The 9 Parts of Speech: Definitions and Examples

  • Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia
  • M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester
  • B.A., English, State University of New York

A part of speech is a term used in traditional grammar for one of the nine main categories into which words are classified according to their functions in sentences, such as nouns or verbs. Also known as word classes, these are the building blocks of grammar.

Every sentence you write or speak in English includes words that fall into some of the nine parts of speech. These include nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, articles/determiners, and interjections. (Some sources include only eight parts of speech and leave interjections in their own category.)

Parts of Speech

  • Word types can be divided into nine parts of speech:
  • prepositions
  • conjunctions
  • articles/determiners
  • interjections
  • Some words can be considered more than one part of speech, depending on context and usage.
  • Interjections can form complete sentences on their own.

Learning the names of the parts of speech probably won't make you witty, healthy, wealthy, or wise. In fact, learning just the names of the parts of speech won't even make you a better writer. However, you will gain a basic understanding of sentence structure  and the  English language by familiarizing yourself with these labels.

Open and Closed Word Classes

The parts of speech are commonly divided into  open classes  (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) and  closed classes  (pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, articles/determiners, and interjections). Open classes can be altered and added to as language develops, and closed classes are pretty much set in stone. For example, new nouns are created every day, but conjunctions never change.

In contemporary linguistics , parts of speech are generally referred to as word classes or syntactic categories. The main difference is that word classes are classified according to more strict linguistic criteria. Within word classes, there is the lexical, or open class, and the function, or closed class.

The 9 Parts of Speech

Read about each part of speech below, and practice identifying each.

Nouns are a person, place, thing, or idea. They can take on a myriad of roles in a sentence, from the subject of it all to the object of an action. They are capitalized when they're the official name of something or someone, and they're called proper nouns in these cases. Examples: pirate, Caribbean, ship, freedom, Captain Jack Sparrow.

Pronouns stand in for nouns in a sentence . They are more generic versions of nouns that refer only to people. Examples:​  I, you, he, she, it, ours, them, who, which, anybody, ourselves.

Verbs are action words that tell what happens in a sentence. They can also show a sentence subject's state of being ( is , was ). Verbs change form based on tense (present, past) and count distinction (singular or plural). Examples:  sing, dance, believes, seemed, finish, eat, drink, be, became.

Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns. They specify which one, how much, what kind, and more. Adjectives allow readers and listeners to use their senses to imagine something more clearly. Examples:  hot, lazy, funny, unique, bright, beautiful, poor, smooth.

Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives, and even other adverbs. They specify when, where, how, and why something happened and to what extent or how often. Many adjectives can be turned into adjectives by adding the suffix - ly . Examples:  softly, quickly, lazily, often, only, hopefully, sometimes.

Preposition

Prepositions  show spatial, temporal, and role relations between a noun or pronoun and the other words in a sentence. They come at the start of a prepositional phrase , which contains a preposition and its object. Examples:  up, over, against, by, for, into, close to, out of, apart from.

Conjunction

Conjunctions join words, phrases, and clauses in a sentence. There are coordinating, subordinating, and correlative conjunctions. Examples:  and, but, or, so, yet.

Articles and Determiners

Articles and determiners function like adjectives by modifying nouns, but they are different than adjectives in that they are necessary for a sentence to have proper syntax. Articles and determiners specify and identify nouns, and there are indefinite and definite articles. Examples of articles:  a, an, the ; examples of determiners:  these, that, those, enough, much, few, which, what.

Some traditional grammars have treated articles  as a distinct part of speech. Modern grammars, however, more often include articles in the category of determiners , which identify or quantify a noun. Even though they modify nouns like adjectives, articles are different in that they are essential to the proper syntax of a sentence, just as determiners are necessary to convey the meaning of a sentence, while adjectives are optional.

Interjection

Interjections are expressions that can stand on their own or be contained within sentences. These words and phrases often carry strong emotions and convey reactions. Examples:  ah, whoops, ouch, yabba dabba do!

How to Determine the Part of Speech

Only interjections ( Hooray! ) have a habit of standing alone; every other part of speech must be contained within a sentence and some are even required in sentences (nouns and verbs). Other parts of speech come in many varieties and may appear just about anywhere in a sentence.

To know for sure what part of speech a word falls into, look not only at the word itself but also at its meaning, position, and use in a sentence.

For example, in the first sentence below,  work  functions as a noun; in the second sentence, a verb; and in the third sentence, an adjective:

  • Bosco showed up for  work  two hours late.
  • The noun  work  is the thing Bosco shows up for.
  • He will have to  work  until midnight.
  • The verb  work  is the action he must perform.
  • His  work  permit expires next month.
  • The  attributive noun  (or converted adjective) work  modifies the noun  permit .

Learning the names and uses of the basic parts of speech is just one way to understand how sentences are constructed.

Dissecting Basic Sentences

To form a basic complete sentence, you only need two elements: a noun (or pronoun standing in for a noun) and a verb. The noun acts as a subject, and the verb, by telling what action the subject is taking, acts as the predicate. 

In the short sentence above,  birds  is the noun and  fly  is the verb. The sentence makes sense and gets the point across.

You can have a sentence with just one word without breaking any sentence formation rules. The short sentence below is complete because it's a verb command with an understood "you" noun.

Here, the pronoun, standing in for a noun, is implied and acts as the subject. The sentence is really saying, "(You) go!"

Constructing More Complex Sentences

Use more parts of speech to add additional information about what's happening in a sentence to make it more complex. Take the first sentence from above, for example, and incorporate more information about how and why birds fly.

  • Birds fly when migrating before winter.

Birds and fly remain the noun and the verb, but now there is more description. 

When  is an adverb that modifies the verb fly.  The word before  is a little tricky because it can be either a conjunction, preposition, or adverb depending on the context. In this case, it's a preposition because it's followed by a noun. This preposition begins an adverbial phrase of time ( before winter ) that answers the question of when the birds migrate . Before is not a conjunction because it does not connect two clauses.

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Parts of Speech

What are the parts of speech, a formal definition.

Table of Contents

The Part of Speech Is Determined by the Word's Function

Are there 8 or 9 parts of speech, the nine parts of speech, (1) adjective, (3) conjunction, (4) determiner, (5) interjection, (7) preposition, (8) pronoun, why the parts of speech are important, video lesson.

parts of speech

  • You need to dig a well . (noun)
  • You look well . (adjective)
  • You dance well . (adverb)
  • Well , I agree. (interjection)
  • My eyes will well up. (verb)
  • red, happy, enormous
  • Ask the boy in the red jumper.
  • I live in a happy place.
  • I caught a fish this morning! I mean an enormous one.
  • happily, loosely, often
  • They skipped happily to the counter.
  • Tie the knot loosely so they can escape.
  • I often walk to work.
  • It is an intriguingly magic setting.
  • He plays the piano extremely well.
  • and, or, but
  • it is a large and important city.
  • Shall we run to the hills or hide in the bushes?
  • I know you are lying, but I cannot prove it.
  • my, those, two, many
  • My dog is fine with those cats.
  • There are two dogs but many cats.
  • ouch, oops, eek
  • Ouch , that hurt.
  • Oops , it's broken.
  • Eek! A mouse just ran past my foot!
  • leader, town, apple
  • Take me to your leader .
  • I will see you in town later.
  • An apple fell on his head .
  • in, near, on, with
  • Sarah is hiding in the box.
  • I live near the train station.
  • Put your hands on your head.
  • She yelled with enthusiasm.
  • she, we, they, that
  • Joanne is smart. She is also funny.
  • Our team has studied the evidence. We know the truth.
  • Jack and Jill went up the hill, but they never returned.
  • That is clever!
  • work, be, write, exist
  • Tony works down the pit now. He was unemployed.
  • I will write a song for you.
  • I think aliens exist .

Are you a visual learner? Do you prefer video to text? Here is a list of all our grammar videos .

Video for Each Part of Speech

what is the part of speech of type

The Most Important Writing Issues

The top issue related to adjectives, the top issue related to adverbs.

  • Extremely annoyed, she stared menacingly at her rival.
  • Infuriated, she glared at her rival.

The Top Issue Related to Conjunctions

correct tick

  • Burger, Fries, and a shake
  • Fish, chips and peas

The Top Issue Related to Determiners

wrong cross

The Top Issue Related to Interjections

The top issue related to nouns, the top issue related to prepositions, the top issue related to pronouns, the top issue related to verbs.

  • Crack the parts of speech to help with learning a foreign language or to take your writing to the next level.

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What are the parts of speech?

Today's the day for you to learn about this important grammatical concept! But first...let's see what the parts of speech have to do with your clothes.

Parts of Speech Chart

Imagine that it's laundry day, and you've just finished washing and drying your clothes. You dump the contents of the laundry basket onto your bed, and you begin to organize everything. You fold matching socks together, you create a pile of perfectly folded shirts that you would be proud to show Marie Kondo, and you do the same thing with your pants, jackets, and everything else.

In the same way that we organize our clothes into groups based on each item's function and features, we organize our words into categories based on each word's function and features. We call these categories of words the parts of speech .

Some people categorize words into eight parts of speech, and some people categorize them into nine parts of speech. Neither one is wrong; they're just two ways of looking at things. We'll go over these categories below. Here at English Grammar Revolution, we categorize words into eight groups, but I'll tell you about the ninth one as well.

There's one important thing for you to know before we look at these categories: most words can function as more than one part of speech . They will only do one job at a time, but they can do different things in different sentences. Look at the word love in the following sentences.

My  love  of grammar inspired me to make this website.

Here, love is functioning as a noun. It's the subject of the sentence. 

I  love  you.

Now, love is acting as a  verb ! It's telling us an action.

The only way we can know how to categorize a word is to look at how it's acting within a sentence.

Okay, let's check out the parts of speech!

The 8 Parts of Speech

Nouns  name people, places, things, or ideas. They're important parts of our sentences because they perform  important jobs  (subjects, direct objects, predicate nouns, etc.).

A peacock walked through our yard .

The dog howled during the night , and it woke up our whole family .

Sometimes people get bogged down with this part of speech because there are also many subcategories of nouns. This is similar to the way that we have subcategories for our clothes. You may have a whole drawer full of pants, but you may also have different types of pants that you use for different purposes (workout pants, lounge pants, work pants, etc.). This is similar to the way that we can further categorize nouns into smaller groups. 

Here are a few of the subcategories of nouns:  proper nouns, common nouns ,  collective nouns ,  possessive nouns , and compound nouns.

Tip : Other parts of speech also have subcategories. If you're studying this information for the first time, ignore the subcategories and focus on learning about each broader category.

2. Pronouns

Pronouns  take the place of nouns. When most people hear the word pronoun , they think of words like I, we, me, he,   she, and they . These are indeed all pronouns, but they're a part of a subcategory called personal pronouns. Know that there are other kinds of pronouns out there as well. Here are some examples: myself, his, someone , and who .

Here are a few of the subcategories of pronouns:  reflexive pronouns ,  indefinite pronouns ,  possessive pronouns , and  relative pronouns . 

When we walked across the bridge,  we saw someone who  knows you .

I will fix the dishwasher  myself .

Verbs  show actions or states of being. They are integral elements of  sentences .   

The shuttle will fly into space.

The loving mother comforted  and soothed the baby.

In the Montessori tradition of education, they use a large red circle or ball to symbolize a verb, and they often teach children to think of verbs as a sun providing the energy of a sentence. Isn't that a lovely way to think of verbs?

I know that you're getting tired of hearing about subcategories, but linking verbs, action verbs, and helping verbs are described on the  verb page here . 

Modal verbs  are described on that link, and you can learn even more about  action verbs  and  linking verbs  from those links.

4. Adjectives

Adjectives  describe, or  modify , nouns and pronouns. I like to think of them as adding color to language. It would be hard to describe a beautiful sunset or the way a touching story makes us feel without using adjectives.

The wise, handsome owl had orange eyes.

The caring father rocked the baby.

One helpful strategy for learning about and identifying adjectives is to learn how they are diagrammed . Sentence diagrams are pictures of sentences that help us see how all of the words are grammatically related. Since adjectives modify nouns and pronouns, we diagram them on slanted lines under the nouns/pronouns that they are modifying. 

Sentence diagram of adjectives

My green and white book fell.

Book is a noun. It's the subject of this sentence. My, green , and white are all adjectives describing book , so we diagram them on slanted lines underneath book . Isn't that a great way to SEE what adjectives do?

Nine Parts of Speech

When people categorize words into eight parts of speech, they say that articles/determiners ( a, an,   the, this, that, etc. ) are subcategories of adjectives.  

When people categorize words into nine parts of speech, they say that articles/determiners make up their own category and are not a part of the adjective category. 

Adverbs  modify (describe) verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Adverbs are similar to adjectives in that they both modify things. 

The extremely cute koala hugged its mom very tightly .

The dog howled loudly .

