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Family Thesis Statement

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Published: Mar 25, 2024

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Essay about Family Values & Traditions: Prompts + Examples

A family values essay covers such topics as family traditions, customs, family history, and values.

A family values essay (or a family traditions essay) is a type of written assignment. It covers such topics as family traditions, customs, family history, and values. It is usually assigned to those who study sociology, culture, anthropology, and creative writing.

In this article, you will find:

  • 150 family values essay topics
  • Outline structure
  • Thesis statement examples
  • “Family values” essay sample
  • “Family traditions” essay sample
  • “What does family mean to you?” essay sample.

Learn how to write your college essay about family with our guide.

  • 👪 What Is a Family Values Essay about?
  • 💡 Topic Ideas
  • 📑 Outlining Your Essay️
  • 🏠️ Family Values: Essay Example
  • 🎃 Family Traditions: Essay Example
  • 😍 What Does Family Mean to You: Essay Example

👪 Family Values Essay: What Is It about?

What are family values.

Family values are usually associated with a traditional family. In western culture, it is called “ a nuclear family .”

A nuclear family represents a family with a husband, wife, and children living together.

The nuclear family became common in the 1960s – 1970s. That happened because of the post-war economic boom and the health service upgrade. That allowed elder relatives to live separately from their children.

These days, the nuclear family is no longer the most common type of family. There are various forms of families: 

  • Single-parent families
  • Non-married parents
  • Blended families
  • Couples with no children
  • Foster parents, etc.

How did the nuclear family become so wide-spread?

The nuclear family culture was mostly spread in western cultures. According to many historians, it was because of the Christian beliefs.

However, many people believe that Christianity was not the only reason. The industrial revolution also played a significant role.

Nowadays, the understanding of the term varies from person to person. It depends on their religious, personal, or cultural beliefs.

Family Values List

Cultural background plays a significant role in every family’s values. However, each family has its own customs and traditions as well.

The picture contains a list of 6 most common family values.

Some common types of family values include:

  • Having a sense of justice
  • Being honest
  • Being respectful to others
  • Being patient
  • Being responsible
  • Having courage
  • Participating in teamwork
  • Being generous
  • Volunteering
  • Being respectful
  • Featuring dignity
  • Demonstrating humanity
  • Saving salary
  • Prioritizing education
  • Doing your best at work
  • Maintaining respectful relationships with coworkers/classmates
  • Being caring
  • Willing to learn
  • Treating others with respect
  • Being modest
  • Family game nights
  • Family vacations
  • Family meals
  • Being patriotic
  • Being tolerant
  • Following the law
  • Being open-minded

💡 150 Family Values Essay Topics

If you find it challenging to choose a family values topic for your essay, here is the list of 150 topics.

  • Social family values and their impact on children.
  • Divorce: Psychological Effects on Children.
  • Do family values define your personality?
  • Toys, games, and gender socialization.
  • The correlation between teamwork and your upbringing.
  • Family Structure and Its Effects on Children.
  • What does honesty have to do with social values?
  • Solution Focused Therapy in Marriage and Family.
  • The importance of being respectful to others.
  • Parent-Child Relationships and Parental Authority.
  • Political family values and their impact on children.
  • Postpartum Depression Effect on Children Development.
  • The importance of patriotism.
  • Social factors and family issues.
  • Is being open-minded crucial in modern society?
  • Modern Society: American Family Values.
  • What role does tolerance play in modern society?
  • Does hard work identify your success?
  • Family involvement impact on student achievement.
  • Religious family values and their impact on children.
  • Native American Women Raising Children off the Reservation.
  • What does spiritual learning correlate with family values?
  • Modest relations and their importance.
  • The role of parental involvement.
  • What is violence, and why is it damaging?
  • Myths of the Gifted Children.
  • Work family values and their impact on children.
  • When Should Children Start School?
  • Does salary saving help your family?
  • Family as a System and Systems Theory.
  • Why should education be a priority?
  • Child-free families and their values.
  • Family violence effects on family members.
  • Why is doing your best work important for your family?
  • School-Family-Community Partnership Policies.
  • Moral values and their impact on children.
  • Does being trustworthy affect your family values?
  • Gender Inequality in the Study of the Family.
  • Can you add your value to the world?
  • Your responsibility and your family.
  • Family in the US culture and society.
  • Recreational family values and their impact.
  • Balancing a Career and Family Life for Women.
  • Family vacations and their effects on relationships.
  • Family meal and its impact on family traditions.
  • Children Play: Ingredient Needed in Children’s Learning.
  • Family prayer in religious families.
  • Family changes in American and African cultures.
  • Hugs impact on family ties.
  • Are bedtime stories important for children?
  • How Video Games Affect Children.
  • Do family game nights affect family bonding?
  • Divorce Remarriage and Children Questions.
  • What is the difference between tradition and heritage culture?
  • How Autistic Children Develop and Learn?
  • The true meaning of family values.
  • Egypt families in changed and traditional forms.
  • Does culture affect family values?
  • Are family values a part of heritage?
  • The Development of Secure and Insecure Attachments in Children.
  • Does supporting family traditions impact character traits?
  • Parents’ Accountability for Children’s Actions.
  • Does your country’s history affect your family’s values?
  • Do family traditions help with solving your family problems?
  • Impact of Domestic Violence on Children in the Classroom.
  • Does having business with your family affect your bonding?
  • Family as a social institution.
  • Different weekly family connections ideas and their impact.
  • Different monthly family connections ideas and their impact.
  • The importance of your family’s daily rituals.
  • Group and Family Therapies: Similarities and Differences.
  • Holiday family gatherings as an instrument of family bonding.
  • Should a family have separate family budgets?
  • Parental non-engagement in education.
  • Globalization and its impact on family values.
  • The difference between small town and big city family values.
  • Divorce and how it affects the children.
  • Child’s play observation and parent interview.
  • Family fights and their impact on the family atmosphere.
  • Why are personal boundaries important?
  • Single-parent family values.
  • Gender Differences in Caring About Children.
  • Does being an only child affect one’s empathy?
  • Grandparents’ involvement in children upbringing.
  • Use of Social Networks by Underage Children.
  • Same-sex marriage and its contribution to family values.
  • Does surrogacy correspond to family values?
  • Are women better parents than men?
  • Does the age gap between children affect their relationship?
  • Does having pets affect family bonding?
  • Parenting Gifted Children Successfully Score.
  • Having a hobby together and its impact.
  • Discuss living separately from your family.
  • Shopping together with your family and its impact on your family values.
  • Movie nights as a family tradition.
  • Parents’ perception of their children’s disability.
  • Does being in the same class affect children’s relationships?
  • Does sharing a room with your siblings affect your relationship?
  • Raising Awareness on the Importance of Preschool Education Among Parents.
  • Pros and cons of having a nanny.
  • Do gadgets affect your children’s social values?
  • The Role of Parents in Underage Alcohol Use and Abuse.
  • Pros and cons of homeschooling.
  • Limiting children’s Internet usage time and their personal boundaries.
  • Is having an heirloom important?
  • Divorce influence on children’s mental health.
  • Is daycare beneficial?
  • Should your parents-in-law be involved in your family?
  • Children’s Foster Care and Associated Problems.
  • Pets’ death and its impact on children’s social values.
  • Clinical Map of Family Therapy.
  • Passing of a relative and its impact on the family.
  • How Do Parents See the Influence of Social Media Advertisements on Their Children?
  • Relationship within a family with an adopted child.
  • Discuss naming your child after grandparents.
  • The Effects of Post-Divorce Relationships on Children.
  • Discuss the issue of spoiling children.
  • Discuss nuclear family values.
  • Parental Involvement in Second Language Learning.
  • Children’s toys and their impact on children’s values.
  • Discuss the children’s rivalry phenomenon.
  • Family Educational Rights & Privacy Act History.
  • Relationship between parents and its impact on children.
  • Lockdown and its impact on family values.
  • Financial status and children’s social values.
  • Do parents’ addictions affect children?
  • Corporal punishment and its effects on children.
  • Discuss step-parents’ relationship with children.
  • Severe diseases in the family and their impact.
  • Developing Family Relationship Skills to Prevent Substance Abuse Among Youth Population.
  • Arranged marriages and their family values.
  • Discuss the age gap in marriages.
  • The Effects of Parental Involvement on Student Achievement.
  • International families and their values.
  • Early marriages and their family values.
  • Parental Divorce Impact on Children’s Academic Success.
  • Discuss parenting and family structure after divorce.
  • Mental Illness in Children and Its Effects on Parents.
  • Discuss family roles and duties.
  • Healthy habits and their importance in the family.
  • Growing-up Family Experience and the Interpretive Style in Childhood Social Anxiety.
  • Discuss different family practices.
  • Dealing With Parents: Schools Problem.
  • Ancestors worship as a family value.
  • The importance of family speech.
  • Does the Sexual Orientation of Parents Matter?
  • Mutual respect as a core of a traditional family.
  • Experiential Family Psychotherapy.
  • Should the law protect the family values?
  • Family as a basic unit of society.

Couldn’t find the perfect topic for your paper? Use our essay topic generator !

📑 Family Values Essay Outline

The family values essay consists of an introduction, body, and conclusion. You can write your essay in five paragraphs:

  • One introductory paragraph
  • Three body paragraphs
  • One conclusion paragraph.

Family values or family history essay are usually no more than 1000 words long.

What do you write in each of them?

Learn more on the topic from our article that describes outline-making rules .

Thesis Statement about Family Values

The thesis statement is the main idea of your essay. It should be the last sentence of the introduction paragraph .

Why is a thesis statement essential?

It gives the reader an idea of what your essay is about.

The thesis statement should not just state your opinion but rather be argumentative. For the five-paragraph family values essay, you can express one point in your thesis statement.

Let’s take a look at good and bad thesis statement about family values templates.

Need a well-formulated thesis statement? You are welcome to use our thesis-making tool !

🏠️ Family Values Essay: Example & Writing Prompts

So, what do you write in your family values essay?

Start with choosing your topic. For this type of essay, it can be the following:

  • Your reflection about your family’s values
  • The most common family values in your country
  • Your opinion on family values.

Let’s say you want to write about your family values. What do you include in your essay?

First, introduce family values definition and write your thesis statement.

Then, in the body part, write about your family’s values and their impact on you (one for each paragraph).

Finally, sum up your essay.

Family Values Essay Sample: 250 Words

🎃 family traditions essay: example & writing prompts.

Family traditions essay covers such topics as the following:

  • Family traditions in the USA (in England, in Spain, in Pakistan, etc.)
  • Traditions in my family
  • The importance of family traditions for children.
  • My favorite family traditions

After you decide on your essay topic, make an outline.

For the introduction part, make sure to introduce the traditions that you are going to write about. You can also mention the definition of traditions.

In the body part, introduce one tradition for each paragraph. Make sure to elaborate on why they are essential for you and your family.

Finally, sum up your essay in the conclusion part.

Family Traditions Essay Sample: 250 Words

😍 what does family mean to you essay: example & writing prompts.

The family definition essay covers your opinion on family and its importance for you.

Some of the questions that can help you define your topic:

  • How has your family shaped your character?
  • How can you describe your upbringing?

In the introduction part, you can briefly cover the importance of family in modern society. Then make sure to state your thesis.

As for the body parts, you can highlight three main ideas of your essay (one for each paragraph).

Finally, sum up your essay in the conclusion part. Remember that you can restate your thesis statement here.

What Does Family Mean to You Essay Sample: 250 Words

Now you have learned how to write your family values essay. What values have you got from your family? Let us know in the comments below!

❓ Family Values FAQ

Family values are the principles, traditions, and beliefs that are upheld in a family. They depend on family’s cultural, religious, and geographical background. They might be moral values, social values, work values, political values, recreational values, religious values, etc. These values are usually passed on to younger generations and may vary from family to family.

Why are family values important?

