55.  Hamilton or Madison From the Friday, February 15, 1788
56. Hamilton or Madison From the Tuesday, February 19, 1788
57. Hamilton or Madison From the Tuesday, February 19, 1788
58. Madison -- --
59. Hamilton From the Friday, February 22, 1788
60. Hamilton From the Tuesday, February 26, 1788
61. Hamilton From the Tuesday, February 26, 1788
62.  Hamilton or Madison For the --
63. Hamilton or Madison For the --
64. Jay From the Friday, March 7, 1788
65. Hamilton From the Friday, March 7, 1788
66.  Hamilton From the Tuesday, March 11, 1788
67.  Hamilton From the Tuesday, March 11, 1788
68. Hamilton From the Friday, March 14, 1788
69.  Hamilton From the Friday, March 14, 1788
70.  Hamilton From the Friday, March 14, 1788
71. Hamilton From the Tuesday, March 18, 1788
72.  Hamilton From the Friday, March 21, 1788
73.  Hamilton From the Friday, March 21, 1788
74.  Hamilton From the Tuesday, March 25, 1788
75. Hamilton For the --
76. Hamilton From the Tuesday, April 1, 1788
77. Hamilton From the Friday, April 4, 1788
78. Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition, New York --
79. Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition, New York --
80. Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition, New York --
81. Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition --
82. Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition --
83. Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition --
84. Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition --
85. Hamilton From McLEAN's Edition --
  • << Previous: Introduction
  • Next: Federalist Nos. 1-10 >>
  • Last Updated: Apr 25, 2024 10:16 AM
  • URL: https://guides.loc.gov/federalist-papers

Directorate for Education and Skills

The Education and Skills Directorate is one of twelve substantive departments of the OECD and provides policy analysis and advice on education to help individuals and nations to identify and develop the knowledge and skills that drive better jobs and better lives, generate prosperity and promote social inclusion.

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The OECD Directorate for Education and Skills seeks to help individuals and nations to identify and develop the knowledge, skills and values that drive better jobs and better lives, generate prosperity and promote social inclusion. It assists OECD countries and partner economies in designing and managing their education and skills systems, and in implementing reforms, so that citizens can develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values they need throughout their lives.

Andreas Schleicher

Director Directorate for Education and Skills

term papers table of contents

Yuri Belfali

Head Early Childhood and Schools Division

term papers table of contents

Paulo Santiago

Head Policy Advice and Implementation Division

term papers table of contents

Tia Loukkola

Head Innovation and Measuring Progress Division

term papers table of contents

How we work

The work of the Directorate for Education and Skills is overseen by four bodies, each with its own mandate, membership, and programme of work and budget, to help deliver work under the overall governance of the OECD Council:

  • The Education Policy Committee, which also provides strategic oversight of our work
  • The Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Governing Board (CERI) 
  • The Programme for International Student Assessment Governing Board (PISA)
  • The Programme for Teaching and Learning International Survey Governing Board (TALIS)
  • The Board of Participating Countries for the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) is overseen by both the Education Policy Committee and the Employment, Labour and Social Affairs Committee.

What we are working on

The best way for education systems to improve is to learn what works from each other. We deploy large scale surveys and reviews, designing common methodological and analytical frameworks for utmost comparability of empirical evidence from different education systems. We collect data about nearly all aspects of countries’ education systems from key policies, teacher practises, adult proficiency, and early childhood learning and well-being to how 15-year-olds perform in mathematics and what their attitudes are about global issues like climate change.

  • The International Early Learning and Child Well-Being Study
  • OECD Survey on Social and Emotional Skills
  • Survey of Adult Skills
  • The OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey
  •    Education at a Glance
  •   The Education Policy Outlook
  •   PISA Global Crisis Module
  •   Global Teaching Insights
  • Explore by country
  • Explore by topic
  • Review policies    
  •   PISA for schools

Assisting countries with policy development and implementation

We help countries answer important questions facing education policy makers and practitioners alike: how to identify and develop the right skills and turn them into better jobs and better lives; how best to allocate resources in education to support social and economic development; and how to offer everyone the chance to make the most of their abilities at every age and stage of life OECD and partner countries look to our expertise to review their education and skills systems, and assist them in developing and implementing policies to improve them. We conduct reviews ranging from those on individual national education policy to comparative educational policy and thematic peer-analysis. We review and support the development of higher education systems with analysis on resource use and labour market relevance. All of these provide in-depth analyses and advice that draw on OECD data resources, national policy documents and research, and field-based interviewing by OECD review teams. Comparative thematics, covering areas such as ECEC in a digital world, diversity, equity and inclusion in education, teacher policy and transitions in upper secondary education, are based on a common conceptual framework and methodology developed with advice from a group of national experts.

Through tailored implementation support the directorate offers countries assistance in implementing policy, from curriculum reform to helping schools become effective learning organisations. It also brings countries and stakeholders together in a variety of fora to exchange ideas, an important step in the policymaking process.  