Sentence diagrams also make it really easy to see what adverbs do. Take a look at this diagram. What do you notice about the way the adverbs are diagrammed? 

Sentence diagram with adverbs

James ran very quickly.

Did you notice that the adverbs are diagrammed on slanted lines under the words that they are modifying?

Ran is a verb. Quickly is an adverb telling us more about the verb ran . Very is an adverb telling us more about the adverb quickly .

Doesn't the diagram make it easier to SEE what adverbs do?

6. Prepositions

Prepositions  are probably the most difficult part of speech to explain, but people generally have an easier time understanding them when they look at lots of examples. So...let's start with some examples of commonly used prepositions! 

in, for, of, off, if, until

The frog sat in the flower.

The baby cried for a long time.

I'm so convinced that memorizing some of the prepositions will be helpful to you that  I'll teach you a preposition song . 

Okay, now that we've looked at some examples, let's look at the definition of a preposition. 

Prepositions show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word in the rest of the sentence. 

Sentence diagrams will come to the rescue again to help us visualize what prepositions do. Think of prepositions as "noun hooks" or "noun bridges." In the diagram below, notice how the preposition down links the noun tree to the rest of the sentence.  

Sentence diagram of a preposition

The cat ran down the tree.

Since prepositions always function as "noun hooks," they'll always be accompanied by a noun. The preposition plus its noun is called a prepositional phrase .

If you find a word from the preposition list that's not a part of a prepositional phrase, it's not functioning as a preposition. (You remember that words can function as different parts of speech , right?)

7. Conjunctions

Conjunctions  join things together. They can join words or groups of words (phrases and clauses).

The hummingbird sat   and   waited .

The conjunction and is joining the words sat and waited .

Do you live  near the park or near the hospital ?

The conjunction or is joining the phrases near the park and near the hospital.  

The two conjunctions we just looked at ( and and or ) belong to a subcategory called coordinating conjunctions, but there are other subcategories of conjunctions as well. The other one that we use most often is  subordinating conjunctions . Subordinating conjunctions are a little trickier to learn because they involve a more complicated concept ( dependent adverb clauses ).

For now, just know that all conjunctions, no matter what type they are, connect things together. In fact, let's LOOK at how they do this by looking at a sentence diagram.

Here is a sentence diagram  showing how the coordinating conjunction  and  connects two clauses. 

what is the part of speech of type

She cooked, and he cleaned. 

8. Interjections

Interjections show excitement or emotion. 

Wow ! That jump was amazing!

Phew , the baby finally fell asleep.

They are different from the other parts of speech in that they're not grammatically related to the rest of the sentence, and the way that we diagram them reflects that. Look at how we diagram interjections :

Sentence diagram with interjection

Yes ! We won the lottery!

The interjection yes sit sits there on its own line floating above the rest of the sentence. This helps show that it's not grammatically related to the other words in the sentence. 

It's time to review what we covered on this page.

  • We can categorize the words that we use into groups based on their functions and features. We call these groups the parts of speech.
  • Many words can function as multiple parts of speech. You need to look at each word in the context of a sentence in order to say what part of speech it is. 
  • The eight parts of speech are nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections. 
  • You just learned about all of the parts of speech. Give yourself a high five! 

If you'd like to teach or learn grammar the easy way—with sentence diagrams—check out our  Get Smart Grammar Program .

It starts from the very beginning and teaches you grammar and sentence diagramming in easy, bite-size lessons. 

The Get Smart Grammar Program

Hello! I'm Elizabeth O'Brien, and my goal is to get you jazzed about grammar. 

This is original content from  https://www.english-grammar-revolution.com/parts-of-speech.html

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Applied Grammar by Gail Brubaker

the 8 Parts of Speech

Understanding the 8 Parts of Speech: Definitions and Examples

Are you trying to master the grammatical rules of English? If so, understanding the 8 parts of speech is crucial. But what exactly are the parts of speech? How many are there? And how do you know which words fall into each category? Don’t worry, we’ve got you covered. In this comprehensive guide, we will break down the definitions and examples of the 8 parts of speech, making it easier for you to navigate the intricacies of the English language.

English can be a challenging language to learn, but by understanding the parts of speech, you’ll gain a solid foundation for constructing sentences with clarity and precision. Whether you’re a student, a writer, or simply someone looking to improve your language skills, this article will provide you with a clear understanding of each part of speech. So, let’s immerse and explore the definitions and examples of the 8 parts of speech, empowering you to communicate effectively and confidently in English.

Key Takeaways

  • Understanding the 8 parts of speech is crucial for mastering English grammar.
  • The 8 parts of speech are: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.
  • Nouns represent people, places, things, or ideas.
  • Pronouns replace nouns to avoid repetition.
  • Verbs describe actions or states of being.
  • Adjectives provide additional details about nouns.
  • Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
  • Prepositions show relationships between words in a sentence.
  • Conjunctions join words, phrases, or clauses together.
  • Interjections express strong emotions or surprise.

What Are Parts of Speech?

When it comes to understanding the intricacies of English grammar, learning the different parts of speech is crucial. But what exactly are parts of speech? How many are there? And how do you determine which words belong to each part of speech? In this comprehensive guide, we’ll provide clear definitions and examples for each part of speech, helping you navigate the complexities of the English language.

Nouns are words that represent people, places, things, or ideas. They can be common or proper, singular or plural. Examples of nouns include “dog,” “New York City,” and “love.”

Pronouns are words used in place of nouns to avoid repetition. They can refer to individuals or groups. Examples of pronouns include “he,” “she,” “it,” and “they.”

Verbs are action words that describe what a subject does or the state of being. They can be in different tenses and forms. Examples of verbs include “run,” “jump,” and “is.”

Adjectives are words that describe or modify nouns, giving more details or information about them. They can describe qualities, size, shape, color, and more. Examples of adjectives include “beautiful,” “large,” and “blue.”

Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs, providing information on how, when, where, or to what extent. They often end in “-ly.” Examples of adverbs include “quickly,” “happily,” and “very.”

Prepositions

Prepositions show a relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. They indicate position, direction, time, or manner. Examples of prepositions include “in,” “on,” “at,” and “from.”

Conjunctions

Conjunctions join words, phrases, or clauses together. They can be coordinating or subordinating. Examples of conjunctions include “and,” “but,” “or,” and “because.”

Interjections

Interjections are short exclamations used to express emotions or surprise. They are often followed by exclamation marks. Examples of interjections include “Wow,” “Yay,” and “Ouch!”

Parts of Speech

Understanding the different parts of speech is crucial for building a strong foundation in English grammar. Each part of speech plays a unique role in the construction of sentences, providing clarity and meaning to our language. In this section, we will explore the definitions and examples of the eight parts of speech: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.

A noun is a word that identifies a person, place, thing, or idea. It can refer to both concrete objects, such as “book” or “dog,” and abstract concepts, such as “love” or “happiness.” Nouns are often referred to as “persons, places, or things,” but it is essential to recognize that they encompass much more than that. Here are some examples of nouns used in sentences:

  • The cat is sleeping on the couch.
  • I love to read a good book .
  • She has a beautiful voice .

Pronouns are words that are used to replace nouns in a sentence. They help avoid repetitive use of nouns and add fluency to our language. Personal pronouns, such as “he,” “she,” or “they,” refer to specific individuals or groups of people. Here are some examples of pronouns used in sentences:

  • She is going to the store.
  • We had an amazing time at the party.
  • Please give me the book.

Verbs are action words that express an action, occurrence, or state of being. They are the backbone of a sentence and provide information about what is happening. Verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, depending on whether they require an object to complete their meaning. Here are some examples of verbs used in sentences:

  • The dog ran in the park.
  • I love to swim in the ocean.
  • They are studying for the exam.

Adjectives are words that describe or modify nouns. They provide additional information about the nouns they accompany, such as their size, color, or quality. Adjectives help make our language more vivid and expressive. Here are some examples of adjectives used in sentences:

  • She has a beautiful smile.
  • The blue sky is clear today.
  • He is a talented musician.

Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They provide information about how, when, where, or to what extent an action is performed. Adverbs enhance the meaning of a sentence and add precision to our language. Here are some examples of adverbs used in sentences:

  • He quickly finished his assignments.
  • She sings beautifully .
  • They went outside to play.

Preposition

Prepositions are words that indicate the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. They often express location, direction, time, or manner. Prepositions are essential for understanding spatial and temporal relationships. Here are some examples of prepositions used in sentences:

  • The cat is under the table.
  • We walked through the park.
  • The book is on the shelf.

Conjunction

Conjunctions are words that connect words, phrases, or clauses within a sentence. They help establish relationships between different parts of a sentence, coordinating or subordinating their meaning. Conjunctions are essential for creating complex sentences. Here are some examples of conjunctions used in sentences:

  • I will go to the store, but I need to buy milk.
  • Because it was raining, we stayed indoors.
  • He likes both chocolate and vanilla ice cream.

Interjection

Interjections are words or phrases used to convey strong emotions or reactions. They are often standalone expressions and can add emphasis or express surprise, joy, or frustration. Interjections bring life and emotion to our language. Here are some examples of interjections used in sentences:

  • Wow , that’s an impressive performance!
  • Ouch , that hurt!
  • Alas , I lost my wallet.

Understanding and mastering the eight parts of speech will greatly enhance your language skills and enable you to effectively communicate in English. From nouns that identify people and things to verbs that express actions, each part of speech contributes to the overall structure and meaning of a sentence. Keep practicing and exploring the various functions of these parts of speech to become a confident English speaker and writer.

Examples of Each Part of Speech

Nouns play a crucial role in sentence construction as they represent people, places, things, or ideas. Here are some examples of nouns:

Pronouns, on the other hand, replace nouns to avoid repetition. Here are a few examples for better understanding:

  • If you leave now, only James and I will remain behind.
  • Their feet ached more than ours .

Verbs express actions, feelings, or states of being. Check out these verb examples:

  • We sang songs , danced all night , and by the morning had fallen in love .
  • Can you bring me something from the kitchen?

Adjectives add descriptions to nouns. Here are a few examples:

  • The tall building stood out in the city skyline.

Adverbs add meaning to verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Take a look at these examples:

  • The car drove quickly down the street.
  • She performed very well in the competition.

Prepositions express the relationship between nouns, pronouns, and other words. Here are some examples:

  • The book is on the table.
  • The cat jumped over the fence.

Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses within a sentence. Check out these examples:

  • He likes tea and coffee.
  • She is tired, but she is determined to finish the project.

Interjections convey strong emotions or sudden reactions. Here are a few examples:

  • Wow , what a beautiful sunset!
  • Oh no , I forgot to bring my umbrella.

Remember, understanding the different parts of speech and their functions is crucial in constructing meaningful sentences. Keep practicing and exploring the various examples to strengthen your language skills.

Now that you have a clear understanding of the eight parts of speech in English grammar, you are equipped with the knowledge to construct sentences with precision and clarity. By mastering the definitions and examples of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections, you can effectively communicate in English.

Each part of speech serves a unique purpose in sentence construction, providing meaning and structure to our language. Nouns name people, places, things, or ideas, while pronouns replace nouns to avoid repetition. Verbs express actions or states of being, while adjectives and adverbs provide descriptions and modify other words. Prepositions indicate relationships between words, conjunctions connect words or phrases, and interjections express strong emotions.

By practicing and exploring the functions of these parts of speech, you will become a confident English speaker and writer. Remember to apply this knowledge in your daily conversations and written communication to enhance your language skills.

Continue to refine your understanding and usage of the eight parts of speech, and watch as your language abilities flourish.

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  • Knowledge Base
  • Parts of speech

The 8 Parts of Speech | Definition & Examples

A part of speech (also called a word class ) is a category that describes the role a word plays in a sentence. Understanding the different parts of speech can help you analyse how words function in a sentence and improve your writing.

The parts of speech are classified differently in different grammars, but most traditional grammars list eight parts of speech in English: nouns , pronouns , verbs , adjectives , adverbs , prepositions , conjunctions , and interjections . Some modern grammars add others, such as determiners and articles .

Many words can function as different parts of speech depending on how they are used. For example, ‘laugh’ can be a noun (e.g., ‘I like your laugh’) or a verb (e.g., ‘don’t laugh’).

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Table of contents

Prepositions, conjunctions, interjections, other parts of speech, frequently asked questions.

A noun is a word that refers to a person, concept, place, or thing. Nouns can act as the subject of a sentence (i.e., the person or thing performing the action) or as the object of a verb (i.e., the person or thing affected by the action).

There are numerous types of nouns, including common nouns (used to refer to nonspecific people, concepts, places, or things), proper nouns (used to refer to specific people, concepts, places, or things), and collective nouns (used to refer to a group of people or things).

Ella lives in France .

Other types of nouns include countable and uncountable nouns , concrete nouns , abstract nouns , and gerunds .