Family values are important because they have a strong impact on children’s upbringing. These values might influence children’s behavior, personality, attitude, and character traits. These can affect how the children are going to build their own families in the future.

What are Christian family values?

Some Christian family values are the following: 1. Sense of justice 2. Being thankful 3. Having wisdom 4. Being compassion 5. Willing to learn 6. Treating others with respect 7. Modesty

What are traditional family values?

Each family has its own values. However, they do have a lot of resemblances. Some traditional family values are the following: 1. Having responsibilities to your family 2. Being respectful to your family members 3. Not hurting your family members 4. Compromising

The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Thesis Statements

What this handout is about.

This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft.

Introduction

Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement:

  • tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
  • is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
  • directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
  • makes a claim that others might dispute.
  • is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.

If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft. The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively. (Check out our handout on understanding assignments for more information.)

How do I create a thesis?

A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis” that presents a basic or main idea and an argument that you think you can support with evidence. Both the argument and your thesis are likely to need adjustment along the way.

Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement. For more ideas on how to get started, see our handout on brainstorming .

How do I know if my thesis is strong?

If there’s time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following :

  • Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question. If the prompt isn’t phrased as a question, try to rephrase it. For example, “Discuss the effect of X on Y” can be rephrased as “What is the effect of X on Y?”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is likely to  be “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.
  • Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.

Suppose you are taking a course on contemporary communication, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: “Discuss the impact of social media on public awareness.” Looking back at your notes, you might start with this working thesis:

Social media impacts public awareness in both positive and negative ways.

You can use the questions above to help you revise this general statement into a stronger thesis.

  • Do I answer the question? You can analyze this if you rephrase “discuss the impact” as “what is the impact?” This way, you can see that you’ve answered the question only very generally with the vague “positive and negative ways.”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not likely. Only people who maintain that social media has a solely positive or solely negative impact could disagree.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? No. What are the positive effects? What are the negative effects?
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? No. Why are they positive? How are they positive? What are their causes? Why are they negative? How are they negative? What are their causes?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? No. Why should anyone care about the positive and/or negative impact of social media?

After thinking about your answers to these questions, you decide to focus on the one impact you feel strongly about and have strong evidence for:

Because not every voice on social media is reliable, people have become much more critical consumers of information, and thus, more informed voters.

This version is a much stronger thesis! It answers the question, takes a specific position that others can challenge, and it gives a sense of why it matters.

Let’s try another. Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn. “This will be easy,” you think. “I loved Huckleberry Finn!” You grab a pad of paper and write:

Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel.

You begin to analyze your thesis:

  • Do I answer the question? No. The prompt asks you to analyze some aspect of the novel. Your working thesis is a statement of general appreciation for the entire novel.

Think about aspects of the novel that are important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write:

In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.
  • Do I answer the question? Yes!
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not really. This contrast is well-known and accepted.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? It’s getting there–you have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation. However, it’s still not clear what your analysis will reveal.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? Not yet. Compare scenes from the book and see what you discover. Free write, make lists, jot down Huck’s actions and reactions and anything else that seems interesting.
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? What’s the point of this contrast? What does it signify?”

After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write:

Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain’s Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave “civilized” society and go back to nature.

This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Anson, Chris M., and Robert A. Schwegler. 2010. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers , 6th ed. New York: Longman.

Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Ramage, John D., John C. Bean, and June Johnson. 2018. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing , 8th ed. New York: Pearson.

Ruszkiewicz, John J., Christy Friend, Daniel Seward, and Maxine Hairston. 2010. The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers , 9th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

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Exploring the issues, practices, and prospects of family planning among married couples in Southern Philippines

Associated data.

The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Nurses are involved in all aspects of health, including reproductive health. They play a fundamental role in family planning and are often designated as point persons in family planning-related concerns. In order to provide effective counseling on family planning, the nurse must understand issues, practices, and prospects of family planning among married couples in their community.

This exploratory multiple case study investigates family planning issues, practices, and prospects among couples in a municipality located in Southern Philippines.

Ten married couples of varying characteristics were interviewed to elicit their perspectives on family planning practices. The data were analyzed using coding transcriptions and thematic analysis.

Five sub-themes emerged under the theme of Family Planning Issues: family planning as a burden; fear of side effects; peer-driven contraceptive choice; family planning as a social stigma; family planning as a sin. Two sub-themes emerged under the theme of Family Planning Practices: knowledge of family planning commodities; availability and acceptance of the contraceptive method. Finally, two sub-themes also emerged under the theme of Family Planning Prospects: family planning as a financially beneficial practice; prospects on family planning depend on husband’s acceptance.

These sub-themes were also distinguished by their similarities and differences based on the four parameters identified, including age, sex, financial status, and educational attainment, which aided in the development of recommendations that could be implemented in the local community. The results of this study especially have a bearing on nurses and their role in the family planning process. Nurses play a fundamental role in guiding community members and families toward health and wellness. Thus, it is crucial for nurses to understand family planning issues underpinning their community so they can better exercise their role.

The family, as the basic unit of society, plays an important role in maternal and child health care services. Maternal and child health care services include family planning as a critical strategy. Family planning has become a contentious issue all over the world (Anyanwu et al., 2013 ). Despite this, it was regarded as one of the ten greatest public achievements of the twentieth century. Individuals were able to achieve desired birth spacing and family size thanks to the availability of family planning services, which also contributed to improved health outcomes for infants, children, women, and families. Despite the positive impact that family planning has had on society, a number of issues have arisen over the years.

The results of this study especially have a bearing on nurses and their role in the family planning process. According to the Philippine Department of Health ( 2017 ), the designated family planning point persons in the country are usually Chief Nurses. Meanwhile, a study on public health nurses’ role in family planning (Smith, 1968 ) provides some basic principles in public health nursing, which serve as a guide to the involvement of nurses in family health planning. Firstly, public health nursing is an established community activity. Secondly, health education and counseling for patients, families, and the community are integral in public health nursing. Lastly, the nurse should be professionally prepared to function as a health worker in the community. As community workers, as healthcare providers, nurses play a fundamental role in guiding members of the community and families toward health and wellness. They are involved in all aspects of health, including reproductive health. Thus, it is crucial for nurses to understand family planning issues underpinning their community so they can better exercise their role.

During the ICPD+25 Nairobi summit, held in Kenya in November 2019, the Philippine government reaffirmed its commitment to ensuring “universal access of all Filipinos to reproductive health care and services, including family planning information and services,” in accordance with the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (Philippine Department of Health, 2017 ).

In the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM), formerly known as the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), it was discovered that 18% of married women aged 15-49 had an “unmet need for family planning.” (Philippine Department of Health, 2014 ). This means that they wanted to stop or delay childbearing but were unable to use any form of contraceptive. BARMM is a Muslim-majority autonomous region in a predominantly Christian-majority country, the Philippines. As such, religion has a heavy influence on social norms.

Various Fatwah (legal opinion or ruling issued by an Islamic scholar) on family planning were developed as guides in dealing with family planning issues and dilemmas. The availability of family planning services is influenced by various Fatwah. It is sometimes regarded as a major impediment to practicing family planning, particularly in Muslim areas where health centers are located a long distance away from the community. The number of dropouts in family planning acceptors had become a dilemma in Lanao del Sur, particularly in the municipality of Calanogas, where the study was conducted. This study was thus undertaken to discover the common issues, practices, and prospects regarding family planning in the municipality of Calanogas to formulate culturally sensitive recommendations so that family planning services in rural areas may be promoted more effectively. This study aimed to investigate the different issues, practices, and prospects regarding family planning among the participants – to generate themes based on the common and differing experiences of the couples who were the respondents of the study.

Study Design

A multiple case study design approach guided this study, which was carried out using qualitative research methods and thematic analysis. The qualitative research method was especially useful because it allowed the researchers to delve deeper into the issues, practices, and prospects for family planning services (Scheyvens, 2014 ). The research was carried out in the municipality of Calanogas. It is a landlocked municipality in the southern part of the Philippines. The majority of Calanogas’ residents have converted to Islam.

Participants

The sampling method used in this study was purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is a non-probability sampling in which the researchers select a sample based on population characteristics and study objectives. These chosen respondents were screened using the criteria. As a result, five couples or ten respondents participated. No couples dropped out of the study.

Data Collection

A pilot study was conducted with two married couples living in the community. The interview was audio-recorded. The results were used to refine the questionnaire further. The two married couples were not used as respondents for the main study, and errors in the pilot study were rectified during the main study.

Because this study was based on qualitative research and an exploratory case study, the researchers and interviewer conducted individual interviews with the participants. The interviews were semi-structured and guided by an interview guide. In addition, an interview guide covering specific topics related to the research questions was created. The wording and order of the questions were designed to appeal to both female and male respondents (Bryman, 2012 ). Only one interview was conducted per couple with no-repeat interviews.

Data Analysis

Transcripts were coded in the order in which they were conducted, in batches of two couples at a time, allowing the researchers to reflect and edit the interview questions. The researchers read through the materials several times to become acquainted with the findings. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data gathered from respondents.

Coding was used to assist the researchers in understanding the respondents’ perspectives and analyzing their combined points of view. During the research process, codes were created based on the data for the purpose of analyzing the data (Urquhart, 2012 ). Coding was done both manually and on a computer. Themes were then generated from the data.

Trustworthiness

To ensure trustworthiness, the researchers discussed among themselves and experts to ensure no bias in developing the themes. Both researchers were females, one a nursing student, while the other has a Master’s and Doctoral degree in Nursing and had prior experience validating research instruments and conducting thematic analysis. The researchers acknowledged that they could identify with the participants, so they ensured they did not impose their values or opinions on the participants during the interviews. The researchers and the hired interviewer who was instructed did not prompt any answers from the participants and recorded their responses as is. The researchers were able to put aside their own understanding of the subject of investigation.

The researchers hired a male interviewer to eliminate as much bias during the interview as possible. One of the researchers and the male interviewer conducted the interviews, while both researchers also acted as the coders. Initial themes were also evaluated by researchers and further refined. Member checking was employed for respondents to validate the initial data gathered and see if they agreed with the themes generated. Themes were also conveyed to them using the local language.

Ethical Consideration

Written informed consent was obtained from all the participants of the study. Ethical Clearance was provided by the Ethics Review Committee of the Mindanao State University-College of Health Sciences. No relationship between the researchers and the respondents existed prior to the study. Before the interview, researchers and interviewers disclosed and explained the purpose of the study in a language understandable to the respondents.

The couples were interviewed separately so that they could express their own opinions and avoid relying on their partners. To ensure the participants’ privacy and confidentiality, each participant was interviewed once for at least 20-30 minutes in a secluded area within their home where only the researchers, the hired interviewer, and one other participant interacted. All of the interviews were either audio-recorded or transcribed. All the research participants were asked to sign an informed consent form that included a cover letter and information sheet outlining everything about the study. The researchers or an interpreter explained the meaning and implications of the consent letter in a language that they could easily understand. They were informed that their participation in the research was voluntary, and refusal to participate would involve no penalty or loss of any benefits to which they were otherwise entitled. The informed consent clearly stated that they were free to withdraw from the research or terminate the interview at any time should they feel uncomfortable continuing to be part of the research.

Characteristics of the Participants

The married couples interviewed and who voluntarily participated in this study were all multipara (couples with two or more children) aged 25 years and older. Three couple partners among the participants used family planning methods such as Pills and DMPA, while the remaining two couple partners did not use any method.

Thematic Findings

Three main themes, including sub-themes, emerged from the analysis: 1) Issues on Family Planning (family planning as a burden; fear of side effects; peer-driven contraceptive choice; family planning as a social stigma; family planning is a sin), 2) Practices on Family Planning (knowledge of family planning commodities; availability and acceptance of contraceptive method), and 3) Prospects on Family Planning (family planning as a financially beneficial practice; prospects on family planning depends on husband’s acceptance).