Pivoting to tomorrow

What knowledge, skills, attitudes and values will students need in a swiftly evolving world? We develop long-term “leading-edge” thinking that looks beyond the current state of education to what it can become. These multiple-scenario analyses nourish our ground-breaking Education 2030 work on curriculum. They inform international debate and inspire policy processes to shape the future of education. The one certainty about the future of education is that it will be a digital one though we cannot know to what degree. In staying ahead of the EdTech curve, the directorate advises countries on the fast-changing potential of digital tools like robotics, blockchain and artificial intelligence, and how they can be integrated and used to equitably boost teaching, learning and administrative performance. The digitalisation of education is just one of the many strategic foresight areas the OECD’s Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) focuses on. Its exploration of best practices flagged by international comparisons helps countries move towards the frontiers of education.

Programmes of work

  • Education and Skills Policy Programme The OECD’s programme on education and skills policy support policymakers in their efforts to achieve high-quality lifelong learning, which in turn contributes to personal development, sustainable economic growth, and social cohesion. Learn more
  • CERI The Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) provides and promotes international comparative research, innovation and key indicators, explores forward-looking and innovative approaches to education and learning, and facilitates bridges between educational research, innovation and policy development. Learn more
  • INES The OECD Indicators of Education Systems (INES) programme seeks to gauge the performance of national education systems through internationally comparable data. Learn more
  • PISA PISA is the OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment. PISA measures 15-year-olds’ ability to use their reading, mathematics and science knowledge and skills to meet real-life challenges. Learn more
  • PIAAC The Survey of Adult Skills, a product of the PIAAC, measures adults’ proficiency in literacy, numeracy and the ability to solve problems in technology-rich environments. Learn more
  • TALIS TALIS - the Teaching and Learning International Survey - is the world's largest international survey about teachers and school leaders. Learn more
  • Survey on Social and Emotional Skills (SSES) The OECD Survey on Social and Emotional Skills is an international survey that identifies and assesses the conditions and practices that foster or hinder the development of social and emotional skills for 10- and 15-year-old students. Learn more
  • Early Childhood Education and Care The Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) programme conducts analysis and develops new data to support countries in reviewing and improving their early childhood services and systems. Learn more
  • Higher Education Policy The Higher Education Policy Programme carries out analysis on a wide range of higher education systems and policies Learn more

Directorate outputs

term papers table of contents

Policy and working papers

term papers table of contents

More facts, key findings and policy recommendations

term papers table of contents

Create customised data profiles and compare countries

term papers table of contents

Related policy issues

  • Education access, participation, and progression
  • Education economic and social outcomes
  • Education equity
  • Education evaluation and quality assurance
  • Education financing
  • Education leadership
  • Education organisation and governance
  • Future of education and skills
  • Learning environment
  • Teachers and educators
  • Student performance (PISA)

Get in touch

Contact us: edu.contact@oecd.org

Task Finder

term papers table of contents

Admiral Bobbery

Admiral Bobbery is a playable partner character in Paper Mario: The Thousand-Year Door . A former sailor who has become disenchanted with the sea because of his dear wife’s passing, he actually lives right next to the Trouble Center in east Rogueport, but you cannot enter his house in any way until after Chapter 4. It takes finding his wife’s last letter to get him to join your crew to Keelhaul Key, as well as rediscovering his love for the sea to get him to join you permanently. He has a big personality and an even bigger mustache.

Bobbery’s special talent is being able to be thrown above Mario and blow up things. This comes in handy when you need to hit a switch on a higher platform or when you find a wall with some cracks in it. Set Bobbery on a course to it, then have him explode to make new actions happen.

Met During : Chapter 5 - The Key to Pirates


  • Bomb : Hits one grounded enemy
  • Bomb Squad : Launches three bombs that explode after a round
  • Hold Fast : When he is attacked, the attacker takes damage
  • Bob-ombast : Greatly damages enemies, flying enemies are grounded

Using Bobbery

Chapter 5 (72).jpg

Bobbery’s offense basically boils down to “make progressively bigger and bigger booms,” which makes him a kind of brute force specialist of Mario’s partners. To go along with this, he is also the tankiest partner Mario has, being able to have the highest HP of your companions. This allows him to deal out big damage with Hold Fast and be able to do so far a while.

In addition, Bob-ombast is perhaps the most powerful consistently damaging move once you get to the late game. It may cost 9 FP, but it winds up being more than worth it when Bobbery does 5+ damage to all enemies. He has situational use outside of combat, useful in spots that Koops has no way of accessing. He is also necessary for getting all of your partners to power up twice, as he blows up the wall for the item that you need to bring Merlon to do so.

Up Next: Ms. Mowz

Top guide sections.

  • Walkthrough and Collectibles Guide
  • Star Piece Locations
  • Trouble Center
  • Pit of 100 Trials

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