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A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. Pronouns typically refer back to an antecedent (a previously mentioned noun) and must demonstrate correct pronoun-antecedent agreement . Like nouns, pronouns can refer to people, places, concepts, and things.

There are numerous types of pronouns, including personal pronouns (used in place of the proper name of a person), demonstrative pronouns (used to refer to specific things and indicate their relative position), and interrogative pronouns (used to introduce questions about things, people, and ownership).

That is a horrible painting!

A verb is a word that describes an action (e.g., ‘jump’), occurrence (e.g., ‘become’), or state of being (e.g., ‘exist’). Verbs indicate what the subject of a sentence is doing. Every complete sentence must contain at least one verb.

Verbs can change form depending on subject (e.g., first person singular), tense (e.g., past simple ), mood (e.g., interrogative), and voice (e.g., passive voice ).

Regular verbs are verbs whose simple past and past participle are formed by adding’-ed’ to the end of the word (or ‘-d’ if the word already ends in ‘e’). Irregular verbs are verbs whose simple past and past participles are formed in some other way.

‘I’ve already checked twice’.

‘I heard that you used to sing ‘.

Other types of verbs include auxiliary verbs , linking verbs , modal verbs , and phrasal verbs .

An adjective is a word that describes a noun or pronoun. Adjectives can be attributive , appearing before a noun (e.g., ‘a red hat’), or predicative , appearing after a noun with the use of a linking verb like ‘to be’ (e.g., ‘the hat is red ‘).

Adjectives can also have a comparative function. Comparative adjectives compare two or more things. Superlative adjectives describe something as having the most or least of a specific characteristic.

Other types of adjectives include coordinate adjectives , participial adjectives , and denominal adjectives .

An adverb is a word that can modify a verb, adjective, adverb, or sentence. Adverbs are often formed by adding ‘-ly’ to the end of an adjective (e.g., ‘slow’ becomes ‘slowly’), although not all adverbs have this ending, and not all words with this ending are adverbs.

There are numerous types of adverbs, including adverbs of manner (used to describe how something occurs), adverbs of degree (used to indicate extent or degree), and adverbs of place (used to describe the location of an action or event).

Talia writes quite quickly.

Other types of adverbs include adverbs of frequency , adverbs of purpose , focusing adverbs , and adverbial phrases .

A preposition is a word (e.g., ‘at’) or phrase (e.g., ‘on top of’) used to show the relationship between the different parts of a sentence. Prepositions can be used to indicate aspects such as time , place , and direction .

I left the cup on the kitchen counter.

A conjunction is a word used to connect different parts of a sentence (e.g., words, phrases, or clauses).

The main types of conjunctions are coordinating conjunctions (used to connect items that are grammatically equal), subordinating conjunctions (used to introduce a dependent clause), and correlative conjunctions (used in pairs to join grammatically equal parts of a sentence).

You can choose what movie we watch because I chose the last time.

An interjection is a word or phrase used to express a feeling, give a command, or greet someone. Interjections are a grammatically independent part of speech, so they can often be excluded from a sentence without affecting the meaning.

Types of interjections include volitive interjections (used to make a demand or request), emotive interjections (used to express a feeling or reaction), cognitive interjections (used to indicate thoughts), and greetings and parting words (used at the beginning and end of a conversation).

Ouch ! I hurt my arm.

I’m, um , not sure.

The traditional classification of English words into eight parts of speech is by no means the only one or the objective truth. Grammarians have often divided them into more or fewer classes. Other commonly mentioned parts of speech include determiners and articles.

Determiners

A determiner is a word that describes a noun by indicating quantity, possession, or relative position.

Common types of determiners include demonstrative determiners (used to indicate the relative position of a noun), possessive determiners (used to describe ownership), and quantifiers (used to indicate the quantity of a noun).

My brother is selling his old car.

Other types of determiners include distributive determiners , determiners of difference , and numbers .

An article is a word that modifies a noun by indicating whether it is specific or general.

  • The definite article the is used to refer to a specific version of a noun. The can be used with all countable and uncountable nouns (e.g., ‘the door’, ‘the energy’, ‘the mountains’).
  • The indefinite articles a and an refer to general or unspecific nouns. The indefinite articles can only be used with singular countable nouns (e.g., ‘a poster’, ‘an engine’).

There’s a concert this weekend.

A is an indefinite article (along with an ). While articles can be classed as their own part of speech, they’re also considered a type of determiner .

The indefinite articles are used to introduce nonspecific countable nouns (e.g., ‘a dog’, ‘an island’).

In is primarily classed as a preposition, but it can be classed as various other parts of speech, depending on how it is used:

  • Preposition (e.g., ‘ in the field’)
  • Noun (e.g., ‘I have an in with that company’)
  • Adjective (e.g., ‘Tim is part of the in crowd’)
  • Adverb (e.g., ‘Will you be in this evening?’)

As a part of speech, and is classed as a conjunction . Specifically, it’s a coordinating conjunction .

And can be used to connect grammatically equal parts of a sentence, such as two nouns (e.g., ‘a cup and plate’), or two adjectives (e.g., ‘strong and smart’). And can also be used to connect phrases and clauses.

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Grammar: Main Parts of Speech

Definitions and examples.

The name of something, like a person, animal, place, thing, or concept. Nouns are typically used as subjects, objects, objects of prepositions, and modifiers of other nouns.

  • I = subject
  • the dissertation = object
  • in Chapter 4 = object of a preposition
  • research = modifier

This expresses what the person, animal, place, thing, or concept does. In English, verbs follow the noun.

  • It takes a good deal of dedication to complete a doctoral degree.
  • She studied hard for the test.
  • Writing a dissertation is difficult. (The "be" verb is also sometimes referred to as a copula or a linking verb. It links the subject, in this case "writing a dissertation," to the complement or the predicate of the sentence, in this case, "hard.")

This describes a noun or pronoun. Adjectives typically come before a noun or after a stative verb, like the verb "to be."

  • Diligent describes the student and appears before the noun student .
  • Difficult is placed after the to be verb and describes what it is like to balance time.

Remember that adjectives in English have no plural form. The same form of the adjective is used for both singular and plural nouns.

  • A different idea
  • Some different ideas
  • INCORRECT: some differents ideas

This gives more information about the verb and about how the action was done. Adverbs tells how, where, when, why, etc. Depending on the context, the adverb can come before or after the verb or at the beginning or end of a sentence.

  • Enthusiastically describes how he completed the course and answers the how question.
  • Recently modifies the verb enroll and answers the when question.
  • Then describes and modifies the entire sentence. See this link on transitions for more examples of conjunctive adverbs (adverbs that join one idea to another to improve the cohesion of the writing).

This word substitutes for a noun or a noun phrase (e.g. it, she, he, they, that, those,…).

  • they = applicants
  • He = Smith; that = ideas; those = those ideas

This word makes the reference of the noun more specific (e.g. his, her, my, their, the, a, an, this, these, … ).

  • Jones published her book in 2015.
  • The book was very popular.

Preposition

This comes before a noun or a noun phrase and links it to other parts of the sentence. These are usually single words (e.g., on, at, by ,… ) but can be up to four words (e.g., as far as, in addition to, as a result of, …).

  • I chose to interview teachers in the district closest to me.
  • The recorder was placed next to the interviewee.
  • I stopped the recording in the middle of the interview due to a low battery.

Conjunction

A word that joins two clauses. These can be coordinating (an easy way to remember this is memorizing FANBOYS = for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) or subordinating (e.g., because, although, when, …).

  • The results were not significant, so the alternative hypothesis was accepted.
  • Although the results seem promising, more research must be conducted in this area.

Auxiliary Verbs

Helping verbs. They are used to build up complete verbs.

  • Primary auxiliary verbs (be, have, do) show the progressive, passive, perfect, and negative verb tenses .
  • Modal auxiliary verbs (can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would) show a variety of meanings. They represent ability, permission, necessity, and degree of certainty. These are always followed by the simple form of the verb.
  • Semimodal auxiliary verbs (e.g., be going to, ought to, have to, had better, used to, be able to,…). These are always followed by the simple form of the verb.
  • primary: have investigated = present perfect tense; has not been determined = passive, perfect, negative form
  • The modal could shows ability, and the verb conduct stays in its simple form; the modal may shows degree of certainty, and the verb lead stays in its simple form.
  • These semimodals are followed by the simple form of the verb.

Common Endings

Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs often have unique word endings, called suffixes . Looking at the suffix can help to distinguish the word from other parts of speech and help identify the function of the word in the sentence. It is important to use the correct word form in written sentences so that readers can clearly follow the intended meaning.

Here are some common endings for the basic parts of speech. If ever in doubt, consult the dictionary for the correct word form.

Common Noun Endings

Common verb endings, common adjective endings, common adverb endings, placement and position of adjectives and adverbs, order of adjectives.

If more than one adjective is used in a sentence, they tend to occur in a certain order. In English, two or three adjectives modifying a noun tend to be the limit. However, when writing in APA, not many adjectives should be used (since APA is objective, scientific writing). If adjectives are used, the framework below can be used as guidance in adjective placement.

  • Determiner (e.g., this, that, these, those, my, mine, your, yours, him, his, hers they, their, some, our, several,…) or article (a, an, the)
  • Opinion, quality, or observation adjective (e.g., lovely, useful, cute, difficult, comfortable)
  • Physical description
  • (a) size (big, little, tall, short)
  • (b) shape (circular,  irregular, triangular)
  • (c) age (old, new, young, adolescent)
  • (d) color (red, green, yellow)
  • Origin (e.g., English, Mexican, Japanese)
  • Material (e.g., cotton, metal, plastic)
  • Qualifier (noun used as an adjective to modify the noun that follows; i.e., campus activities, rocking chair, business suit)
  • Head noun that the adjectives are describing (e.g., activities, chair, suit)

For example:

  • This (1) lovely (2) new (3) wooden (4) Italian (5) rocking (6) chair (7) is in my office.
  • Your (1) beautiful (2) green (3) French (4) silk (5) business (6) suit (7) has a hole in it.

Commas With Multiple Adjectives

A comma is used between two adjectives only if the adjectives belong to the same category (for example, if there are two adjectives describing color or two adjectives describing material). To test this, ask these two questions:

  • Does the sentence make sense if the adjectives are written in reverse order?
  • Does the sentence make sense if the word “and” is written between them?

If the answer is yes to the above questions, the adjectives are separated with a comma. Also keep in mind a comma is never used before the noun that it modifies.

  • This useful big round old green English leather rocking chair is comfortable . (Note that there are no commas here because there is only one adjective from each category.)
  • A lovely large yellow, red, and green oil painting was hung on the wall. (Note the commas between yellow, red, and green since these are all in the same category of color.)

Position of Adverbs

Adverbs can appear in different positions in a sentence.

  • At the beginning of a sentence: Generally , teachers work more than 40 hours a week.
  • After the subject, before the verb: Teachers generally work more than 40 hours a week.
  • At the end of a sentence: Teachers work more than 40 hours a week, generally .
  • However, an adverb is not placed between a verb and a direct object. INCORRECT: Teachers work generally more than 40 hours a week.

More Detailed Rules for the Position of Adverbs

  • Adverbs that modify the whole sentence can move to different positions, such as certainly, recently, fortunately, actually, and obviously.
  • Recently , I started a new job.
  • I recently started a new job.
  • I started a new job recently .
  • Many adverbs of frequency modify the entire sentence and not just the verb, such as frequently, usually, always, sometimes, often , and seldom . These adverbs appear in the middle of the sentence, after the subject.
  • INCORRECT: Frequently she gets time to herself.
  • INCORRECT: She gets time to herself frequently .
  • She has frequently exercised during her lunch hour. (The adverb appears after the first auxiliary verb.)
  • She is frequently hanging out with old friends. (The adverb appears after the to be verb.)
  • Adverbial phrases work best at the end of a sentence.
  • He greeted us in a very friendly way .
  • I collected data for 2 months .

Main Parts of Speech Video Playlist

Note that these videos were created while APA 6 was the style guide edition in use. There may be some examples of writing that have not been updated to APA 7 guidelines.

  • Mastering the Mechanics: Nouns (video transcript)
  • Mastering the Mechanics: Introduction to Verbs (video transcript)
  • Mastering the Mechanics: Articles (video transcript)
  • Mastering the Mechanics: Introduction to Pronouns (video transcript)
  • Mastering the Mechanics: Modifiers (video transcript)

Writing Tools: Dictionary and Thesaurus Refresher Video

Note that this video was created while APA 6 was the style guide edition in use. There may be some examples of writing that have not been updated to APA 7 guidelines.

  • Writing Tools: Dictionary and Thesaurus Refresher (video transcript)

Related Resources

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Knowledge Check: Main Parts of Speech

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What is a part of speech?

What is a Part of Speech?