Theme I: Issues on Family Planning

Sub-theme 1: family planning as a burden.

With respect to age, based on the results, it would seem that the older the participant, the less they viewed family planning as a burden. This is supported by statements from the respondents in response to the question, “How can people here in X access family planning services and modern contraceptives? What choices are available? Is it easy/difficult to access?”:

“Family planning is not necessarily a burden; it is entirely up to you, but there are a variety of methods available.” (P3)

In contrast, a younger respondent had this to say:

“Family planning is a burden because it prevents me from having sexual pleasure with my wife. An example is a condom.” (P9)

With respect to sex, the results showed that three out of five male participants viewed family planning as a burden, indicating that the male sex had a greater likelihood of considering family planning as a burden. This is supported by the following statement in response to the question, “What do you think about contraceptives (modern/natural)?”:

“That is why I stopped using family planning; it became too difficult for me to put on the condom while we were doing the activity.” (P8)

In contrast, three out of five female participants did not consider family planning to be a burden.

“Family planning is not a burden for me; it may be for others, but it is not a burden for me.” (P1)

Meanwhile, financial status did not seem to impact differing views as to whether or not family planning was a burden. This result may be because family planning commodities could be obtained free at health centers, making them accessible regardless of financial status.

Finally, with respect to educational attainment, results would show that the higher the educational attainment of the participants, the lower the likelihood of considering family planning as a burden, as shown by these contrasting statements in response to the question “Do you and your partner have the same opinion on contraceptives? What are your opinions?”:

“I graduated from college, but I never consider family planning to be a burden; what burdens me is the fact that I am unable to provide for my children’s needs . (P8) “I never went to school, so I never participated in family planning because it was a burden to me; I would rather focus on my children than on birth control.” (P5)

Sub-theme 2: Fear of side effects

The fear of side effects in family planning differed according to the age of the participants. The younger the participants, the more they feared contraceptive side effects. In contrast, the older the participant was, the less likely they feared side-effects, as evidenced by the following statements in response to the question “Do you think that men and women have the same opinion on contraceptives? Why/How different/same? Who takes responsibility for contraceptives? How are men/women involved in contraceptives (obtaining, control)?”:

“I was afraid to use contraceptives because they were said to be insoluble in the abdomen.” (P4) “Nothing, I have never experienced any side effects, and I have no fear of them, as there are already a large number of people engaged in family planning.” (P3)

With respect to sex, it was found that four out of five female participants demonstrated an absence of fear of side effects, meaning only one female respondent indicated a fear of side effects.

“I am not afraid of adverse consequences on family planning; my husband simply does not want me to embrace a method.” (P5)

In contrast, two out of five total male participants expressed fear of side effects. With respect to financial status, it was found that unemployed participants were more afraid of side effects than employed participants.

“I was worried about the side effects of family planning because one of my Buldon neighbors had the procedure.” (P4)

Meanwhile, as to educational attainment, it was revealed that participants who had completed college or high school had no fear of family planning side effects. In contrast, participants who had never attended school had more fear of family planning side effects. The following are some supporting statements:

“I am a high school graduate, I am aware of what they say about family planning, and I have never been afraid of side effects.” (P7) “Yes, I did not attend school and had limited knowledge about family planning; I am afraid there are a lot of hearsays about the adverse effects of family planning.” (P4)

Sub-theme 3: Peer-driven contraceptive choice

This study showed no correlation between the participants’ ages and the peer-driven contraceptive choice issue in family planning. Out of a total of ten couple participants, eight of them, regardless of their age, expressed their belief that they were not motivated by environmental pressures.

Similarly, the results would show that majority of the participants, seven out of ten total participants, regardless of sex, had never been pressured with their contraceptive choice. This is supported by the following statement in response to the question “Are contraceptives something which you would talk about with friends, family, neighbors, etc.? (Why/why not?).”:

“We made no disclosures about our decision to anyone, including our immediate families, and our neighbors’ contraceptive choices have no bearing on us as a couple.” (P7/M)

However, with respect to financial status, it was revealed that participants who were unemployed or self-employed were more affected than those who were employed by peer-driven contraceptive choice, as evidenced by the following statements in response to the question “Who do you talk about contraceptives or family planning services with?”:

“My siblings advise me to practice family planning because they believe I am incapable of meeting my family’s needs.” (P7)

With respect to educational attainment, the study discovered no significant differences or similarities between peer-driven contraceptive choice and family planning.

Sub-theme 4: Family planning as a social stigma

With respect to age, it was found that the younger the participant, the higher the likelihood of them considering family planning as a social stigma.

“I am unable to accept family planning; our neighborhood has a history of discriminating against those who use it, and I do not wish to be ruined by them.” (P9)

This study also established a link between the participants’ sex and the issue of social stigma associated with family planning. Among the female participants, all five female respondents experienced social stigma, possibly due to the Meranao and Muslim communities’ conservative culture. They did not want to be known as having accepted family planning methods. The following is a common statement made by these female participants:

“I’m afraid to tell my family or neighbors about my contraceptive use for fear of becoming the talk of our town. The majority of my neighbors are opposed to family planning.” (P2)

In contrast, two of the five male participants indicated that social stigma was not a barrier to family planning practice, while the remaining three male participants said that social stigma was a factor in their inability to use a method.

In terms of the participants’ financial situation, the study established no differences or similarities between their financial situation and the issue of social stigma in family planning. Additionally, this study revealed a correlation between participants’ educational attainment and family planning as a source of social stigma. As a result, it would seem that the higher the educational attainment of a participant, the less the likelihood they had of being impacted by social stigma in their decision of whether or not to use family planning. The contrasting statements in response to the question, “How would you respond if someone were asking for your advice on family planning?” below would support such inference.

“I am not afraid to use family planning; this is my life, and regardless of what they say, I will not let it affect me . (P3) “Family planning is difficult; once someone learns about it, they will gossip behind your back. As a result, I will refrain from using family planning.” (P10)

Sub-theme 5: Family planning as a sin

Religion played an essential role in dealing with contraceptive issues. Because this study was conducted in Calanogas, one of the municipalities of Lanao del Sur in Southern Mindanao, the majority of the residents practiced Islam. Some adherents of Islam oppose the use of contraception, but as different studies and Fatwah on family planning proliferated, they gradually learned the importance of family planning.

Despite this, participants in this study expressed a variety of opinions on the subject. According to the findings of this study, the younger the participant, the more they saw family planning as a sin. This result was supported by the following statements in response to the question, “Does your religion hinder you from accepting family planning methods? (Why or why not?).”:

“I am still young, but I already know that family planning is a sin against God.” (P7)

In contrast, the older the participant, the less they believed family planning was a sin. It was exemplified by the following statement:

“Family planning is not a sin in God’s eyes; the worst sin is having a large number of children but being unable to meet their basic needs; this is the major sin.” (P3)

Only one out of five male participants held the opinion that accepting family planning might be a sin to God and forbidden in Islam, but for this participant, it would be between him and God only, and he would praise God and ask for forgiveness by doing such act. On the other hand, the majority of female participants expressed a positive attitude toward family planning issues. According to them, their religion would not prevent them from using any method of contraception as long as they had a mutual understanding with their husband.

One female participant had this to say:

“I do not believe Islam will prevent me from using contraception because all I can think about is how I will care for my children. I would not be able to care for them if I do not use contraception.” (P1)

In terms of financial status, no differences among the participants’ views on the issue of family planning as sin were discovered. In terms of educational status, no disparity was also found, as regardless of whether the participant had high educational attainment or not, either way, the respondent was likely to view family planning as a sin in either case.

Theme 2: Practices on Family Planning

Sub-theme 1: knowledge of family planning commodities.

Modern family planning methods include a variety of forms, the majority of which can be practiced by women rather than men. According to the Department of Health (DOH) (2001:19), in order to have complete information on a contraceptive method, one must know how to use the method and where to obtain supplies. There were only two methods that men could use: the condom and the withdrawal method. As a result, it could be one of the reasons why men were uninterested in family planning. It was also why some men were unaware of the commodities that could be used in family planning because females were usually in charge of using them.

As to age, it was found that the older the participant, the higher the knowledge they had about family planning. This phenomenon is supported by the following statements in response to the question, “What kinds of contraceptives are you using/have used before (modern/natural)? Why did you decide to use that method?”:

“I am familiar with a variety of contraceptive methods, including pills, injections, and implants. They claim that implants are effective because they extend the time between pregnancies by up to five years.” (P3)

Another finding from this study was that the younger the participants, the less knowledge they had about family planning commodities. This is supported by the following statement:

“I am not sure about that; I have never heard of such family planning products . (P4)

Four out of five female respondents were aware of the different planning methods. In contrast, two out of the five male participants had limited knowledge of family planning or family planning commodities. Rather than using any method, they usually answer about controlling themselves or abstaining from sexual activity.

“I am unaware of family planning commodities; however, if I do not wish for my wife to become pregnant, I am exercising self-control.” (P10)

There was no correlation found between the respondents’ financial status and knowledge. Meanwhile, it was found that the higher the participants’ educational background, the more knowledge they possessed about family planning.

Sub-theme 2: Availability and acceptance of the contraceptive method

The Philippine Department of Health ( 2014 ) stated in its objectives for promoting high-quality contraceptive services that counseling must take place in a private and comfortable setting while maintaining confidentiality. Following counseling, clients should be satisfied with the method of contraception they selected. They must understand how to use the method, the expected side effects, what to do if they encounter difficulties, and when follow-up is necessary. Couples must be aware of where and when to obtain commodities in order to practice family planning. Generally, couples in Calanogas can receive family planning commodities from Barangay health stations or rural health units. Couples could obtain any commodities for free and be counseled following their visit to the mentioned health facilities.

It was found that the older the participants, the greater their likelihood of accepting contraceptive methods. On the other hand, the younger the participants, the lower the likelihood of accepting contraceptive methods. The following statements in response to the question “Do you and your partner have the same opinion on contraceptives?” substantiates these findings:

“I accepted contraceptive method because it helped me in spacing my pregnancy, and I can take care of my children well” (P1/F/30)

The following is a younger participant’s statement regarding the acceptance of contraceptive methods:

“I cannot accept contraceptive method because I want to have more children.” (P9/M/25)

Another significant finding in this study was the correlation between participants’ sex and their acceptance of contraceptive methods. In terms of the number of participants, males and females had similar views on the acceptance of family planning, but when considering their sex, females were more accepting of contraceptive methods than men. The following statement may be relevant to this data:

“I want to accept contraceptive method, but my husband does not want me to.” (P4/F)

Another statement about this occurrence came from the male’s perspective:

“I do not want my wife to accept any method; if she does, I will divorce her and remarry someone else.” (P10/M)

It was demonstrated in the above statements the dilemma that couples may face in relation to their family planning practices. Therefore, these findings must be taken into consideration and addressed in all family planning programs and activities.

In terms of financial status, no similarities or differences were discovered, as this study was based on the participants’ perspectives, not their numbers.

In terms of educational attainment and its relationship to contraceptive method acceptance, participants with a higher level of education were more likely to accept contraceptive methods. It was backed up by the following assertions:

“Here, as a college graduate, we understand family planning well; it benefits me greatly, especially when I am unable to meet the needs of my children due to unplanned pregnancy or insufficient time to conceive . (P8/M/College)

On the other hand, the lower the participants’ level of education, the less likely they are to accept contraceptive methods. The following statements support this inference:

“To be honest, I am not interested in accepting methods. I will do whatever I can for my children.” (P5/F/No Schooling) “I am not sure where we can obtain these methods, and I am not interested in them because we’re not using them.” (P10/M)

Theme 3: Prospects on Family Planning

This theme examined the current state and prospects of family planning use among couples in Calanogas, Lanao del Sur. Among the aspects discussed were issues surrounding family planning practices and family planning practices themselves.