A part of speech is one of the nine types of English words : VERB, NOUN, ADJECTIVE, ADVERB, PRONOUN, PREPOSITION, DETERMINER, CONJUNCTION, INTERJECTION

There are thousands of words but they don't all have the same job. For example:

  • some words express action
  • other words express things
  • other words join one word to another word

parts of speech are like the parts of a house

And when we want to build a sentence, we use the different types of word .

Each type of word has its own job.

There are 9 basic types of word , and they are called " parts of speech ".

The most important parts of speech are the BIG FOUR, and the verb is the king of these. Here they are, each with an example and its basic "job":

  • verb ( deliver - expresses action)
  • noun ( computer - expresses a thing)
  • adjective ( yellow - tells us more about a noun)
  • adverb ( quickly - tells us more about a verb)

The other parts of speech are mostly small words:

  • pronoun ( it - replaces a noun)
  • preposition ( on - links a noun to another word)
  • determiner ( the - limits a noun)
  • conjunction ( and - joins words)
  • interjection ( ouch ! - expresses feeling)

The Parts of Speech – Definitions and Examples

The different parts of speech are the breakdown and classification of words in English that show their unique functions and properties. In core language, a single word can function as two or more parts of speech.

Differentiating between the 9 parts of speech is the first step to building your grammar skills and writing tools. Keep reading to learn the definitions and examples of each category!

What are the 9 Basic Parts of Speech?

A noun is any place, person, idea, or thing. Some examples of nouns include:

There are various classifications of nouns you can use in your writing. Proper nouns are specific names for places, persons, ideas, or things. Meanwhile, common nouns are generic class nouns. A possessive noun is another type of noun that demonstrates belonging. 

We can also classify this part of speech as an abstract noun, concrete noun, count noun, and uncountable noun.

The placement of the noun in a sentence also determines its function. A noun can be in the nominative or objective case. The nominative functions include subject and subject complement. And the types of objects are direct object, indirect object, and object of a preposition.

A quick introduction to pronouns shows they are classes of words that take the place of nouns. Some examples of pronouns include he, that, whoever, myself.

This quick guide to pronouns shows they can be classified as: 

  • Personal pronoun (I, he, she, you, etc.)
  • Demonstrative pronouns (that, those, these, this, etc.).
  • Interrogative pronouns (what, when, why, how, etc.).
  • Relative pronouns (who/whom, whose, which, etc.).
  • Indefinite pronouns (anybody, everybody, somebody, everything, etc.).
  • Reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, herself, etc.).
  • Intensive pronouns (myself, yourself, herself, etc.).

Pronouns can further be divided into first-person pronoun, second-person pronoun, and third-person pronoun.

A verb is a word that conveys time while showing a condition, an action, or the fact that something exists. All complete sentences should contain at least one verb unless using an interjection.

Verbs can be treated as either lexical verbs/action verbs (study, love, drink) or auxiliary verbs (seem, is, have). 

what is the part of speech of type

A verb phrase combines verbs with linking verbs and lexical categories of verbs. Some examples include:

  • Has become.

Phrasal verbs are forms of verbs that consist of two or more words. Here are some examples:

  • Put up with.

When you add “up with” after the simple verb “put,” you create a brand-new verb with a new meaning. Therefore, phrasal verbs should be treated as complete verbs because of their unique definitions.

Some verbs are reflexive. A reflexive verb is where the subject and object are one since the sentence uses reflexive pronouns like “himself” or “itself.”

Whether you’re using a lexical or auxiliary verb, this part of the speech always expresses time through the different tenses. For instance, the verb “eats” is a present-tense verb, and its past form is “ate.”

4. Adjective

Another part of speech is the adjective , which modifies or describes a noun or a pronoun. It typically answers the questions “what kind,” “which one,” or “how much.” For example:

The articles “a,” “an,” and “the” are sometimes categorized as adjectives. “The” is a definite article, and “a” and “an” are indefinite articles.

Adjective classes include:

  • Absolute adjectives.
  • Appositive adjectives.
  • Attributive adjectives.
  • Predicative adjectives.
  • Compound adjectives.
  • Qualitative adjectives.
  • Denomial adjectives.
  • Participial adjectives.
  • Demonstrative adjectives.

Adverbs are a word class that modifies adjectives, verbs, and fellow adverbs. One frequent adverb marker is the suffix -ly, such as “healthily,” “badly,” and “swiftly.”

But the discussion of adverbs goes beyond words that describe actions. There are also adverbs of degree, place, time, and frequency. The English language also considers “most days,” “to visit my friend,” “very loudly,” and other adverbial phrases as adverbs.

Adverbial phrases are under the phrasal categories, including verb phrases, adjective phrases, etc.

6. Conjunction

A conjunction is a word that binds words, clauses, and phrases. “And,” “but,” “because,” and “consequently” are some examples of conjunctions.

Conjunctions make it easy to construct more complex sentences because you can easily add new clauses. The category distinctions of this part of speech are:

  • Coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so, etc.)
  • Subordinating conjunctions (after, although, unless, since, if, etc.)
  • Correlative conjunctions (not only… but also, either… or, etc.)

7. Preposition

Prepositions show relations of space, time, and role between nouns, pronouns, and other words. They are at the start of prepositional phrases. Here are some examples of prepositions:

  • Apart from.

8. Determiner

A determiner is like an adjective because it also modifies nouns. However, these words are essential for proper syntax as opposed to adjectives. They can be classified as indefinite and definite. New grammar rules now treat articles as determiners. Examples of determiners include:

  • Which. 

9. Interjection

The last part of speech is the interjection which may have standalone functions in sentences. “Whoops,” “ouch,” “ah,” and “hooray” can be an entire sentence on their own.

Parts of Speech Chart

Analyzing the parts of speech is different for every individual language. Here’s an overview of the different categories in English.

When A Word is Also Two Different Kinds of Speech

Sometimes, words have more than one role in the English language. For example, some nouns can also act as adjectives called adjectival nouns. In the phrase “race car,” “race” modifies “car,” so its usage is as an adjective instead of a noun.

A noun can be used in verbal senses. Consider the word “work” in these sentences.

  • My new work is more promising than the old one. (noun)
  • Shew works in a new industry. (verb)

Open and Closed Word Classes

The two classifications of the parts of speech include open and closed classes. The open classes can be changed and added as the language changes. 

  • Adjectives.

Meanwhile, closed classes are parts of speech that do not change. These include:

  • Prepositions.
  • Conjunctions.
  • Articles and determiners.
  • Interjections.

In some languages, verbs and adjectives form closed classes. This closedness of verbs is common in Basque and Persian verbs .

Linguistics , or the study of language, does not recommend the label “part of speech” anymore. Instead, the discipline favors “syntactic category” or “word class.”

What Part of Speech is With?

In the stricter sense, the only use of “with” is as a preposition. You can find it before a noun or a pronoun to form prepositional phrases. Use it to show togetherness, associations, and connections between people and objects.

What Part of Speech is And?

The conjunction “and” connects words, clauses, and phrases. It can also combine sentences that need to be presented at once.

What Part of Speech is My?

“My” is a possessive pronoun that can also act as an adjective, determiner, or interjection.

Are You Using the Parts of Speech the Right Way?

This guide has shown you the nine parts of speech and their grammatical functions. By now, you should already be able to give definitions and examples of each category, so they make sense. 

To correctly use the parts of speech, ask yourself, “what is the function of this word in the sentence?” Keep practicing until you master the traditional grammar rules of English!

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what is the part of speech of type

  • English Grammar
  • Parts of Speech

Parts of Speech - Definition, 8 Types and Examples

In the English language , every word is called a part of speech. The role a word plays in a sentence denotes what part of speech it belongs to. Explore the definition of parts of speech, the different parts of speech and examples in this article.

Table of Contents

Parts of speech definition, different parts of speech with examples.

  • Sentences Examples for the 8 Parts of Speech

A Small Exercise to Check Your Understanding of Parts of Speech

Frequently asked questions on parts of speech, what is a part of speech.

Parts of speech are among the first grammar topics we learn when we are in school or when we start our English language learning process. Parts of speech can be defined as words that perform different roles in a sentence. Some parts of speech can perform the functions of other parts of speech too.

  • The Oxford Learner’s Dictionary defines parts of speech as “one of the classes into which words are divided according to their grammar, such as noun, verb, adjective, etc.”
  • The Cambridge Dictionary also gives a similar definition – “One of the grammatical groups into which words are divided, such as noun, verb, and adjective”.

Parts of speech include nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.

8 Parts of Speech Definitions and Examples:

1. Nouns are words that are used to name people, places, animals, ideas and things. Nouns can be classified into two main categories: Common nouns and Proper nouns . Common nouns are generic like ball, car, stick, etc., and proper nouns are more specific like Charles, The White House, The Sun, etc.

Examples of nouns used in sentences:

  • She bought a pair of shoes . (thing)
  • I have a pet. (animal)
  • Is this your book ? (object)
  • Many people have a fear of darkness . (ideas/abstract nouns)
  • He is my brother . (person)
  • This is my school . (place)

Also, explore Singular Nouns and Plural Nouns .

2. Pronouns are words that are used to substitute a noun in a sentence. There are different types of pronouns. Some of them are reflexive pronouns, possessive pronouns , relative pronouns and indefinite pronouns . I, he, she, it, them, his, yours, anyone, nobody, who, etc., are some of the pronouns.

Examples of pronouns used in sentences:

  • I reached home at six in the evening. (1st person singular pronoun)
  • Did someone see a red bag on the counter? (Indefinite pronoun)
  • Is this the boy who won the first prize? (Relative pronoun)
  • That is my mom. (Possessive pronoun)
  • I hurt myself yesterday when we were playing cricket. (Reflexive pronoun)

3. Verbs are words that denote an action that is being performed by the noun or the subject in a sentence. They are also called action words. Some examples of verbs are read, sit, run, pick, garnish, come, pitch, etc.

Examples of verbs used in sentences:

  • She plays cricket every day.
  • Darshana and Arul are going to the movies.
  • My friends visited me last week.
  • Did you have your breakfast?
  • My name is Meenakshi Kishore.

4. Adverbs are words that are used to provide more information about verbs, adjectives and other adverbs used in a sentence. There are five main types of adverbs namely, adverbs of manner , adverbs of degree , adverbs of frequency , adverbs of time and adverbs of place . Some examples of adverbs are today, quickly, randomly, early, 10 a.m. etc.

Examples of adverbs used in sentences:

  • Did you come here to buy an umbrella? (Adverb of place)
  • I did not go to school yesterday as I was sick. (Adverb of time)
  • Savio reads the newspaper everyday . (Adverb of frequency)
  • Can you please come quickly ? (Adverb of manner)
  • Tony was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes open during the meeting. (Adverb of degree)

5. Adjectives are words that are used to describe or provide more information about the noun or the subject in a sentence. Some examples of adjectives include good, ugly, quick, beautiful, late, etc.

Examples of adjectives used in sentences:

  • The place we visited yesterday was serene .
  • Did you see how big that dog was?
  • The weather is pleasant today.
  • The red dress you wore on your birthday was lovely.
  • My brother had only one chapati for breakfast.

6. Prepositions are words that are used to link one part of the sentence to another. Prepositions show the position of the object or subject in a sentence. Some examples of prepositions are in, out, besides, in front of, below, opposite, etc.

Examples of prepositions used in sentences:

  • The teacher asked the students to draw lines on the paper so that they could write in straight lines.
  • The child hid his birthday presents under his bed.
  • Mom asked me to go to the store near my school.
  • The thieves jumped over the wall and escaped before we could reach home.

7. Conjunctions are a part of speech that is used to connect two different parts of a sentence, phrases and clauses . Some examples of conjunctions are and, or, for, yet, although, because, not only, etc.

Examples of conjunctions used in sentences:

  • Meera and Jasmine had come to my birthday party.
  • Jane did not go to work as she was sick.
  • Unless you work hard, you cannot score good marks.
  • I have not finished my project,  yet I went out with my friends.

8. Interjections are words that are used to convey strong emotions or feelings. Some examples of interjections are oh, wow, alas, yippee, etc. It is always followed by an exclamation mark.

Examples of interjections used in sentences:

  • Wow ! What a wonderful work of art.
  • Alas ! That is really sad.
  • Yippee ! We won the match.

Sentence Examples for the 8 Parts of Speech

  • Noun – Tom lives in New York .
  • Pronoun – Did she find the book she was looking for?
  • Verb – I reached home.
  • Adverb – The tea is too hot.
  • Adjective – The movie was amazing .
  • Preposition – The candle was kept under the table.
  • Conjunction – I was at home all day, but I am feeling very tired.
  • Interjection – Oh ! I forgot to turn off the stove.

Let us find out if you have understood the different parts of speech and their functions. Try identifying which part of speech the highlighted words belong to.

  • My brother came home  late .
  • I am a good girl.
  • This is the book I  was looking for.
  • Whoa ! This is amazing .
  • The climate  in  Kodaikanal is very pleasant.
  • Can you please pick up Dan and me on  your way home?

Now, let us see if you got it right. Check your answers.

  • My – Pronoun, Home – Noun, Late – Adverb
  • Am – Verb, Good – Adjective
  • I – Pronoun, Was looking – Verb
  • Whoa – Interjection, Amazing – Adjective
  • Climate – Noun, In – Preposition, Kodaikanal – Noun, Very – Adverb
  • And – Conjunction, On – Preposition, Your – Pronoun

What are parts of speech?

The term ‘parts of speech’ refers to words that perform different functions in a sentence  in order to give the sentence a proper meaning and structure.

How many parts of speech are there?

There are 8 parts of speech in total.

What are the 8 parts of speech?

Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections are the 8 parts of speech.

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Understanding Parts of Speech (9 Types With Examples)

parts of speech

What are parts of speech? In the American English language, parts-of-speech is a category to which a word is assigned in accordance with its syntactic functions. They exist under the verb , noun, pronoun, interjection , adjective , conjunction, adverb, and preposition forms.

Learn more about parts of the speech in this comprehensive worksheet…

What are parts of speech?

“Parts of speech” refers to the essential words used in sentence formation in the English language.

Every word used in a sentence structure plays an important role in defining the sentence’s meaning. These words use and placement give proper intentions in sentence structures.

Parts of speech are the basic grammar lessons taught during the primary phases of learning English.

Any word used in sentence formation falls into one of these categories for proper sentence structure.

Some of those words can be a part of one or more parts of speech. This topic further explores the essential parts of speech used in the English language.

Watch this as a video lesson

In total, there are nine categories of parts of speech

These nine parts of speech are namely: Verbs, Nouns , Adjectives, Determiners, Adverbs , Pronouns, Prepositions , Conjunctions, and Interjections.

Another additional classification is used as a part of speech, i.e. , Articles, a subprogram of determiners.

To comprehend the meaning and use of each word in the English language, it is essential to clearly understand the various parts of speech and select the right parts of speech form at the appropriate place in the sentence.

What are the 9 parts of speech with their functions?

Here are the nine parts of speech and how they impact the English language.

‘Verbs’ are the words used in a sentence to define the action/state of action being performed. Most of the sentences in sentence formation require the inclusion of verbs.

Some examples of verbs used in the English language are Love, Break, Fall , and Cry . These are the basic forms of verbs and are known as infinitives .

Most of the verbs used have two other major forms called participles . The use of these participles is for the formation of various verb-tense combinations.

These participles define the forms of verbs concerning the time of action/performance. These verb-tense combinations can be used in two types: Active voice and passive voice .

A ‘noun’ are words used in a sentence to give recognition or the name of an object, individual, or animal.

Nouns can be sub-classified into two major categories: Common nouns , which give generic descriptor names to things, and common items, such as a bat, a bicycle , etc. The other category of nouns is Proper nouns , which have specific descriptor names to refer to a specialized object, place, or individual, such as Charley, The Empire State Building, The Telegraph , etc.

Additionally, nouns can be classified as singular nouns and plural nouns based on the number of individuals/objects.

Singular Nouns

The definition of a Singular Noun is the same as that of a noun when used commonly. It carries the same definition as the noun: “A word referring towards an individual/object/event/material/place.”

Plural Nouns

The word plural relates to “more than one in certain languages or more than two in certain languages.”

Thus singular nouns can be converted to their plural noun format when there is an implication of more than one or two objects/individuals/places.

A general Singular/Common Noun can be turned into the appropriate form of a Plural Noun by adding a ‘s’/’es’/’ ies’/’ves.’ It is also initiated by changing ‘us’ to ‘i’, ‘is’ to ‘es’ , or ‘on’ to ‘a’ .

Some common nouns do not change when interchanged between their singular and plural noun forms. Some other common nouns do not fall under plural nouns and are called irregular nouns, which are made plural by changing the spelling or adding a suffix to the word.

‘Adjectives’ are words that give a description or modify the scope of nouns/pronouns by being specific. For example, adjectives used to define a noun can be red, small, hot, common, etc.

An adjective is usually placed before a noun or after the verb that it modifies. Three forms of adjectives are used to compare similar characteristics of different individuals/objects. These three degrees of comparison are:

  • Positive/Absolute form

This comparison of adjectives defines the original form of the adjective as stated in English. For example, “this candy is tasty .” This degree of comparison states that no relative subject is available for comparison.

  • Comparative form

This form of the adjective gives a relative comparison between two objects performing similar actions with identical characteristics. For example, “the candy we had today is tastier than the one we received yesterday.”

  • Superlative form

This form of the adjective gives the superiority declaration of one object over similar objects possessing similar characteristics. For example, “this candy is the tastiest I have ever had in the last two years .”

Adjectives can be sub-classified based on their function in sentence formation. This sub-classification is:

  • Possessive Adjectives

These adjectives show/represent the possessiveness of an object. For example, mine, my, his/her, their, its, etc.

  • Interrogative Adjectives

These adjectives modify the noun/pronoun by interrogation. Only a select few adjectives are available in this form. For example, whose, which, what, and where.

  • Demonstrative Adjectives

These adjectives describe the current state/position of the noun/pronoun concerning space/time. For example, this, these, those, that.

  • Compound Adjectives

These adjectives are a result of the combination of two or more adjectives. The resulting adjective modifies the subject in the sentence. For example, hand-dried, heavy-weighted, spike-haired, etc.

‘Determiners’ are the words placed before a noun/pronoun group terms to refer to a single/multiple things. Some commonly used determiners in English are ‘a’, ‘the’, ‘some’, ‘any’, and ‘this.’ Determiners are generally placed before descriptive adjectives . It tells the reader more about the description of the noun being referred to.

Determiners are classified into sub-categories, articles, and demonstratives.

An ‘Article’ can be either definite or indefinite. An article modifies a noun/pronoun without specifying any description of the object. In English, an example of a ‘definite article’ is the , whereas examples of two ‘indefinite articles’ are a and an .

Here, the refers to specific things or things that are identified beforehand. A or a refer to non-specific things that have not been identified beforehand.

Demonstratives

A ‘Demonstrative’ is defined as a demonstrative adjective/pronoun based on its usage in the sentence. Some examples of demonstratives are ‘this’, ‘that’, and ‘those’ .

A determiner has the same rules of use as in the case of adjectives in sentence formation. Thus, confusion takes place when carefully choosing the type of parts of speech to assign when given a choice of either a determiner or adjective.

An ‘Adverb’ defines essential information about the verb, similar to what an adjective is to a noun. It provides a descriptor for a verb used in a sentence and some cases, can also describe an adjective or another adverb.

Some adverbs used in sentences with verbs are ‘slowly’, ‘hastily’, ‘unfortunately’, and ‘angrily’.

Adverbs are further sub-classified into various types based on their application in a sentence.

  • Adverbs of Time (to inform about the occurrence of a verb), For example, ‘now’, ‘tomorrow’, and ‘soon’.
  • Adverbs of Manner (to describe the action of a verb), For example, ‘hastily’, ‘slowly’, and ‘minutely’.
  • Adverbs of Place (to indicate the place of action of the verb),
  • Adverbs of Frequency (to describe the frequency of a verb action),
  • Adverbs of Degree (to describe the intensity of an action),
  • Conjunctive Adverbs (are used to link/act as a conjunction to two sentences).

A ‘Pronoun’ is a word used in specifically providing an alternate name for a non/noun phrase. They are alternate words for referring to an object/individual when the requirement of a noun is unnecessary, as the noun has been mentioned previously in some parts of the sentence.

Some examples of pronouns are ‘it’, ‘he/she’, and ‘himself/herself’.

Pronouns are sub-classified into different categories based on their use in the sentence.

Some of these sub-categories are:

  • Relative Pronouns (to relate a part of a sentence with the other)
  • Possessive Pronouns (to show possessiveness)
  • Reflexive Pronouns (to refer back to the subject of discussion)
  • Demonstrative Pronouns (to refer to specific objects/individuals)
  • Interrogative Pronouns (to ask questions)
  • Indefinite Pronouns (to avoid reference to any specific object/individual/place)
  • Personal Pronouns (to use as substitutes for proper names)
  • Subject Pronouns (to assign acting on an object)
  • Object Pronouns (to assign receiving action towards an object)
  • Reciprocal Pronouns (to express two-way/mutual relationship)
  • Preposition

A ‘Preposition’ is a word used as a connective between a noun, a noun phrase, or a pronoun with another word.

Prepositions are used in sentence formations to convey these meanings:

  • To show the direction towards/of something/someone
  • To refer to the period of an action taking place
  • To specify the location/position of an object
  • To present the space and time relationship between objects

Based on their use and function, prepositions are classified into four subtypes:

  • Prepositions of Time (to indicate the happening of an action/event)
  • Preposition of Place (to indicate the location of an object)
  • Preposition of Direction (to indicate the direction/orientation of an object)
  • Prepositions of Spatial Relationship (to indicate an object moving away/towards a source)
  • Conjunction

A ‘Conjunction’ is a word that combines two/more objects and behaves as connectives in a sentence. These can appear in the beginning/middle/end of the sentence following the location of the objects.

There are three types of conjunctions used in sentence formation:

  • Coordinate conjunction (to combine two independent clauses )
  • Subordinate conjunction (to combine an independent with a dependent clause)
  • Correlation conjunction (to combine two phrases having equal weightage)

Interjection

An ‘Interjection’ is a word to convey the expression of a variety of emotions/feelings. As such, there is no specific rule for the use of interjection and where it is to be placed.

However, in most cases, it is placed at the beginning of the sentence. For example, some of the most commonly used interjections are ‘ouch’, ‘phew’, and ‘well’.

Parts of speech examples

Here are some examples of the parts of speech used in sentences. Note the placement and its relation with other parts of speech present in the sentence format.

  • John is  cutting  a pipe.
  • John intends to  come  to the office this Monday .
  • Jogging  regularly is good for health.
  • Drinking  and  driving  put other motorists in danger.
  • Would you want to wear  a suit?
  • I love  to sing  in between classes.

See another example in the image below.

Sentence example

  • Juno  ran towards the classroom.
  • The janitor  requested the students to clear their lockers.
  • The monkey  was caged after being sedated.
  • I gifted my brother a  phone .
  • Why did you purchase the  book ?
  • I misplaced the  manuscript .
  • Do you want to eat some  ice cream ?
  • Mum loved my new car .
  • Daniel gifted  his brother  a Porsche.

Sentence example

  • I purchased a blue suit for the reception.
  • Mary purchased two oranges from the fruit seller.
  • The curry is tasty .
  • Juno’s brother is arrogant .
  • The documentary that premiered on television was fascinating .
  • Giovanni Giorgio is a great music composer.

Sentence example

  • My house is currently under lease.
  • This novel is lengthy.
  • I purchased some fruits and vegetables.
  • She sent me an expensive watch.
  • Velma loved  the  dress gifted by her parents.
  • Joyce and Jill watched  a  movie together.
  • Grandma gave us materials to prepare  the   dessert.

Sentence example

  • Typically , we visit Mom on Mondays.
  • Don’t you taste the coffee to be  too  bitter?
  • Do not be nervous. You will  eventually get the hang of it.
  • The movie I watched was  very  scientific.
  • It is  scorching hot inside the workshop.
  • Can I visit the office  today ?

Sentence example

  • His aunt will be staying at the apartment for a while .
  • He is the man I was referring to.
  • I found my missing luggage outside the airport.

Sentence example

  • I won’t be coming  to  the office  in  the afternoon.
  • He arranged the cutlery  on  the table.
  • Bhaskar made the dog hide  under  its bed.
  • I enjoy strolling by the lake in the mornings.

Sentence example

  • James  and  I trekked to the hilltop today.
  • I stayed back home  because  I felt uneasy.
  • He did not enjoy the yogurt ,  yet  he finished it.

Sentence example

  • Interjection
  • Hurray!  We got the funding.
  • Ouch!  That wound looks severe.
  • Wow!  You look great in the wedding gown.
  • Oh my God !  I hope he is safe.

See an example in the image below.

Sentence example

Words with more than one job

Many parts of speech can have more than one function/job in the sentence. This improves the versatility of the words being used and makes the use more situational in its placement and conveyance of meaning.

  • Myers can shift for herself (Preposition)
  • Give prayers to the Almighty; for He is the one above all (Conjunction)
  • We require more women to have the same vigor. (Adjective)
  • More of the women died in the operating room than in the cabin. (Pronoun)
  • Agatha needs to shut the gossiping and work more (Adverb)

To see how all the objects work together, see the table below.

Here is a chart showing the parts of speech:

Parts of speech chart.