Sub-theme 1: Family planning as a financially beneficial practice

There was no disparity found with respect to age. Meanwhile, for sex, one of the female participants expressed the following views on the future of family planning practices in response to the question “What do you think the general opinion is towards contraceptives? Why? Is it different between different people? How? Women/women, men/men, older/younger? (Why? What could be the reasons?).”:

“Family planning can be beneficial to us, particularly those of us who are struggling to make ends meet. I am a simple housewife, and my husband is a simple farmer. Thus, if we practice family planning, there is a chance that we will be able to plan our children properly. However, I am unable to do so because my husband does not wish for me to accept the method.” (P4/F)

It would seem that the idea that men also have an impact on women’s reproductive health through their partners holds true within the local context, as shown by the results of this study. No notable findings were found with respect to financial status or educational attainment.

Sub-theme 2: Prospects on family planning depend on husband’s acceptance

Men’s involvement in family planning practices was the study’s central theme. When the participants considered their reasons for practicing family planning, they always included their husbands. Whether they accepted a method or not, their husband would always be involved in their birth spacing decisions. Thus, men’s involvement in family planning may present more valuable opportunities and challenges for family planning practices in the future. A prevalent view among male participants was summarized as follows in a statement in response to the question, “Do you think that men and women have the same opinion on contraceptives? Why/How different/same? Who takes responsibility for contraceptives?”:

“My wife has always assumed responsibility for family planning through the use of a method. I am not participating in any family planning activities because they are intended for women and not for men. Additionally, I don’t have time to listen because I’m constantly out earning money for my family.” (P10/M)

According to the scenario outlined above, there would be additional points to discuss in this study. Couples may not be constrained in their approach to birth spacing, but they may face difficulties in making decisions that affect their emotional state and relationship with their partners. No notable findings were found with respect to age, financial status, or educational attainment under this theme.

The findings would show that the ten couples exhibited distinct tendencies in relation to their family planning practices and choices, influenced by their educational attainment, age, and gender. The social stigma and family planning as sin were identified as sub-themes. It can be inferred that the respondents were subjected to a great deal of stigma because of misinformation. From the respondents’ perspective, they were aware of the methods but lacked the courage to use them due to the stigma associated with family planning. Several of them expressed interest in the final judgment on the use of family planning and its Fatwah in Muslim Mindanao.

Religion has regularly been found to play a role in influencing contraception use and fertility control. Empirical research from Asian countries suggests that putting sanctions on the use of birth control, particularly fundamentalist Islamic religious views, has a significant impact on the fertility behavior of women (David & Atun, 2014 ). Research would show that higher fertility and unintended pregnancies were attributed to the lower levels of power and autonomy afforded to Muslim women (Morgan et al., 2002 ). Bhagat and Praharaj ( 2005 ) expound on how socioeconomic variables influence fertility levels between Hindus and Muslims and examine the explanations from political and economic perspectives. They stated that there was a higher unmet need for family planning among Muslims, and they availed fewer services from government sources even in rural areas. Muslims were poorer and more illiterate, and the practice of family planning was low among Muslims. It was also found that Muslims used more spacing and traditional methods compared to non-Muslims.

In contrast to the above results, in this study, it was found that according to the respondents’ perspectives, religion did not pose a barrier to family planning practices. However, some respondents emphasized how, in the past, Muslims were fearful of accepting family planning because the majority of them were unaware of the Fatwah or Islamic teachings on family planning.

Regarding the respondents’ ages, studies indicate that contraceptive use among married women peaks between the ages of 35 and 39 and is lowest between the ages of 15 and 19 (Westoff, 2006 ). Studies showed a relationship between women’s age and contraception use for spacing and limiting birth (Keenan et al., 2005 ; Connell, 2013 ). The younger women were less likely to use contraceptive methods for spacing births because they still wanted to have more children. As women get older, they tend to use contraceptive methods for limiting birth. The women reached their desired number of children as their age increased, which might lead them to think about limiting childbirth. The use of contraception for determining birth usually peaks in the late thirties to the early forties (Lethbridge, 1990 ).

Similarly, findings in this study would show that the older the respondent, the more receptive they were to family planning issues. Educational attainment also had an effect on family planning issues in that the higher the educational attainment of the respondent, the more they understood the importance of family planning in their daily lives. A study done by Kaur and Pattanaik ( 2005 ) discussed the impact of education on family welfare programs in rural areas. The results concluded that education, communication, and motivation positively affect the acceptance of modern family planning methods and immunization of pregnant women and children. It was found that educating women has a greater impact on immunization while communication has a greater impact on the adoption of family planning methods. Four out of ten participants did not complete their education, and several did not have any education at all. It can be inferred that these participants were not fully aware of the use and value of any contraceptive method.

The method of choice was determined by the number of methods available on a regular basis and their availability. Individuals and couples must choose a method because they go through many stages. As their needs and values shift, they may transition from wanting to postpone childbearing (to space pregnancies) to finally terminating childbearing (Bongaarts & Bruce, 1995 ).

The findings revealed that some of the participants were aware of the methods used in family planning, while others were not. According to the points raised during the face-to-face interview, the majority of the participants were more aware of modern methods of family planning than traditional methods. Contraceptive methods were traditionally divided into two types: modern and traditional methods. Parts of Hubacher and Trussell ( 2015 )’s definition of modern contraceptives were used in this study. Thus, modern methods are contraceptives in which a person uses a hormonal or non-hormonal product or undergoes a medical procedure to hinder or prevent reproduction from sexual intercourse (Hubacher & Trussell, 2015 ).

In the Philippines, the prevalence of modern contraceptives had increased from 39 percent in 2013 to 45 percent in 2016 (Philippine Department of Health, 2017 ). This means that almost 5.7 million women were current users of modern contraceptives. The most common methods were contraceptives developed for women, such as Pills, sterilization, and IUD. Even though 89 percent of the population approved of modern contraceptives, the different aspects of sexual reproductive health had been widely debated (Lim et al., 2015 ). Authors have emphasized the importance of a rights-based approach when providing individuals with contraceptive options. It can help individuals find a method that aligns with their needs, crucial for an informed choice (Cates et al., 2014 ).

The study results suggest that one of the most promising prospects for the future of family planning was the involvement of males in family planning activities. Despite their active participation, females or wives could not act without the mutual support of males or husbands. Women are often targeted for information in family planning initiatives. However, they may not be the major decision-makers when it comes to contraception use. Studies have shown that negative beliefs on contraception, such as how it makes men less “manly” or that using contraception causes infertility, have been proven to create barriers to contraceptive access and use. As a result, these beliefs could reduce men’s use of contraception and support for other family planning methods (Croce-Galis et al., 2014 ).

In many countries, family planning had the goal of eradicating poverty. However, over the years, the relationship between population and poverty has been debated, and a consensus was emerging that rapid population growth could increase the sheer number of poor people in rural health areas.

Implications of the Study

The study sheds light on the local contexts in which family planning issues, practices, and prospects exist while also emphasizing the critical and complex role of men in family planning. The underlying issues that have been identified as contributing to negative perceptions of family planning include a lack of accurate information leading to fear of side effects, insufficient skills in partner discussion and communication, a negative attitude toward modern methods, and opposition from peers and communities. Additionally, economic and social factors contribute to the lack of acceptance of family planning programs. According to the study, negative attitudes toward family planning could be attributed to low educational attainment, social-cultural values associated with large family sizes, economic concerns, and the social stigma associated with women who use family planning. The researchers observe from the study’s findings that many participants believe family planning is a sin and that only natural family planning methods are acceptable in Islam. Religious leaders are influential figures in society who shape public opinion. They are consulted on all daily life issues, including contraception. Therefore, it is critical for this influential group to have accurate Islamic views on family planning.

The study has also revealed other misconceptions held by men on family planning. The desire for a larger family size may be the primary reason for Calanogas’ low uptake of family planning services. The perception that family planning is a female concern, despite the fact that men take the lead in decision-making, is a critical finding that necessitates programmatic shifts to increase men’s positive engagement in family planning programs. It is critical to understand men’s perceptions and attitudes in order to design effective family planning programs.

The importance of education cannot be overstated. Governments at the national, regional, and local levels must invest in family planning education to empower women to make informed decisions. The findings of this study can be used to develop culturally appropriate approaches to engaging men, challenging negative social norms, and fostering positive social change in order to improve family planning uptake.

Nurses have always traditionally had a central role in the family planning process and the promotion of reproductive health. Furthermore, the role of the nurse in family planning has also taken on new depth. They have become involved in all levels of family planning, such as in the development and promotion of programs, as well as in its implementation and health counseling with members of the family. The results of this study can thus be helpful for nurses as they fulfill their multi-faceted roles. Nurses can consider the importance of properly educating and involving husbands in the family planning process. They can assuage concerns with respect to perceived side-effects and be an easily accessible source for information and resources, capable of guiding couples on where they can find family planning essentials. Furthermore, they can counsel couples on finding the family planning method best suited to them in consideration of their circumstances and level of acceptance. Spiritual nursing care also has a role to play considering implications in this study which link the level of family planning acceptance to religion.

The primary objective of the present study was to examine various family planning cases. It emphasized men’s and women’s voices in describing their views and opinions about family planning by distinguishing the family planning issues, practices, and prospects from the four study parameters of age, sex, educational attainment, and financial status. This study did not cover other problems and parameters. Another limitation is the sample size. The empirical evidence in this research is restricted to one municipality in southern Mindanao, wherein the opinions of ten select married couples were studied in interview sessions.

As attitudes toward family planning and desired family size change, an increasing number of women and couples will seek family planning services. Addressing family planning concerns will assist in meeting these needs and ensuring that women and couples can achieve their childbearing and reproductive health goals.

Acknowledgment

Declaration of conflicting interest.

The authors declare no conflict of interest in this study.

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or non-profit sectors.

Authors’ Contributions

SMHOA is the primary author of the study. She formulated the research problem and data analysis. She also carried out the data collection and drafting of the final manuscript. AB and AJDL are the co-authors of the study. They served as advisers and contributed to the conceptualization of the research problem. AB conducted the statistical treatment of the data while AJDL participated in the data analysis.

Authors’ Biographies

Sittie Mairah H. O. Ali is currently connected to Integrated Provincial Health Office in Lanao del Sur, graduated Master of Arts in Nursing major in Nursing Administration from the Mindanao State University - Main Campus Marawi City, a frontline health worker in the community serving the public with utmost integrity and perseverance. Her research interests include maternal and child health, family planning, nursing administration, climate change, public administration, and public health.

Dr. Ashley Ali Bangcola is a holder of a Doctor of Science in Nursing degree major in Gerontology Nursing from the Cebu Normal University in the Philippines. She graduated with a Master of Arts in Nursing major in Nursing Administration from the Mindanao State University in 2011. She is an Associate Professor at the Mindanao State University – College of Health Sciences and the current Research Coordinator of the same. Her research interests include gerontology nursing, nursing education, maternal and childcare, nursing administration, spiritual health care, and mental health.

Dr. Athena Jalaliyah Derico Lawi is a Nurse Educator who has finished a Bachelor of Science in Nursing at the Mindanao State University College of Health Sciences. She completed Masters in Nursing and Master of Arts in Nursing Major in Medical-Surgical Nursing at the Liceo de Cagayan University, Cagayan De Oro City, and Doctor of Philosophy Major in Educational Planning and Management at the Mindanao University of Science and Technology-now University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines In Cagayan De Oro City. She is now the Chairman of the Nursing Department of the MSU College of Health Sciences.

Data Availability

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Writing Tutorial Services

How to write a thesis statement, what is a thesis statement.

Almost all of us—even if we don’t do it consciously—look early in an essay for a one- or two-sentence condensation of the argument or analysis that is to follow. We refer to that condensation as a thesis statement.

Why Should Your Essay Contain a Thesis Statement?