How to identify parts of speech

In sentence formation, it often becomes difficult to ascertain the parts of speech represented by each word. To help out and to make the process of identification easier, follow these steps:

  • Identify any word which names an object/individual/place in a generalized form as a noun .
  • To identify a specific noun, use pronouns .
  • Any words which describe/identify actions/performance are verbs .
  • Any word that modifies or gives a greater definition to nouns is an adjective.
  • Any word that modifies or gives meaning to the actions of verbs, are adverbs.
  • It is easy to pick out prepositions as they describe relationships between a noun/pronoun with other nouns/pronouns.
  • Any joiner used to join two clauses is a conjunction .
  • Exclamations generally follow any interjections in the text.

Parts of speech infographic

  • Parts of speech

More parts of speech:

  • Conjunctions
  • Prepositions
  • Possessive nouns
  • Irregular plural nouns
  • Proper nouns
  • Concrete nouns
  • Collective nouns
  • Possessive and plural nouns
  • Verbs: The Definitive Guide
  • Nouns | Explore Definition, Examples & Types with Examples
  • What Are Pronouns? Definitions and Examples
  • What Are Adverbs? (with Examples)
  • Interjections – Explore Meaning, Definition, Usage and Examples
  • What Is A Conjunction? Types & Examples
  • The 9 Parts of Speech: Definitions and Examples
  • What Is a Determiner?
  • The 8 Parts of Speech: Examples and Rules
  • Adverbs – What is It? Explore the Meaning, Definition, Types, Usage and Examples

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what is the part of speech of type

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what is the part of speech of type

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Dalia Y.: Dalia is an English Major and linguistics expert with an additional degree in Psychology. Dalia has featured articles on Forbes, Inc, Fast Company, Grammarly, and many more. She covers English, ESL, and all things grammar on GrammarBrain.

Core lessons

  • Abstract Noun
  • Accusative Case
  • Active Sentence
  • Alliteration
  • Adjective Clause
  • Adjective Phrase
  • Adverbial Clause
  • Appositive Phrase
  • Body Paragraph
  • Compound Adjective
  • Complex Sentence
  • Compound Words
  • Compound Predicate
  • Common Noun
  • Comparative Adjective
  • Comparative and Superlative
  • Compound Noun
  • Compound Subject
  • Compound Sentence
  • Copular Verb
  • Collective Noun
  • Colloquialism
  • Conciseness
  • Conditional
  • Concrete Noun
  • Conjugation
  • Conditional Sentence
  • Comma Splice
  • Correlative Conjunction
  • Coordinating Conjunction
  • Coordinate Adjective
  • Cumulative Adjective
  • Dative Case
  • Declarative Statement
  • Direct Object Pronoun
  • Direct Object
  • Dangling Modifier
  • Demonstrative Pronoun
  • Demonstrative Adjective
  • Direct Characterization
  • Definite Article
  • Doublespeak
  • Equivocation Fallacy
  • Future Perfect Progressive
  • Future Simple
  • Future Perfect Continuous
  • Future Perfect
  • First Conditional
  • Gerund Phrase
  • Genitive Case
  • Helping Verb
  • Irregular Adjective
  • Irregular Verb
  • Imperative Sentence
  • Indefinite Article
  • Intransitive Verb
  • Introductory Phrase
  • Indefinite Pronoun
  • Indirect Characterization
  • Interrogative Sentence
  • Intensive Pronoun
  • Inanimate Object
  • Indefinite Tense
  • Infinitive Phrase
  • Intensifier
  • Indicative Mood
  • Juxtaposition
  • Linking Verb
  • Misplaced Modifier
  • Nominative Case
  • Noun Adjective
  • Object Pronoun
  • Object Complement
  • Order of Adjectives
  • Parallelism
  • Prepositional Phrase
  • Past Simple Tense
  • Past Continuous Tense
  • Past Perfect Tense
  • Past Progressive Tense
  • Present Simple Tense
  • Present Perfect Tense
  • Personal Pronoun
  • Personification
  • Persuasive Writing
  • Parallel Structure
  • Phrasal Verb
  • Predicate Adjective
  • Predicate Nominative
  • Phonetic Language
  • Plural Noun
  • Punctuation
  • Punctuation Marks
  • Preposition of Place
  • Parts of Speech
  • Possessive Adjective
  • Possessive Determiner
  • Possessive Case
  • Possessive Noun
  • Proper Adjective
  • Proper Noun
  • Present Participle
  • Quotation Marks
  • Relative Pronoun
  • Reflexive Pronoun
  • Reciprocal Pronoun
  • Subordinating Conjunction
  • Simple Future Tense
  • Stative Verb
  • Subjunctive
  • Subject Complement
  • Subject of a Sentence
  • Sentence Variety
  • Second Conditional
  • Superlative Adjective
  • Slash Symbol
  • Topic Sentence
  • Types of Nouns
  • Types of Sentences
  • Uncountable Noun
  • Vowels and Consonants

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English Study Online

Parts of Speech: A Guide to Learning English Grammar

By: Author English Study Online

Posted on Last updated: December 27, 2023

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In this page, we will break down each part of speech and provide examples to help you understand their usage. We will also discuss how to identify the different parts of speech in a sentence and provide tips on how to use them correctly. Whether you are a beginner or an advanced English learner, this article will provide valuable insights into the parts of speech and improve your language skills. Let’s get started!

Table of Contents

Overview of Parts of Speech

In this section, we will provide a brief overview of the eight parts of speech in English. Understanding the parts of speech is essential for anyone learning the English language, as it enables them to construct meaningful sentences and communicate effectively.

The eight parts of speech are:

Prepositions

Conjunctions, interjections.

Each part of speech has a specific function in a sentence. For example, nouns are used to name people, places, things, or ideas, while verbs are used to describe an action or state of being. Adjectives are used to describe nouns, while adverbs are used to describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

Pronouns are used to replace nouns in a sentence, while prepositions are used to indicate the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. Conjunctions are used to connect words, phrases, or clauses, while interjections are used to express emotions or feelings.

Parts of Speech: A Guide to Learning English Grammar

Nouns are words that represent people, places, things, or ideas. They are one of the most important parts of speech in English and are used in nearly every sentence. In this section, we will explore the different types of nouns and their functions.

Common Nouns

Common nouns are general names for people, places, or things. They are not capitalized unless they appear at the beginning of a sentence.

  • Examples of common nouns include “book,” “city,” and “teacher.”

Proper Nouns

Proper nouns are specific names for people, places, or things. They are always capitalized.

  • Examples of proper nouns include “Harry Potter,” “New York City,” and “Ms. Johnson.”

Abstract Nouns

Abstract nouns are names for ideas, concepts, or emotions. They are intangible and cannot be seen, heard, or touched.

  • Examples of abstract nouns include “love,” “happiness,” and “freedom.”

Collective Nouns

Collective nouns are names for groups of people or things. They can be singular or plural, depending on the context.

  • Examples of collective nouns include “team,” “family,” and “herd.”

In this section, we will discuss the different types of pronouns used in English grammar. Pronouns are words that replace nouns in a sentence. They help to avoid repetition and make sentences more concise.

Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns refer to specific people or things. They can be used as the subject or object of a sentence. Here are the personal pronouns in English:

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns are used to point to specific people or things. They can be used to indicate distance or location. Here are the demonstrative pronouns in English:

Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions. They are typically used at the beginning of a sentence. Here are the interrogative pronouns in English:

Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite pronouns refer to non-specific people or things. They can be used as the subject or object of a sentence. Here are the indefinite pronouns in English:

Verbs are one of the most important parts of speech in English. They are used to describe an action, state, or occurrence. In this section, we will cover the three types of verbs: action verbs, linking verbs, and helping verbs.

Action Verbs

Action verbs are used to describe an action that is being performed by the subject of the sentence. They can be used in the present, past, or future tense. Here are a few examples of action verbs:

Linking Verbs

Linking verbs are used to connect the subject of the sentence to a noun, pronoun, or adjective that describes it. They do not show action. Here are a few examples of linking verbs:

Helping Verbs

Helping verbs are used in conjunction with the main verb to express tense, voice, or mood. They do not have a meaning on their own. Here are a few examples of helping verbs:

In conclusion, verbs are an essential part of English grammar. Understanding the different types of verbs and how they are used in a sentence can help you communicate more effectively in both written and spoken English.

In this section, we will discuss adjectives, which are an important part of speech in English. Adjectives are words that describe or modify nouns or pronouns. They provide more information about the noun or pronoun, such as its size, shape, color, or quality.

Descriptive Adjectives

Descriptive adjectives are the most common type of adjectives. They describe the physical or observable characteristics of a noun or pronoun. For example, in the sentence “The red car is fast,” “red” is a descriptive adjective that describes the color of the car, and “fast” is another descriptive adjective that describes its speed.

Here are some examples of descriptive adjectives:

Quantitative Adjectives

Quantitative adjectives are used to describe the quantity or amount of a noun or pronoun. They answer the question “how much” or “how many.” For example, in the sentence “I have two apples,” “two” is a quantitative adjective that describes the number of apples.

Here are some examples of quantitative adjectives:

Demonstrative Adjectives

Demonstrative adjectives are used to point out or indicate a specific noun or pronoun. They answer the question “which one” or “whose.” For example, in the sentence “This book is mine,” “this” is a demonstrative adjective that indicates the specific book that belongs to the speaker.

Here are some examples of demonstrative adjectives:

In conclusion, adjectives are an important part of speech in English. They provide more information about nouns and pronouns, and they help to make our language more descriptive and precise. By understanding the different types of adjectives, we can use them effectively in our speaking and writing.

In this section, we will discuss adverbs, which are words that modify or describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Adverbs give more information about the action, manner, place, time, frequency, degree, or intensity of a verb.

Adverbs of Manner

Adverbs of manner describe how an action is performed. They answer the question “how?” and usually end in “-ly”, but not always. Here are some examples:

  • She sings beautifully.
  • He speaks softly.
  • They ran quickly.
  • The dog barked loudly.

Adverbs of manner can also be formed by adding “-ly” to some adjectives. For example:

  • She is a quick learner. (adjective: quick)
  • He is a careful driver. (adjective: careful)

Adverbs of Place

Adverbs of place describe where an action takes place. They answer the question “where?” and usually come after the verb or object. Here are some examples:

  • She looked everywhere.
  • He lives nearby.
  • They went outside.
  • The cat hid underneath the bed.

Adverbs of Time

Adverbs of time describe when an action takes place. They answer the question “when?” and can come at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. Here are some examples:

  • She wakes up early every day.
  • He arrived yesterday.
  • They will leave soon.
  • The concert starts tonight.

Adverbs of time can also be used to show the duration of an action. For example:

  • She studied for hours.
  • He worked all day.
  • They talked for a long time.

In this section, we will discuss prepositions and their usage in English. Prepositions are words that show the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. They usually indicate the position or direction of the noun or pronoun in relation to other elements in the sentence.

Prepositions of Time

Prepositions of time are used to indicate when an action took place. They include words such as “at,” “in,” and “on.”

  • “At” is used for specific times, such as “at 2 pm” or “at midnight.”
  • “In” is used for longer periods of time, such as “in the morning” or “in October.”
  • “On” is used for dates, such as “on Monday” or “on July 4th.”

Prepositions of Place

Prepositions of place are used to indicate where something is located. They include words such as “in,” “on,” and “at.”

  • “In” is used for enclosed spaces, such as “in the house” or “in the car.”
  • “On” is used for surfaces, such as “on the table” or “on the floor.”
  • “At” is used for specific locations, such as “at the park” or “at the beach.”

Prepositions of Direction

Prepositions of direction are used to indicate movement. They include words such as “to,” “from,” and “towards.”

  • “To” is used to indicate movement towards a specific destination, such as “I am going to the store.”
  • “From” is used to indicate movement away from a specific location, such as “I am coming from the park.”
  • “Towards” is used to indicate movement in the direction of a specific location, such as “I am walking towards the museum.”

In this section, we will discuss the different types of conjunctions and their functions in English grammar. Conjunctions are words that connect words, phrases, or clauses in a sentence. They are essential in creating complex sentences and conveying relationships between ideas.

Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions join words, phrases, or clauses that are of equal importance. They are easy to remember using the mnemonic device FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. Here are some examples:

  • I like pizza and pasta.
  • She is neither tall nor short.
  • He wanted to go to the beach, but it was raining.

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions connect dependent clauses to independent clauses and establish a relationship between them. They are used to show cause and effect, time, condition, and contrast. Some examples of subordinating conjunctions are:

Here are some examples:

  • Because it was raining, we stayed inside.
  • Although she was tired, she stayed up to finish her work.
  • While I was studying, my roommate was watching TV.

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions are pairs of words that work together to connect words, phrases, or clauses. They are used to show a relationship between two elements. Here are some examples:

  • both…and
  • either…or
  • neither…nor
  • not only…but also
  • Both my sister and I like to read.
  • Either you come with us or you stay here.
  • Not only was he late, but he also forgot his homework.

In conclusion, conjunctions are important in creating complex sentences and conveying relationships between ideas. By understanding the different types of conjunctions and their functions, you can improve your writing and communication skills.