  • to test your ideas by distilling them into a sentence or two
  • to better organize and develop your argument
  • to provide your reader with a “guide” to your argument

In general, your thesis statement will accomplish these goals if you think of the thesis as the answer to the question your paper explores.

How Can You Write a Good Thesis Statement?

Here are some helpful hints to get you started. You can either scroll down or select a link to a specific topic.

How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is Assigned How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is not Assigned How to Tell a Strong Thesis Statement from a Weak One

How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is Assigned

Almost all assignments, no matter how complicated, can be reduced to a single question. Your first step, then, is to distill the assignment into a specific question. For example, if your assignment is, “Write a report to the local school board explaining the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class,” turn the request into a question like, “What are the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class?” After you’ve chosen the question your essay will answer, compose one or two complete sentences answering that question.

Q: “What are the potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class?” A: “The potential benefits of using computers in a fourth-grade class are . . .”
A: “Using computers in a fourth-grade class promises to improve . . .”

The answer to the question is the thesis statement for the essay.

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How to Generate a Thesis Statement if the Topic is not Assigned

Even if your assignment doesn’t ask a specific question, your thesis statement still needs to answer a question about the issue you’d like to explore. In this situation, your job is to figure out what question you’d like to write about.

A good thesis statement will usually include the following four attributes:

  • take on a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree
  • deal with a subject that can be adequately treated given the nature of the assignment
  • express one main idea
  • assert your conclusions about a subject

Let’s see how to generate a thesis statement for a social policy paper.

Brainstorm the topic . Let’s say that your class focuses upon the problems posed by changes in the dietary habits of Americans. You find that you are interested in the amount of sugar Americans consume.

You start out with a thesis statement like this:

Sugar consumption.

This fragment isn’t a thesis statement. Instead, it simply indicates a general subject. Furthermore, your reader doesn’t know what you want to say about sugar consumption.

Narrow the topic . Your readings about the topic, however, have led you to the conclusion that elementary school children are consuming far more sugar than is healthy.

You change your thesis to look like this:

Reducing sugar consumption by elementary school children.

This fragment not only announces your subject, but it focuses on one segment of the population: elementary school children. Furthermore, it raises a subject upon which reasonable people could disagree, because while most people might agree that children consume more sugar than they used to, not everyone would agree on what should be done or who should do it. You should note that this fragment is not a thesis statement because your reader doesn’t know your conclusions on the topic.

Take a position on the topic. After reflecting on the topic a little while longer, you decide that what you really want to say about this topic is that something should be done to reduce the amount of sugar these children consume.

You revise your thesis statement to look like this:

More attention should be paid to the food and beverage choices available to elementary school children.

This statement asserts your position, but the terms more attention and food and beverage choices are vague.

Use specific language . You decide to explain what you mean about food and beverage choices , so you write:

Experts estimate that half of elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar.

This statement is specific, but it isn’t a thesis. It merely reports a statistic instead of making an assertion.

Make an assertion based on clearly stated support. You finally revise your thesis statement one more time to look like this:

Because half of all American elementary school children consume nine times the recommended daily allowance of sugar, schools should be required to replace the beverages in soda machines with healthy alternatives.

Notice how the thesis answers the question, “What should be done to reduce sugar consumption by children, and who should do it?” When you started thinking about the paper, you may not have had a specific question in mind, but as you became more involved in the topic, your ideas became more specific. Your thesis changed to reflect your new insights.

How to Tell a Strong Thesis Statement from a Weak One

1. a strong thesis statement takes some sort of stand..

Remember that your thesis needs to show your conclusions about a subject. For example, if you are writing a paper for a class on fitness, you might be asked to choose a popular weight-loss product to evaluate. Here are two thesis statements:

There are some negative and positive aspects to the Banana Herb Tea Supplement.

This is a weak thesis statement. First, it fails to take a stand. Second, the phrase negative and positive aspects is vague.

Because Banana Herb Tea Supplement promotes rapid weight loss that results in the loss of muscle and lean body mass, it poses a potential danger to customers.

This is a strong thesis because it takes a stand, and because it's specific.

2. A strong thesis statement justifies discussion.

Your thesis should indicate the point of the discussion. If your assignment is to write a paper on kinship systems, using your own family as an example, you might come up with either of these two thesis statements:

My family is an extended family.

This is a weak thesis because it merely states an observation. Your reader won’t be able to tell the point of the statement, and will probably stop reading.

While most American families would view consanguineal marriage as a threat to the nuclear family structure, many Iranian families, like my own, believe that these marriages help reinforce kinship ties in an extended family.

This is a strong thesis because it shows how your experience contradicts a widely-accepted view. A good strategy for creating a strong thesis is to show that the topic is controversial. Readers will be interested in reading the rest of the essay to see how you support your point.

3. A strong thesis statement expresses one main idea.

Readers need to be able to see that your paper has one main point. If your thesis statement expresses more than one idea, then you might confuse your readers about the subject of your paper. For example:

Companies need to exploit the marketing potential of the Internet, and Web pages can provide both advertising and customer support.

This is a weak thesis statement because the reader can’t decide whether the paper is about marketing on the Internet or Web pages. To revise the thesis, the relationship between the two ideas needs to become more clear. One way to revise the thesis would be to write:

Because the Internet is filled with tremendous marketing potential, companies should exploit this potential by using Web pages that offer both advertising and customer support.

This is a strong thesis because it shows that the two ideas are related. Hint: a great many clear and engaging thesis statements contain words like because , since , so , although , unless , and however .

4. A strong thesis statement is specific.

A thesis statement should show exactly what your paper will be about, and will help you keep your paper to a manageable topic. For example, if you're writing a seven-to-ten page paper on hunger, you might say:

World hunger has many causes and effects.

This is a weak thesis statement for two major reasons. First, world hunger can’t be discussed thoroughly in seven to ten pages. Second, many causes and effects is vague. You should be able to identify specific causes and effects. A revised thesis might look like this:

Hunger persists in Glandelinia because jobs are scarce and farming in the infertile soil is rarely profitable.

This is a strong thesis statement because it narrows the subject to a more specific and manageable topic, and it also identifies the specific causes for the existence of hunger.

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Developing a Thesis Statement

Many papers you write require developing a thesis statement. In this section you’ll learn what a thesis statement is and how to write one.

Keep in mind that not all papers require thesis statements . If in doubt, please consult your instructor for assistance.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement . . .

  • Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic.
  • Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper.
  • Is focused and specific enough to be “proven” within the boundaries of your paper.
  • Is generally located near the end of the introduction ; sometimes, in a long paper, the thesis will be expressed in several sentences or in an entire paragraph.
  • Identifies the relationships between the pieces of evidence that you are using to support your argument.

Not all papers require thesis statements! Ask your instructor if you’re in doubt whether you need one.

Identify a topic

Your topic is the subject about which you will write. Your assignment may suggest several ways of looking at a topic; or it may name a fairly general concept that you will explore or analyze in your paper.

Consider what your assignment asks you to do

Inform yourself about your topic, focus on one aspect of your topic, ask yourself whether your topic is worthy of your efforts, generate a topic from an assignment.

Below are some possible topics based on sample assignments.

Sample assignment 1

Analyze Spain’s neutrality in World War II.

Identified topic

Franco’s role in the diplomatic relationships between the Allies and the Axis

This topic avoids generalities such as “Spain” and “World War II,” addressing instead on Franco’s role (a specific aspect of “Spain”) and the diplomatic relations between the Allies and Axis (a specific aspect of World War II).

Sample assignment 2

Analyze one of Homer’s epic similes in the Iliad.

The relationship between the portrayal of warfare and the epic simile about Simoisius at 4.547-64.

This topic focuses on a single simile and relates it to a single aspect of the Iliad ( warfare being a major theme in that work).

Developing a Thesis Statement–Additional information

Your assignment may suggest several ways of looking at a topic, or it may name a fairly general concept that you will explore or analyze in your paper. You’ll want to read your assignment carefully, looking for key terms that you can use to focus your topic.

Sample assignment: Analyze Spain’s neutrality in World War II Key terms: analyze, Spain’s neutrality, World War II

After you’ve identified the key words in your topic, the next step is to read about them in several sources, or generate as much information as possible through an analysis of your topic. Obviously, the more material or knowledge you have, the more possibilities will be available for a strong argument. For the sample assignment above, you’ll want to look at books and articles on World War II in general, and Spain’s neutrality in particular.

As you consider your options, you must decide to focus on one aspect of your topic. This means that you cannot include everything you’ve learned about your topic, nor should you go off in several directions. If you end up covering too many different aspects of a topic, your paper will sprawl and be unconvincing in its argument, and it most likely will not fulfull the assignment requirements.

For the sample assignment above, both Spain’s neutrality and World War II are topics far too broad to explore in a paper. You may instead decide to focus on Franco’s role in the diplomatic relationships between the Allies and the Axis , which narrows down what aspects of Spain’s neutrality and World War II you want to discuss, as well as establishes a specific link between those two aspects.

Before you go too far, however, ask yourself whether your topic is worthy of your efforts. Try to avoid topics that already have too much written about them (i.e., “eating disorders and body image among adolescent women”) or that simply are not important (i.e. “why I like ice cream”). These topics may lead to a thesis that is either dry fact or a weird claim that cannot be supported. A good thesis falls somewhere between the two extremes. To arrive at this point, ask yourself what is new, interesting, contestable, or controversial about your topic.

As you work on your thesis, remember to keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times . Sometimes your thesis needs to evolve as you develop new insights, find new evidence, or take a different approach to your topic.

Derive a main point from topic

Once you have a topic, you will have to decide what the main point of your paper will be. This point, the “controlling idea,” becomes the core of your argument (thesis statement) and it is the unifying idea to which you will relate all your sub-theses. You can then turn this “controlling idea” into a purpose statement about what you intend to do in your paper.

Look for patterns in your evidence

Compose a purpose statement.

Consult the examples below for suggestions on how to look for patterns in your evidence and construct a purpose statement.

  • Franco first tried to negotiate with the Axis
  • Franco turned to the Allies when he couldn’t get some concessions that he wanted from the Axis

Possible conclusion:

Spain’s neutrality in WWII occurred for an entirely personal reason: Franco’s desire to preserve his own (and Spain’s) power.

Purpose statement

This paper will analyze Franco’s diplomacy during World War II to see how it contributed to Spain’s neutrality.
  • The simile compares Simoisius to a tree, which is a peaceful, natural image.
  • The tree in the simile is chopped down to make wheels for a chariot, which is an object used in warfare.

At first, the simile seems to take the reader away from the world of warfare, but we end up back in that world by the end.

This paper will analyze the way the simile about Simoisius at 4.547-64 moves in and out of the world of warfare.

Derive purpose statement from topic

To find out what your “controlling idea” is, you have to examine and evaluate your evidence . As you consider your evidence, you may notice patterns emerging, data repeated in more than one source, or facts that favor one view more than another. These patterns or data may then lead you to some conclusions about your topic and suggest that you can successfully argue for one idea better than another.

For instance, you might find out that Franco first tried to negotiate with the Axis, but when he couldn’t get some concessions that he wanted from them, he turned to the Allies. As you read more about Franco’s decisions, you may conclude that Spain’s neutrality in WWII occurred for an entirely personal reason: his desire to preserve his own (and Spain’s) power. Based on this conclusion, you can then write a trial thesis statement to help you decide what material belongs in your paper.

Sometimes you won’t be able to find a focus or identify your “spin” or specific argument immediately. Like some writers, you might begin with a purpose statement just to get yourself going. A purpose statement is one or more sentences that announce your topic and indicate the structure of the paper but do not state the conclusions you have drawn . Thus, you might begin with something like this:

  • This paper will look at modern language to see if it reflects male dominance or female oppression.
  • I plan to analyze anger and derision in offensive language to see if they represent a challenge of society’s authority.