In English grammar, interjections are words or phrases that express strong emotions or feelings. They are also known as exclamations and are one of the eight parts of speech in English. Interjections are grammatically independent from the words around them, and they can often be removed from a sentence or context without affecting its basic meaning.

Interjections can be used to express a wide range of emotions, including surprise, joy, anger, frustration, and pain. Some common examples of interjections include “ wow ,” “ ouch ,” “ yay ,” “ oh no ,” and “ oops .” They can be used to add emphasis to a sentence or to convey a particular tone or mood.

It is important to note that interjections do not have any grammatical function in a sentence. They are not nouns, verbs, adjectives, or any other part of speech. Instead, they simply stand alone as a way to express emotion.

When using interjections in writing, it is important to consider the context in which they are being used. While they can be a useful tool for adding emphasis or conveying emotion, they can also be overused or misused, which can detract from the overall effectiveness of the writing.

Articles/Determiners

In English grammar, articles and determiners are words that are used with nouns to provide more information about them. They help us to understand the context and meaning of a sentence.

There are three articles in the English language: “ the ,” “ a, ” and “ an. ” “The” is known as the definite article because it refers to a specific noun that has already been mentioned or is known to the reader. For example, “The cat is sleeping on the sofa.” In this sentence, “the” refers to a specific cat that has already been mentioned or is known to the reader.

“A” and “an” are known as indefinite articles because they refer to any member of a group or class of nouns. “A” is used before words that begin with a consonant sound, while “an” is used before words that begin with a vowel sound. For example, “I need a pen” and “She ate an apple.”

Determiners

Determiners are words that come before a noun to provide more information about it. They can include articles, as well as words like “ this ,” “ that ,” “ these ,” and “ those .”

In addition to these, there are other types of determiners such as possessive determiners (e.g. “my,” “your,” “his,” “her,” “its,” “our,” and “their”), demonstrative determiners (e.g. “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those”), and quantifying determiners (e.g. “some,” “any,” “many,” “few,” “several,” etc.).

Determiners can also be used with adjectives to provide more information about a noun. For example, “She ate the delicious apple” and “I saw that beautiful sunset.”

Understanding articles and determiners is crucial for mastering English grammar. By using them correctly, you can convey your thoughts and ideas more clearly and effectively.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the 8 parts of speech in English?

In English, there are eight parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. Each part of speech serves a different function in a sentence and helps to convey meaning.

What are some examples of different parts of speech?

Here are a few examples of different parts of speech:

  • Noun: dog, cat, book, table
  • Pronoun: he, she, it, they
  • Verb: run, jump, sing, dance
  • Adjective: happy, sad, tall, short
  • Adverb: quickly, slowly, loudly, softly
  • Preposition: in, on, at, under
  • Conjunction: and, but, or, so
  • Interjection: wow, oh, ouch, hooray

What is the difference between a noun and a verb?

A noun is a word that represents a person, place, thing, or idea. A verb is a word that represents an action, occurrence, or state of being. In other words, a noun is a subject or object in a sentence, while a verb is the action or occurrence that takes place.

What are the different types of nouns?

There are several different types of nouns, including:

  • Common nouns: refer to general, non-specific people, places, things, or ideas (e.g. dog, city, book)
  • Proper nouns: refer to specific people, places, things, or ideas and are always capitalized (e.g. John, Paris, The Great Gatsby )
  • Concrete nouns: refer to tangible, physical objects (e.g. table, chair, car)
  • Abstract nouns: refer to intangible concepts or ideas (e.g. love, happiness, freedom)
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The 9 Types of Parts of Speech: Definitions, Rules and Examples

What are the parts of speech in english.

There are nine parts of speech in English. Together, these parts of speech provide the building blocks for creating meaning in language:

Prepositions

Conjunctions, articles and determiners, interjections.

Each part of speech serves a different purpose and can be used in different ways. For example, a noun is a word that represents a person, place, thing, or idea. A verb is a word that expresses an action or state of being. An adjective modifies a noun or pronoun, while an adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Pronouns take the place of nouns and can function as the subject or object of a sentence. Prepositions show relationships between words in a sentence. Conjunctions join words or groups of words together. Interjections are exclamatory words or phrases that express strong emotion.

What is the Definition of Parts of Speech?

The context in which the word is used will determine its function. Parts of speech are an important part of language learning, as they help students to understand how sentences are constructed and how meaning is conveyed. Most of us are familiar with the parts of speech: noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. They are the categories into which words are classified according to their function in a sentence. Learning about parts of speech can also help students to improve their writing skills by using more accurate and varied sentence structures.

For example, ” cat” is a noun, and ” quickly” is an adverb. The direct objects can be divided into two main groups: content words and structure words. Content words include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. These are the words that carry the meaning in a sentence.

Open and Closed Word Classes

There are two main types of parts of speech, or word classes: open and closed. Open word classes, also known as content words, include nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. They are so called because they can have new members added to them (open class), as opposed to closed word classes (e.g. prepositions, conjunctions, determiners), which are much more limited in number (closed class).

Open word classes are usually more central to the meaning of a sentence than closed classes, which often just provide grammatical information. For example, in the sentence “The big dog barked,” the words “big” and “dog” are more essential to the meaning of the sentence than the word “the,” which simply tells us that we are talking about a specific dog. However, all parts of speech are important in creating well-formed sentences.

The 9 Parts of Speech

A noun is a word that refers to a person, place, thing, or idea. Nouns are often used as the subject or object of a sentence. They can be used as the object of a verb (I saw the cat) or a preposition (We walked in the park). Types of nouns also include:

  • Plural nouns (cats, parks)
  • Possessive nouns (cat’s, park’s)
  • Proper (Mr. Smith, Times Square)

In addition to these types, others include; Common nouns, which are words that refer to general objects or ideas (chair, city), while proper nouns refer to specific people or places (John, New York). Collective nouns are words that refer to groups of things (class, team). Abstract nouns are words that refer to ideas or concepts (love, freedom). Concrete nouns are words that refer to physical objects that can be perceived by the five senses (sound, smell, taste, touch, and sight).

Pronouns are one of the parts of speech in English. A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun or a noun phrase. Pronouns are used to refer to people or things, either directly or indirectly. The most common possessive pronouns are:

There are also reflexive pronouns and relative pronouns. Pronouns are usually found after the noun or the phrase that they are replacing. For example: “I saw John in the park.” In this sentence, “I” is a pronoun that is replacing the speaker’s name. “John” is the noun that is being replaced by the pronoun “I”. “He” is also a pronoun and it is replacing John.

You can also use pronouns to refer to yourself: “I’m going to the store.” Here, “I” is a reflexive pronoun because it is referring back to the subject of the sentence. Relative pronouns are used to introduce clauses: “The man who was at the store was looking for a book.” In this sentence, “who” is a relative pronoun that introduces the clause “who was at the store.”

Verbs are one of the eight parts of speech. They are words that indicate action or state of being. In English, verbs are usually denoted by the suffix “-ed” added to the root form of the word, as in “walk-ed,” “study-ed,” and “live-ed.” The root form is also known as the base form. There are three main types of verbs:

  • Action verbs
  • Linking verbs
  • Helping verbs

Action verbs describe physical or mental actions and include words such as “run,” “jump,” “read,” and “think.” Linking verbs connect the subject to a word or entire sentence that describes or identifies it and include words such as “is,” “seems,” and “becomes.” Helping verbs assist the main verb in a sentence by providing more information about time, tense, mood, or condition and include words such as “can,” “should,” and “would.” All three types of verbs are necessary for constructing sentences in English. Knowing how to use them correctly is essential for effective communication.

Adjectives are one of the eight parts of speech. They modify verbs, nouns, and other adjectives and show the degree, size, shape, age, colour, origin, and material of the things they modify. For example: “a hot stove,” “a round ball,” “an old car,” and ” Cuban cigars.” Adjectival meanings usually come before the noun or pronoun they modify but sometimes come after it: “He is slow.” “That car is mine.” When two or more adjective categories modify the same noun, they are usually listed in a specific order:

  • Quantity or Number
  • Quality or Opinion
  • Nationality or Origin

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb. In English, adverbs are typically formed by adding the suffix “-ly” to an adjective, as in the words “slowly” and “quickly.” Adverbs can express manner, degree, frequency, time, place, or other aspects of how an action is performed. For example, the adverb “slowly” in the sentence “He slowly walked across the room” modifies the verb “walked.” The word “slowly” tells us how he walked. Similarly, the adverb “quickly” in the sentence “She quickly ran out of the room” modifies the verb “ran.” The word “quickly” tells us how she ran. Other examples of adverbs include words like:

Adverbs can be placed either before or after the word they modify. In general, however, they are placed after verbs and before adjectives and other adverbs.

A preposition is a word (often a short word) that shows the relationship between two parts of a sentence. A preposition usually comes before a noun or a pronoun. For example, in the sentence “I looked for my watch under the couch,” the word “under” is a preposition that shows the relationship between “I” and “my watch.” The word “under” tells us where to find the watch. Other examples of prepositions are:

Many of these prepositions also have multiple meanings. The meaning of a preposition often has to do with time or location. Some people say there are only about 150 prepositions in English; others say there are closer to 250. It’s hard to be exact because new words are always being created. In addition, some words can be used as more than one part of speech.

Conjunctions are one of the parts of speech. They are words that join other words, phrases, or clauses together. There are three main types of conjunctions:

  • Coordinating conjunctions
  • Subordinating conjunctions
  • Correlative conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions join two words, phrases, or clauses of equal importance. Some common coordinating conjunctions include “and,” “but,” and “or.” Subordinating conjunctions join a subordinate clause to the main clause. Some common subordinating conjunctions include “after,” “although,” and “because.” Correlative conjunctions come in pairs and are used to join two words, phrases, or clauses that are of equal importance. Some common correlative conjunctions include “both…and,” “either…or,” and “neither…nor.”

While conjunctions are small words, they play an important role in sentence construction. Without them, sentences would be choppy and difficult to understand.

Articles and determiners are parts of speech that are used to modify nouns. They can indicate whether a noun is specific or unspecific, and can also be used to denote possession. There are two types of articles:

  • Definite articles, which refer to a specific noun
  • Indefinite articles, refer to any member of a group of nouns.

There are also three types of determiners:

  • Demonstrative determiners, which point out a particular noun
  • Possessive determiners, which show ownership
  • Quantitative Determiners, which denote quantity

Although they perform different functions, both articles and determiners play an important role in communication. By using these parts of speech correctly, speakers can provide clarity and precision in their writing and speech.

An interjection is a word or phrase that can be used to express emotion. It is typically used as a standalone exclamation, such as:

  • “Wow!”
  • “Oh no!”
  • “No way!”
  • “Holy Cow!”
  • “Ouch!”
  • “Yay!”

Interjections can also be used to express excitement, surprise, or dismay. In some cases, they can even be used to fill in awkward pauses in conversation. While interjections are not always considered part of standard English grammar, they can be useful for adding emphasis or lending flavour to writing. As such, they are often used in fiction and other creative writing.

However, it is important to use them sparingly, as too many interjections can make writing feel choppy or amateurish. When used judiciously, however, interjections can add personality and flair to your writing.

Figuring out parts of speech

When you are trying to figure out the parts of speech in traditional grammar, the first step is to identify the verb. The verb is the action word in the sentence, and it will usually come before the subject. For example, in the sentence “The cat slept on the mat,” the verb is “slept.” Once you have identified the verb, you can then identify the subject. The subject is the noun or pronoun that is acting as the verb. In our example sentence, “The cat slept on the mat,” the subject is “cat.”

After you have identified the verb and subject, you can then begin to look for other parts of speech. Common parts of speech include adjectives (descriptive words), adverbs (words that modify verbs), and prepositions (words that show relationships between objects).

To identify these parts of speech, look for words that come before or after verbs and nouns. For example, in the sentence “The red cat slept on the soft mat,” the category of color and adjective “red” modifies the adjectival noun “cat” and the adjective “soft” modifies the noun “mat.” The adverb “on” modifies the verb “slept” by showing where the action took place.

By breaking down sentences into their parts, you can more easily identify the function of each word and understand how they work together to form a complete thought.

When a word is two different kinds of speech

There are parts of speech in the English language that can be difficult to identify.

  • For example, the word “you” can function as both a pronoun and an adjective. When used as a pronoun, “you” is the subject of a sentence or clause.
  • For example, “You are going to the store.” When used as an adjective, “you” modifies a noun or pronoun.

To identify when a word is two different kinds of speech, it is important to understand the parts of speech and how they function in a sentence. With a little practice, you will be able to identify when a word is being used as two different parts of speech.

Common Endings

Common noun endings.