At some point, you can turn a purpose statement into a thesis statement. As you think and write about your topic, you can restrict, clarify, and refine your argument, crafting your thesis statement to reflect your thinking.

As you work on your thesis, remember to keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times. Sometimes your thesis needs to evolve as you develop new insights, find new evidence, or take a different approach to your topic.

Compose a draft thesis statement

If you are writing a paper that will have an argumentative thesis and are having trouble getting started, the techniques in the table below may help you develop a temporary or “working” thesis statement.

Begin with a purpose statement that you will later turn into a thesis statement.

Assignment: Discuss the history of the Reform Party and explain its influence on the 1990 presidential and Congressional election.

Purpose Statement: This paper briefly sketches the history of the grassroots, conservative, Perot-led Reform Party and analyzes how it influenced the economic and social ideologies of the two mainstream parties.

Question-to-Assertion

If your assignment asks a specific question(s), turn the question(s) into an assertion and give reasons why it is true or reasons for your opinion.

Assignment : What do Aylmer and Rappaccini have to be proud of? Why aren’t they satisfied with these things? How does pride, as demonstrated in “The Birthmark” and “Rappaccini’s Daughter,” lead to unexpected problems?

Beginning thesis statement: Alymer and Rappaccinni are proud of their great knowledge; however, they are also very greedy and are driven to use their knowledge to alter some aspect of nature as a test of their ability. Evil results when they try to “play God.”

Write a sentence that summarizes the main idea of the essay you plan to write.

Main idea: The reason some toys succeed in the market is that they appeal to the consumers’ sense of the ridiculous and their basic desire to laugh at themselves.

Make a list of the ideas that you want to include; consider the ideas and try to group them.

  • nature = peaceful
  • war matériel = violent (competes with 1?)
  • need for time and space to mourn the dead
  • war is inescapable (competes with 3?)

Use a formula to arrive at a working thesis statement (you will revise this later).

  • although most readers of _______ have argued that _______, closer examination shows that _______.
  • _______ uses _______ and _____ to prove that ________.
  • phenomenon x is a result of the combination of __________, __________, and _________.

What to keep in mind as you draft an initial thesis statement

Beginning statements obtained through the methods illustrated above can serve as a framework for planning or drafting your paper, but remember they’re not yet the specific, argumentative thesis you want for the final version of your paper. In fact, in its first stages, a thesis statement usually is ill-formed or rough and serves only as a planning tool.

As you write, you may discover evidence that does not fit your temporary or “working” thesis. Or you may reach deeper insights about your topic as you do more research, and you will find that your thesis statement has to be more complicated to match the evidence that you want to use.

You must be willing to reject or omit some evidence in order to keep your paper cohesive and your reader focused. Or you may have to revise your thesis to match the evidence and insights that you want to discuss. Read your draft carefully, noting the conclusions you have drawn and the major ideas which support or prove those conclusions. These will be the elements of your final thesis statement.

Sometimes you will not be able to identify these elements in your early drafts, but as you consider how your argument is developing and how your evidence supports your main idea, ask yourself, “ What is the main point that I want to prove/discuss? ” and “ How will I convince the reader that this is true? ” When you can answer these questions, then you can begin to refine the thesis statement.

Refine and polish the thesis statement

To get to your final thesis, you’ll need to refine your draft thesis so that it’s specific and arguable.

  • Ask if your draft thesis addresses the assignment
  • Question each part of your draft thesis
  • Clarify vague phrases and assertions
  • Investigate alternatives to your draft thesis

Consult the example below for suggestions on how to refine your draft thesis statement.

Sample Assignment

Choose an activity and define it as a symbol of American culture. Your essay should cause the reader to think critically about the society which produces and enjoys that activity.

  • Ask The phenomenon of drive-in facilities is an interesting symbol of american culture, and these facilities demonstrate significant characteristics of our society.This statement does not fulfill the assignment because it does not require the reader to think critically about society.
Drive-ins are an interesting symbol of American culture because they represent Americans’ significant creativity and business ingenuity.
Among the types of drive-in facilities familiar during the twentieth century, drive-in movie theaters best represent American creativity, not merely because they were the forerunner of later drive-ins and drive-throughs, but because of their impact on our culture: they changed our relationship to the automobile, changed the way people experienced movies, and changed movie-going into a family activity.
While drive-in facilities such as those at fast-food establishments, banks, pharmacies, and dry cleaners symbolize America’s economic ingenuity, they also have affected our personal standards.
While drive-in facilities such as those at fast- food restaurants, banks, pharmacies, and dry cleaners symbolize (1) Americans’ business ingenuity, they also have contributed (2) to an increasing homogenization of our culture, (3) a willingness to depersonalize relationships with others, and (4) a tendency to sacrifice quality for convenience.

This statement is now specific and fulfills all parts of the assignment. This version, like any good thesis, is not self-evident; its points, 1-4, will have to be proven with evidence in the body of the paper. The numbers in this statement indicate the order in which the points will be presented. Depending on the length of the paper, there could be one paragraph for each numbered item or there could be blocks of paragraph for even pages for each one.

Complete the final thesis statement

The bottom line.

As you move through the process of crafting a thesis, you’ll need to remember four things:

  • Context matters! Think about your course materials and lectures. Try to relate your thesis to the ideas your instructor is discussing.
  • As you go through the process described in this section, always keep your assignment in mind . You will be more successful when your thesis (and paper) responds to the assignment than if it argues a semi-related idea.
  • Your thesis statement should be precise, focused, and contestable ; it should predict the sub-theses or blocks of information that you will use to prove your argument.
  • Make sure that you keep the rest of your paper in mind at all times. Change your thesis as your paper evolves, because you do not want your thesis to promise more than your paper actually delivers.

In the beginning, the thesis statement was a tool to help you sharpen your focus, limit material and establish the paper’s purpose. When your paper is finished, however, the thesis statement becomes a tool for your reader. It tells the reader what you have learned about your topic and what evidence led you to your conclusion. It keeps the reader on track–well able to understand and appreciate your argument.

thesis statement about family practices

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25 Thesis Statement Examples That Will Make Writing a Breeze

JBirdwellBranson

Understanding what makes a good thesis statement is one of the major keys to writing a great research paper or argumentative essay. The thesis statement is where you make a claim that will guide you through your entire paper. If you find yourself struggling to make sense of your paper or your topic, then it's likely due to a weak thesis statement.

Let's take a minute to first understand what makes a solid thesis statement, and what key components you need to write one of your own.

Perfecting Your Thesis Statement

A thesis statement always goes at the beginning of the paper. It will typically be in the first couple of paragraphs of the paper so that it can introduce the body paragraphs, which are the supporting evidence for your thesis statement.

Your thesis statement should clearly identify an argument. You need to have a statement that is not only easy to understand, but one that is debatable. What that means is that you can't just put any statement of fact and have it be your thesis. For example, everyone knows that puppies are cute . An ineffective thesis statement would be, "Puppies are adorable and everyone knows it." This isn't really something that's a debatable topic.

Something that would be more debatable would be, "A puppy's cuteness is derived from its floppy ears, small body, and playfulness." These are three things that can be debated on. Some people might think that the cutest thing about puppies is the fact that they follow you around or that they're really soft and fuzzy.

All cuteness aside, you want to make sure that your thesis statement is not only debatable, but that it also actually thoroughly answers the research question that was posed. You always want to make sure that your evidence is supporting a claim that you made (and not the other way around). This is why it's crucial to read and research about a topic first and come to a conclusion later. If you try to get your research to fit your thesis statement, then it may not work out as neatly as you think. As you learn more, you discover more (and the outcome may not be what you originally thought).

Additionally, your thesis statement shouldn't be too big or too grand. It'll be hard to cover everything in a thesis statement like, "The federal government should act now on climate change." The topic is just too large to actually say something new and meaningful. Instead, a more effective thesis statement might be, "Local governments can combat climate change by providing citizens with larger recycling bins and offering local classes about composting and conservation." This is easier to work with because it's a smaller idea, but you can also discuss the overall topic that you might be interested in, which is climate change.

So, now that we know what makes a good, solid thesis statement, you can start to write your own. If you find that you're getting stuck or you are the type of person who needs to look at examples before you start something, then check out our list of thesis statement examples below.

Thesis statement examples

A quick note that these thesis statements have not been fully researched. These are merely examples to show you what a thesis statement might look like and how you can implement your own ideas into one that you think of independently. As such, you should not use these thesis statements for your own research paper purposes. They are meant to be used as examples only.

  • Vaccinations Because many children are unable to vaccinate due to illness, we must require that all healthy and able children be vaccinated in order to have herd immunity.
  • Educational Resources for Low-Income Students Schools should provide educational resources for low-income students during the summers so that they don't forget what they've learned throughout the school year.
  • School Uniforms School uniforms may be an upfront cost for families, but they eradicate the visual differences in income between students and provide a more egalitarian atmosphere at school.
  • Populism The rise in populism on the 2016 political stage was in reaction to increasing globalization, the decline of manufacturing jobs, and the Syrian refugee crisis.
  • Public Libraries Libraries are essential resources for communities and should be funded more heavily by local municipalities.
  • Cyber Bullying With more and more teens using smartphones and social media, cyber bullying is on the rise. Cyber bullying puts a lot of stress on many teens, and can cause depression, anxiety, and even suicidal thoughts. Parents should limit the usage of smart phones, monitor their children's online activity, and report any cyber bullying to school officials in order to combat this problem.
  • Medical Marijuana for Veterans Studies have shown that the use of medicinal marijuana has been helpful to veterans who suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Medicinal marijuana prescriptions should be legal in all states and provided to these veterans. Additional medical or therapy services should also be researched and implemented in order to help them re-integrate back into civilian life.
  • Work-Life Balance Corporations should provide more work from home opportunities and six-hour workdays so that office workers have a better work-life balance and are more likely to be productive when they are in the office.
  • Teaching Youths about Consensual Sex Although sex education that includes a discussion of consensual sex would likely lead to less sexual assault, parents need to teach their children the meaning of consent from a young age with age appropriate lessons.
  • Whether or Not to Attend University A degree from a university provides invaluable lessons on life and a future career, but not every high school student should be encouraged to attend a university directly after graduation. Some students may benefit from a trade school or a "gap year" where they can think more intensely about what it is they want to do for a career and how they can accomplish this.
  • Studying Abroad Studying abroad is one of the most culturally valuable experiences you can have in college. It is the only way to get completely immersed in another language and learn how other cultures and countries are different from your own.
  • Women's Body Image Magazines have done a lot in the last five years to include a more diverse group of models, but there is still a long way to go to promote a healthy woman's body image collectively as a culture.
  • Cigarette Tax Heavily taxing and increasing the price of cigarettes is essentially a tax on the poorest Americans, and it doesn't deter them from purchasing. Instead, the state and federal governments should target those economically disenfranchised with early education about the dangers of smoking.
  • Veganism A vegan diet, while a healthy and ethical way to consume food, indicates a position of privilege. It also limits you to other cultural food experiences if you travel around the world.
  • University Athletes Should be Compensated University athletes should be compensated for their service to the university, as it is difficult for these students to procure and hold a job with busy academic and athletic schedules. Many student athletes on scholarship also come from low-income neighborhoods and it is a struggle to make ends meet when they are participating in athletics.
  • Women in the Workforce Sheryl Sandberg makes a lot of interesting points in her best-selling book, Lean In , but she only addressed the very privileged working woman and failed to speak to those in lower-skilled, lower-wage jobs.
  • Assisted Suicide Assisted suicide should be legal and doctors should have the ability to make sure their patients have the end-of-life care that they want to receive.
  • Celebrity and Political Activism Although Taylor Swift's lyrics are indicative of a feminist perspective, she should be more politically active and vocal to use her position of power for the betterment of society.
  • The Civil War The insistence from many Southerners that the South seceded from the Union for states' rights versus the fact that they seceded for the purposes of continuing slavery is a harmful myth that still affects race relations today.
  • Blue Collar Workers Coal miners and other blue-collar workers whose jobs are slowly disappearing from the workforce should be re-trained in jobs in the technology sector or in renewable energy. A program to re-train these workers would not only improve local economies where jobs have been displaced, but would also lead to lower unemployment nationally.
  • Diversity in the Workforce Having a diverse group of people in an office setting leads to richer ideas, more cooperation, and more empathy between people with different skin colors or backgrounds.
  • Re-Imagining the Nuclear Family The nuclear family was traditionally defined as one mother, one father, and 2.5 children. This outdated depiction of family life doesn't quite fit with modern society. The definition of normal family life shouldn't be limited to two-parent households.
  • Digital Literacy Skills With more information readily available than ever before, it's crucial that students are prepared to examine the material they're reading and determine whether or not it's a good source or if it has misleading information. Teaching students digital literacy and helping them to understand the difference between opinion or propaganda from legitimate, real information is integral.
  • Beauty Pageants Beauty pageants are presented with the angle that they empower women. However, putting women in a swimsuit on a stage while simultaneously judging them on how well they answer an impossible question in a short period of time is cruel and purely for the amusement of men. Therefore, we should stop televising beauty pageants.
  • Supporting More Women to Run for a Political Position In order to get more women into political positions, more women must run for office. There must be a grassroots effort to educate women on how to run for office, who among them should run, and support for a future candidate for getting started on a political career.

Still stuck? Need some help with your thesis statement?

If you are still uncertain about how to write a thesis statement or what a good thesis statement is, be sure to consult with your teacher or professor to make sure you're on the right track. It's always a good idea to check in and make sure that your thesis statement is making a solid argument and that it can be supported by your research.

After you're done writing, it's important to have someone take a second look at your paper so that you can ensure there are no mistakes or errors. It's difficult to spot your own mistakes, which is why it's always recommended to have someone help you with the revision process, whether that's a teacher, the writing center at school, or a professional editor such as one from ServiceScape .

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Practice in Identifying Effective Thesis Statements

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  • An Introduction to Punctuation
  • Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia
  • M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester
  • B.A., English, State University of New York

This exercise will help you understand the difference between an effective and ineffective thesis statement , ie a sentence that identifies the main idea and central purpose of an essay .

Instructions

For each pair of sentences below, select the one that you think would make the more effective thesis in the introductory paragraph of a short essay (approximately 400 to 600 words). Keep in mind that an effective thesis statement should be sharply focused and specific , not just a general statement of fact.

When you're done, you may want to discuss your answers with your classmates, and then compare your responses with the suggested answers on page two. Be ready to defend your choices. Because these thesis statements appear outside the context of complete essays, all responses are judgment calls, not absolute certainties.

  • (a) The Hunger Games is a science fiction adventure film based on the novel of the same name by Suzanne Collins. (b) The Hunger Games is a morality tale about the dangers of a political system that is dominated by the wealthy.
  • (a) There is no question that cell phones have changed our lives in a very big way. (b) While cell phones provide freedom and mobility, they can also become a leash, compelling users to answer them anywhere and at any time.
  • (a) Finding a job is never easy, but it can be especially hard when the economy is still feeling the effects of a recession and employers are reluctant to hire new workers. (b) College students looking for part-time work should begin their search by taking advantage of job-finding resources on campus.
  • (a) For the past three decades, coconut oil has been unjustly criticized as an artery-clogging saturated fat. (b) Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat that is used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking.
  • (a) There have been over 200 movies about Count Dracula, most of them only very loosely based on the novel published by Bram Stoker in 1897. (b) Despite its title, Bram Stoker's Dracula , a film directed by Francis Ford Coppola, takes considerable liberties with Stoker's novel.
  • (a) There are several steps that teachers can take to encourage academic integrity and curtail cheating in their classes. (b) There is an epidemic of cheating in America's schools and colleges, and there are no easy solutions to this problem.
  • (a) J. Robert Oppenheimer, the American physicist who directed the building of the first atomic bombs during World War II, had technical, moral, and political reasons for opposing the development of the hydrogen bomb. (b) J. Robert Oppenheimer often referred to as "the father of the atomic bomb," was born in New York City in 1904.
  • (a) The iPad has revolutionized the mobile-computing landscape and created a huge profit stream for Apple. (b) The iPad, with its relatively large high-definition screen, has helped to revitalize the comic book industry.
  • (a) Like other addictive behaviors, Internet addiction may have serious negative consequences, including academic failure, job loss, and a breakdown in personal relationships. (b) Drug and alcohol addiction is a major problem in the world today, and many people suffer from it.
  • (a) When I was a child I used to visit my grandmother in Moline every Sunday. (b) Every Sunday we visited my grandmother, who lived in a tiny house that was undeniably haunted.
  • (a)  The bicycle was introduced in the nineteenth century and rapidly grew into a worldwide phenomenon. (b) In several ways, bicycles today are better than they were 100 or even 50 years ago.
  • (a) Although many varieties of beans belong in a healthy diet, among the most nutritious are black beans, kidney beans, chickpeas, and pinto beans. (b) Although beans are generally good for you, some kinds of raw beans can be dangerous if they're not well cooked.

Suggested Answers

  • (b)   The Hunger Games  is a morality tale about the dangers of a political system that is dominated by the wealthy.
  • (b) While cell phones provide freedom and mobility, they can also become a leash, compelling users to answer them anywhere and at any time.
  • (b) College students looking for part-time work should begin their search by taking advantage of job-finding resources on campus.
  • (a) For the past three decades, coconut oil has been unjustly criticized as an artery-clogging saturated fat.
  • (b) Despite its title,  Bram Stoker's Dracula , a film directed by Francis Ford Coppola, takes considerable liberties with Stoker's novel.
  • (a) There are several steps that teachers can take to encourage academic integrity and curtail cheating in their classes.
  • (a) J. Robert Oppenheimer , the American physicist who directed the building of the first atomic bombs during World War II, had technical, moral, and political reasons for opposing the development of the hydrogen bomb.
  • (b) The iPad, with its relatively large high-definition screen, has helped to revitalize the comic book industry.
  • (a) Like other addictive behaviors, Internet addiction may have serious negative consequences, including academic failure, job loss, and a breakdown in personal relationships.
  • (b) Every Sunday we visited my grandmother, who lived in a tiny house that was undeniably haunted.
  • (b) In several ways, bicycles today are better than they were 100 or even 50 years ago.
  • (a) Although many varieties of beans belong in a healthy diet, among the most nutritious are black beans, kidney beans, chickpeas, and pinto beans. 
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8.1: Thesis Statements - simple and complex

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TOPIC VERSUS THESIS?

The subject you are writing about is the topic. Add your opinion to a topic to create a thesis.

Topic + opinion = thesis

Add the significance to make a more complex thesis:

Topic + opinion + so what? = thesis

WHAT IS A THESIS?

The thesis is the main point of an essay, a focused, arguable statement which allows the reader to make predictions about the reading.

WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EFFECTIVE THESIS?

  • The language is clear , straight-forward and can’t be misunderstood.
  • It is contestable and arguable. Ask yourself: Could someone disagree? The answer should be yes.
  • It is concentrated on a focused point: not too broad and not too narrow, but the right size for the assignment.
  • It is complex and delves into the larger significance or impact.
  • It is compelling and draws in your readers’ interest and makes them want to read more to see how you prove your claim.
  • It is directly connected to the prompt/question/assignment for the essay.

A THESIS IS NOT:

Why use a thesis.

  • It allows the reader to make predictions about the reading.
  • It guides the writer to stay focused on the main idea of the essay.
  • It generates thought, evidence and analysis.
  • What am I trying to accomplish in this essay?
  • What do I want to convince my reader of?

HOW DO I KNOW IT'S A THESIS?

TOPIC + OPINION = THESIS

A thesis is TOPIC + OPINION so you need to make sure that opinion in present or else it is not a thesis statement. The opinion is what makes a thesis arguable and it provides the purpose and focus for the paper: to convince your reader of that opinion.

Locating the Opinion in a Thesis: When you look for the opinion in a thesis, ask yourself: What is the writer’s attitude towards the topic? For example, in the sentence “Backpacking in the mountains last year was an exciting experience,” the topic is “backpacking” and the opinion is that this trip was “exciting.” Another person on the same trip might have had a different attitude and may have found the trip boring or exhausting. “Exciting” reveals the writer’s attitude and also indicates what the essay with this thesis statement will be focused on: demonstrating why it was “exciting.” This thesis statement limits the writer’s focus and clearly tells the reader what the essay will be about.

Practice: Topic and Opinion of a thesis

Put a box around the TOPIC and underline the OPINION words below. If there are no opinion words, it is not a thesis :

  • The subject of unwarranted fears, most bats are harmless and highly beneficial.
  • Vigorous exercise is a good way to reduce the effects of stress on the body.
  • Buffalo and Toronto differ in four major ways.
  • Developing color film is more complicated than developing black and white.
  • In this essay I will discuss abortion.
  • Television is destroying the unity of the modern family.
  • In her essay, Erlich shows that there is a balance of community and isolation in her hometown.

Put a box around the TOPIC and underline the OPINION words below:

  • The subject of unwarranted fears, most bats are harmless and highly beneficial .
  • In this essay I will discuss abortion (no opinion words—not a thesis)
  • In her essay, Erlich shows that there is a balance of community and isolation in her hometown .

HOW DO I KNOW IT'S A COMPLEX THESIS?

TOPIC + OPINION + SO WHAT? = COMPLEX THESIS

A complex thesis is TOPIC + OPINION + SO WHAT? To form an arguable thesis, add opinion to a topic, and to make a more complex thesis, add “so what?” So what is the larger significance, the implications, and/or the outcomes of what you are arguing?

Practice: List the thesis topic and opinion

Below are student-created thesis statements about non-fiction texts. For each thesis, list the TOPIC, the OPINION and the “SO WHAT?”

THESIS STATEMENTS ON NON-FICTION TEXTS:

(1) In Field Notes from a Catastrophe, Elizabeth Kolbert seeks to use the evidence she has collected across her years of worldwide travel to show how we should best address climate change. Kolbert uses the island of Samsø to support her case for the mass implementation of alternative energy sources, but she does not point out the many cons that come with the use of alternative energy sources that are wind, biofuels, and solar which is reason enough to refrain from attempts at a greater implementation of them until problems of space, waste, and cost are addressed. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________ (2) In her book Field Notes from a Catastrophe , Elizabeth Kolbert argues that everybody needs to work on ending humans’ carbon emissions to prevent catastrophic climate change on our planet. However, at this point, catastrophic climate change in inevitable, so instead we need to focus our efforts on researching ways to make the new climates survivable. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________

(3) T.V Reed in his book The Art of Protest, argues that environmentalism has been coded as a “white issue.” If those raising the awareness are perceived as largely white and well-off preaching to and within the same demographic, the probability of those most impacted, namely the poor communities of color who disproportionately suffer environmental hazards and toxic dumps, having a voice is dismal, so meaningful change will not occur. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________ (4) In The Art of Protest , T.V. Reed in his chapter “Singing Civil Rights,” says that music during the time of the Civil Rights Movement soulfully spoke about the oppressions of racism against blacks in America. Nowadays, Hip-Hop is one of the main driving forces keeping the conversation going about the continued inequalities that blacks suffer, and this is particularly important in an age of rising police brutality targeted at black men. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________ (5) In I Am Malala, Malala Yousafzai shows how education can be used to combat terrorism in Pakistan because when people become more educated, they can more confidently self-advocate and are less susceptible to being falsely seduced by empty propaganda, so if the country follows Malala’s lead, it can rid itself of the Taliban influence. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________

(6) Malala Yousafzai’s story, as told in her book I am Malala , is powerful and her cause is admirable but her idea that education combats terrorism is simplistic and glosses over the importance of the geopolitical situation Pakistan finds itself in. Education in this environment is no guarantee of deradicalization and may even work to galvanize their cause. In a political context of postcolonial exploitation where foreign governments actively try to destabilize the country and fund extremist groups, education will just make more effective terrorists. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________ (7) In Anthony Swofford’s Jarhead , we see a military culture of toxic masculinity—where relationships with women are transactional, showing emotional sensitivity is weakness, and violence is the preferred method of conflict resolution. This phenomenon is systemic in all branches of the military and is the catalyst for the extensive number of sexual harassment cases, rape, and high rates of suicide for service members. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________ (8) In Jarhead, Anthony Swofford described how the soldier’s first amendment rights are suspended once they sign the military contract. This silencing ensures that the Marines continue to follow orders from the “top” without any objections, and this control ensures that the interests of the rich and powerful are protected while the rights of the soldiers as U.S. citizens are violated, and this enables war for profit to continue. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________

(1) Topic : greater implementation of alternative energy sources Opinion: problems with alternative energy are not satisfactorily solved So What? wider implementation of alternative energy could worsen current problems of space, waste and cost

(2) Topic : catastrophic climate change Opinion: catastrophic climate change is inevitable So What? need to refocus efforts from reducing carbon emissions to adaptation and survival

(3) Topic : only whites leading environment movement Opinion: non-whites most impacted but no voice So What? no change

(4) Topic : music conveying black oppression Opinion: today hip-hop conveys on-going black oppression So What? importantly exposes rise in police brutality targeting black men

(5) Topic : education to combat terrorism in Pakistan Opinion: more education leads to people self-advocating and not being tricked by propaganda So What? Pakistan can rid itself of Taliban

(6) Topic : education to combat terrorism in Pakistan Opinion: foreign countries are actively trying to destabilize Pakistan and are funding extremists So What? education will make more effective terrorists

(7) Topic : military culture of toxic masculinity Opinion: toxic masculinity is systemic in all branches of military So What? leads to sexual harassment, rape and suicide

(8) Topic : freedom of speech of soldiers suspended Opinion: silence allows the rich and powerful to use soldiers as they like So What? allows war for profit to continue

Practice: List the "topic", "opinion" and "so what"?

Below are student-created thesis statements about fiction texts. For each thesis, list the TOPIC, the OPINION and the “SO WHAT?”

THESIS STATEMENTS ON FICTION TEXTS: POETRY

(1) Before the abolition of slavery in 1865, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, fashioned her poem “Bury Me in a Free Land” to sharpen the glaring contradiction between the most cherished American value of freedom, and its antithesis expressed in the enslavement and brutalization of African Americans. Harper thereby forces her readers to come to terms with their own hypocrisy as Americans to hasten the demise of slavery. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________ (2) In the different stanzas in her poem “Bury Me in a Free Land,” Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, gives graphic snapshots depicting the horrors of slavery: blacks sold like animals on the auction block, escaped blacks being hunted down, blacks being whipped and beaten bloody, black babies being taken from mothers. Unfortunately, African-Americans living in the “land of the free” today still suffer many of these same forms of injustice as their labor continues to be exploited, as they suffer higher rates of profiling and murder, and as their families continue to be torn apart due to mass incarceration. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________

THESIS STATEMENTS ON FICTION TEXTS: Short Stories

(3) In Zora Neale Hurston’s short story “Sweat,” Sykes, a black man living in the Jim Crow South, constantly feels the need to assert his masculinity over Delia through acts of abuse and adultery in order to make up for insecurities resulting from his failure to fulfill the traditional male roles of provider and protector. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________ (4) In her short story “Sweat,” Zora Neale Hurston makes her reader feel empathy for the main character Delia, a hardworking woman who endures years of mental and physical abuse from her husband. Through helping her reader care about Delia, Hurston enables her reader to feel the triple burden of oppression of being black, female and poor in America. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________

THESIS STATEMENTS ON FICTION TEXTS: Plays (Drama)

(5) Yusef’s wife, Anbara, writes revolutionary articles in the play Tennis in Nablus by Ismail Khalidi highlighting women’s empowerment and support as absolutely essential for the success of any movement or revolution that aspires toward real change. Khalidi uses symbolism and imagery to demonstrate that a primary reason for the failure of the Palestinian nation to escape the abuse of their British oppressors was because of their refusal to empower the most deeply oppressed members of their own society, their women. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________ (6) In his play Tennis in Nablus , Ismail Khalidi creates an emotional connection for his audience to the struggle of the Palestinians in their revolt against the British in the 1930s by describing a division within a family and using it as a metaphor for the divisive impact of colonization in Palestine then and afterwards. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________

THESIS STATEMENTS ON FICTION TEXTS: Novels

(7) In Reading Lolita in Tehran , Azar Nafisi demonstrates how literature is not only powerful enough to become a threat against oppressive regimes, but that it also emotionally liberates those who are covertly standing against the oppressive government. By studying Vladimir Nabokov’s novel Lolita in their secret book club, Nafisi and her students were able to relate to Lolita’s struggle but also reject being passive victims, which inspires the students to silently resist their oppressive government. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________ (8) In Azar Nafisi's novel, Reading Lolita in Tehran, she incorporates the classic American novel The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald in conjunction with telling the history of and her experiences in the Islamic Republic of Tehran to demonstrate how reconstructing and living in the past only dooms the future. TOPIC: _________________________________________________________________________ OPINION: _______________________________________________________________________ SO WHAT? ______________________________________________________________________

(1) Topic : American values of freedom versus slavery Opinion: American values of freedom contradict slavery So What? coming to terms with this hypocrisy hastens the end of slavery

(2) Topic : treatment of African-Americans during slavery versus now Opinion: the ways blacks suffered during slavery can still be seen today So What? African-Americans are still not truly free

(3) Topic : Sykes’ abuse of Delia Opinion: abuse results from need to assert masculinity So What? need to assert masculinity results from failure to be provider and protector. Implied: racism has emasculated, disempowered and embittered Sykes

(4) Topic : empathy for Delia Opinion: Hurston makes her reader feel empathy for Delia So What? empathy will lead to understanding the oppression resulting from race, gender, and class

(5) Topic : Palestinian revolt against the British Opinion: women are essential to revolution and real change So What? Palestinian revolt failed due to not empowering their own women

(6) Topic : Palestinian revolt against the British Opinion: emotional connection is made through divided family So What? divided family a metaphor for Palestine then and after

(7) Topic : Nafisi’s use of Lolita Opinion: Lolita helped the women to reject being passive victims So What? inspires silent resistance to government

(8) Topic : Nafisi’s use of The Great Gatsby Opinion: Nafisi uses The Great Gatsby to comment on the Islamic Republic So What? shows reconstructing and living in past dooms the future

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    This Dissertation/Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Student Theses & Publications at The ... Bachelor of Science in Family and Consumer Science, Aug. 2013 Bachelor of Arts in Sociology, Aug. 2018 ... such as family practices, their own ability to do well in school, as well as other personal indicators, such as their ...

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    family relationships and cultural identity development Tammie G. Chen Smith College Follow this and additional works at: https://scholarworks.smith.edu/theses Part of the Social and Behavioral Sciences Commons Recommended Citation Chen, Tammie G., "Homemade : an exploratory study on the impact of cooking on family relationships and

  6. Family as a health promotion setting: A scoping review of conceptual

    Figure 9-1. Social construction of family health definitions and practices. This model illustrates how family environment and relationships influence family perceptions of health and engagement in patterns of health behavior (normative [health promoting] and non-normative [health depleting]).

  7. PDF Tutorial #26: Thesis Statements and Topic Sentences

    5. A troublesome thesis is a fragment; a good thesis statement is expressed in a complete sentence. Example: How life is in New York after September 11th. Better: After September 11th, the city of New York tends to have more cases of post-traumatic disorder than other areas of the United States and rightfully so.

  8. Thesis Statements

    A thesis statement: tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion. is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper. directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself.

  9. The Writing Center

    For the reader, the thesis statement: Serves as a "map" to guide the reader through the paper. In the same way the thesis helps you organize your paper, the thesis helps organize the reader's thinking. Once a solid thesis is presented, the reader will understand that all of the evidence presented is in service of proving the thesis.

  10. Exploring the issues, practices, and prospects of family planning among

    Three main themes, including sub-themes, emerged from the analysis: 1) Issues on Family Planning (family planning as a burden; fear of side effects; peer-driven contraceptive choice; family planning as a social stigma; family planning is a sin), 2) Practices on Family Planning (knowledge of family planning commodities; availability and ...

  11. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    4. A strong thesis statement is specific. A thesis statement should show exactly what your paper will be about, and will help you keep your paper to a manageable topic. For example, if you're writing a seven-to-ten page paper on hunger, you might say: World hunger has many causes and effects. This is a weak thesis statement for two major reasons.

  12. Developing a Thesis Statement

    A thesis statement . . . Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic. Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper. Is focused and specific enough to be "proven" within the boundaries of your paper. Is generally located near the end ...

  13. PDF School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Improving Access

    and other community businesses to take advantage of sponsoring a neighborhood family resource center. These organizations often focused on projects that strengthened the family unit (Carfora & O'Rourke, 1997). Historically, the parent resource center grew out of the need to educate the underprivileged and reform the misguided continuously.

  14. Family Planning Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among ...

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative assessment aimed at exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding family planning and factors that influence the need for and use of modern contraceptives. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted with married women and men aged between 15 and 40. Overall, 24 focus group discussions were conducted with male and female ...

  15. (PDF) family planning final thesis.

    family planning final thesis. February 2020. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.19053.33769. Thesis for: Bachelor Science Of Public Health Officer. Advisor: SUPERVISOR BY: Dr. Hamze Ali Abdulahi, Hoodo Ziad ...

  16. 25 Thesis Statement Examples That Will Make Writing a Breeze

    What that means is that you can't just put any statement of fact and have it be your thesis. For example, everyone knows that puppies are cute. An ineffective thesis statement would be, "Puppies are adorable and everyone knows it." This isn't really something that's a debatable topic. Something that would be more debatable would be, "A puppy's ...

  17. Practice in Identifying Effective Thesis Statements

    Be ready to defend your choices. Because these thesis statements appear outside the context of complete essays, all responses are judgment calls, not absolute certainties. (a) The Hunger Games is a science fiction adventure film based on the novel of the same name by Suzanne Collins. (b) The Hunger Games is a morality tale about the dangers of ...

  18. 8.1: Thesis Statements

    THESIS STATEMENTS ON NON-FICTION TEXTS: (1) In Field Notes from a Catastrophe, Elizabeth Kolbert seeks to use the evidence she has collected across her years of worldwide travel to show how we should best address climate change. Kolbert uses the island of Samsø to support her case for the mass implementation of alternative energy sources, but ...

  19. Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Mothers During the First Four

    Canadian mothers, Chalmers et al. (2009) found that women who were educated, were. older, had a high level of income, and had vaginal births were most likely to breastfeed. The majority of women (97.3%) in this study were Hispanic and only a few women. (9.3%) continued EBF until four weeks postpartum.

  20. (PDF) Exploring the issues, practices, and prospects of family planning

    Finally, two sub-themes also emerged under the theme of Family Planning Prospects: family planning as a financially beneficial practice; prospects on family planning depend on husband's acceptance.

  21. The Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Birth Control Methods Amongst

    Problem Statement There is a lack of knowledge and effective practices of birth control methods amongst undergraduate college students causing a myriad of health disparities amongst this population (Institute for Women's Policy Research, 2020). Reproductive health applies to everyone, and public health prevention

  22. PDF Thesis Statements

    Thesis statement: *. 3. Passion and willingness to work hard can only offer a prospective employer so much. Unless you can show how your experiences have helped prepare you for the position you are interviewing for, the employers may decide to go with a candidate who has completed the appropriate training already.