In English, there are three parts of speech: nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Nouns are words that refer to people, places, things, or ideas. Verbs are words that describe actions or states of being. Adjectives are a word that classes nouns or pronouns. Common noun endings include:

These suffixes change the meaning of the word and often indicate whether the word is a subject or an object. For example, the word “read” is a verb meaning “to look at something closely.” The word “reader” is a noun phrase meaning “one who reads.” The word “reading” is a gerund meaning “the act of reading.” By understanding common noun endings, you can better understand the function of words in a sentence. This can help you to avoid breaking grammar rules and to communicate more effectively.

Common Verb Endings

There are a few basic combinations of verb endings that you will see in English. These are:

Each of these endings has a different function depending on the closedness of verbs. The -s ending is used to indicate present tense verbs, while -ed is used for past tense verbs. The -ing form is used for verb phrases and gerunds, and the -en form is used for irregular verbs.

While there are some exceptions to these rules, they generally apply to most verbs in English. By knowing these common verb endings, you can better understand how to use brand new verbs in sentence structure.

Common Adjective Endings

Adjectives are one of the eight parts of speech in English. They are used to modify nouns and pronouns. Adjectives are a broader category and can be used to describe almost anything, from physical attributes to personality traits. There are dozens of adjective endings in English, but some of the most common are:

Common Adverb Endings

Adverbs are one of the eight parts of speech in English. They modify present tense verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, phrases, and clauses. Adverbs give us more information about how, when, where, and to what extent an action is carried out. In short, they tell us more about the verbs. Common adverb endings include:

The most common ending for adverbial phrases is -ly. This is because most adverbs are formed by taking an adjective and adding -ly to the end of it. For example, the adjective slow becomes the adverb slowly. Other examples include softly, bravely, happily, yearly, monthly, daily, etc. You can usually tell if a word is an adverb by its spelling; if it ends in -ly, chances are it’s an adverb.

Order of Adjectives

As previously mentioned, one of the most essential aspects of adjectives is their order of use. When more than one adjective is used to modify a noun, there is a specific order that they should follow. This order is:

  • Quantity or number
  • Quality or opinion
  • Origin or material

Let’s take a closer look at each category. First, quantity or number refers to how many of something there are, like “five dogs.”

Quality or opinion covers adjectives that express someone’s opinion, such as “amazing” or “delicious.”

Size adjectives describe how large or small something is and include class sizes like “huge” or “tiny.”

Age tells us how old something is and can be either specific, like “twenty-year-old,” or general, like “ancient.”

Shape covers the physical form of an object and can be either geometric, like “square,” or organic, like “slippery.”

Colour tells us what colour something is while origin or material describes where something comes from or what it is made of and can include adjectives like “Italian” or “wooden.”

Finally, purpose tells us why something exists and can be either functional, like “safety goggles,” or decorative, like “ornate.” Now that we know the order of adjectives, we can use them correctly in our writing.

Commas With Multiple Adjectives

A good rule of thumb is that if omitting the comma would change the meaning of the sentence, then you should include it. For example, “The red, white, and blue flag” versus “The red white and blue flag.” In the first sentence, the colours are independent (coordinate) descriptors; in the second sentence, they create a single cumulative description.

Position of Adverbs

Adverbs usually come after the verb, but there are some exceptions. For example, in the sentence “He slowly walks to the door,” the adverb “slowly” describes the verb “walks.” In contrast, “He walked quickly to the door” emphasizes how fast he walked.

Adverbs can also be placed at the beginning or end of a sentence for added emphasis. For instance, “Sadly, I have to go” emphasizes the speaker’s regret, while “I have to go sadly” emphasizes how they will leave. Adverbs can thus add depth and meaning to sentences by providing insight into the speaker’s attitude or point of view.

More Detailed Rules for the Position of Adverbs

There are some detailed rules about the position of adverbs in a sentence.

Adverbs that modify verbs usually come after the main verb or after the auxiliary verb. For example:

  • He slowly walked across the room.
  • He has slowly been walking across the room.

Adverbs that modify adjectives or other adverbs usually come before the word they are modifying. For example:

  • That is a very careful driver.
  • She drives quite slowly.

There are some exceptions to these general rules. For example, certain types of adverbs (such as those that express frequency) can go in different positions in a sentence without changing the meaning. In addition, some adverbs can be moved to a different position for emphasis. However, in general, these are the basic rules for adverb placement in English sentences.

Frequently Asked Questions on Parts of Speech

The introduction, body, and conclusion are the parts of the speech where the speaker should start with an attention grabber, state the main points, and then finish with a strong conclusion. They add color to language and keep things organized. – The introduction is the part of the speech where the speaker gets the audience’s attention. The speaker can use a quotation, question, story, or statistic. – The body is the meat of the speech. This is where the speaker states the main points. The main points should be clear and concise. The body should also flow smoothly from one point to another. – The conclusion is the last part of the speech. The speaker should restate the main points and end with a strong statement that leaves the audience thinking.

Each part of speech plays a different role in a sentence, and understanding how they work together is essential for clear communication. For example, verbs describe an action, while adjectives modify nouns. If you don’t know the basic types of speech, it can be difficult to construct a grammatically correct sentence. In addition, parts of speech can affect the meaning of a sentence. For instance, using the wrong pronoun can change the subject of a sentence entirely.

“You” is a personal pronoun. Pronouns take the place of a noun phrase or a group of words acting as a noun in a sentence. There are three types of pronouns: personal pronouns, relative pronouns, and demonstrative pronouns. “You” is a personal pronoun. Personal pronouns represent specific people or things in blocks of grammar.

Many people are unsure of the parts of speech for “either” and “or.” The word “either” is always a conjunction, while “or” can be either a conjunction or a disjunctive pronoun, depending on its usage. When used as a conjunction, “or” joins two distinct parts of a sentence together, such as two nouns or two verbs.

Us and we are both personal pronouns, which are words that take the place of a noun or noun phrase. Pronouns allow us to avoid repeating the same noun over and over again. For example, instead of saying “John went to the store. John bought some milk. John drank the milk,” we can use demonstrative pronouns to say “John went to the store. He bought some milk. He drank the milk.”

Near is what is known as a preposition. A preposition is a word that expresses spatial or temporal relationships between its object and the rest of the sentence (e.g., “over,” “under,” “before,” “after”). In the sentence, “The book is near the lamp,” the word “near” functions as a preposition because it expresses the spatial relationship between the book and the lamp.

English is a complex language with many nuances and subtleties. A key part of understanding and using English correctly is knowing the parts of speech. These are the different categories that words can be classified into, based on their function in a sentence.

The word “would” is a verb. It typically expresses past tense actions, but it can also be used to express future actions. For example, “I would go to the store” means that in the past, I went to the store. “I would go to the store” can also mean that in the future, I will go to the store.

The parts of speech that are universally recognized are nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. These parts of speech are essential for conveying information about people, places, things, and actions. Together, they provide the building blocks for creating complete sentences. Without them, communication would be impossible. Consequently, parts of speech are universal features of language that play a vital role in human communication.

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Home » 8 Parts of Speech with Types, Definitions and their Examples

8 Parts of Speech with Types, Definitions and their Examples

8 Parts of Speech | 8 Types, Definition and Examples

Are you curious to Speak or Learn the English Language? well, Every word in the English language is referred to as a component of speech. The 8 parts of speech are Nouns , Pronouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. we will go over the Common Eight parts of speech in this tutorial, along with their definitions, types, and Examples. This is the article on the different 8 parts of speech and Their examples and definitions as well as Example Sentences.

The 8 parts of speech are the regular grammar categories to which words are allocated based on their functions of syntax, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and so on. Stated differently, they talk about the varied roles that words might play in a sentence and the connections that words have to one another as defined by syntax and grammar .

Every single English word can be classified into one of the eight components of speech. A word’s part of speech is the purpose it fulfills in a sentence. These jobs were also designed to work as a team, much like any workplace or ensemble cast television series.

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Table of Contents

What Is a Part of Speech?

Before delving into the specifics, let’s clarify what we mean by a “Part of speech.” In English grammar, a part of speech is a category of main and a lot of words. These types of categories help us to understand how the words we use and Speak within the daily life Conversation.

8 Parts of Speech Are:

  • Prepositions
  • Conjunctions
  • Interjections

Names of 8 Parts of speech

 The 8 parts of speech:

Noun: the foundation of sentences.

  • Types: Common, proper, abstract, concrete, and countable nouns. See more…
  • Definition: A noun is a word that tells of a person, place, thing, or idea.
  • Example: cat , London , happiness ,
  • Nouns Example Sentences: She has an Adorable Cat . They are going to London. may god give you happiness.

Pronoun: Substitutes for Nouns

  • Types: Personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, indefinite pronouns. See More…
  • Definition: A pronoun is a word that represents a noun to avoid repetition.
  • Example: he , she , it , they He is a good boy. she is studying. it is an amazing sight. they live in New York.

Verb: The Action Words

  • Types: Action verbs, linking verbs, helping verbs. See More….
  • Definition: in the English Language, A verb explains an action, occurrence, or state of being.
  • Example: Runs, smell, Going, playing,  He runs every morning. The flowers smell delicious. I am going with my Friends. they are Playing Football.

Adjective: Describing Words

  • Types: Descriptive adjectives, limiting adjectives. See More… 
  • Definition: An adjective describes or modifies a noun or pronoun.
  • Example: blue , tall , delicious today the sky is blue. He is a tall man. She makes delicious food.

Adverb: Modifiers of Verbs

  • Types: Adverbs of manner, place, time, degree. See More…
  • Definition: An adverb tells about the verb, adjective, or another adverb
  • Example: quickly,   beautifully, Loudly This boy runs quickly. She sings beautifully . He Speaks Loudly .

Preposition: Indicators of Position or Relationship

  • Types: Simple prepositions, compound prepositions. See More…
  • Definition: A preposition describes the relationship between its object and another word in the sentence.
  • Example: on, in, at, across The book is on the table. I am in the car. He is at the bus stand. She walked across the bridge.

Conjunction: Joining Words

  • Types: Coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions. See more…
  • Definition: A conjunction connects words, phrases, or clauses.
  • Examples: And, Because, that,  She likes tea and coffee. He went to the store because he needed groceries. this is the pen, that writes very well.

Interjection: Expressions of Emotion

  • Types: Expressive interjections, introductory interjections. See More…. 
  • Definition: An interjection Describe strong emotions or sudden bursts of feelings.
  • Example: wow! ouch! Ouwww! Wow! That was amazing! Ouch! That hurt. Ouwww! That’s amazing.

Eight parts of Speech and their Types, Definition and Examples

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Part of Speech

What part of speech is “what”.

In English texts and verbal communication, the word what also have various functions. It can be used as a adjective , an adverb , a pronoun, or an interjection .

This word is commonly classified as an adjective if it is used to introduce a noun or a noun phrase. In the sample sentence below:

What time is it?

The word “ what ” introduces the noun “time,” and is therefore considere d as a adjective.

Definition:

a.  asking for information specifying something

  • What books did you buy?

In some cases, the word “ what ” is considered as an adverb if it modifies a verb. For instance, in the sample sentence below:

What does he care?

The word “ what ” functions as an adverb because it modifies the verb “care.”

a.  in what way

  • What does it matter ?

The word “ what ” is also normally categorized as a pronoun if it is used for asking questions about something or if it is used to substitute a noun. For example, in the sentence below:

What we need is commitment.

This “ wha t” word is classified under pronouns because it replaces a thing or a noun.

  • What is beauty ?

b.  used to describe a question

  • What is this?

c.  the thing or things that (used in specifying something)

  • I want to do what I can to make a difference.
  • Interjection

Other times, this word is classified under interjections because it can be used to express sudden emotions. Take for example, the sentence:

What a suggestion!

In this sample sentence, the word “ what ” is used to exclaim and express a burst of emotion regarding the noun “suggestion.”

a.  emphasizing something surprising or remarkable

  • What a charming lady !
  • School Guide
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  • English Grammar : Learn Rules of Grammar and Basics
  • Parts of Speech: Definitions, Examples & 8 Types
  • What is a Noun? Types, Definitions and Examples (List)
  • Proper Noun - Definition, Examples, & Rules
  • Common Noun - Definition, Examples, List & Usage
  • Plural Noun - Rules and Examples
  • Possessive Noun - Meaning, Usage, Rules and Examples
  • What is Collective Noun? List of Examples, Uses and Exercises
  • Abstract Nouns - Definition, Examples, List, Usage
  • What is a Compound Noun? Definition, Types & Examples
  • What are Countable Noun?
  • What are Uncountable Noun - How to use them?
  • Material Noun: Definition, Examples, Rules & Exercises
  • Pronoun Definition - Rules and Types of Pronouns
  • Reflexive Pronoun
  • Subject Pronouns - Definition, Example and Exercise
  • Relative Pronouns - Definition, Uses and Examples
  • Demonstrative Pronouns - Definition and Examples
  • Possessive Pronouns - Definition, Usage and Examples
  • Indefinite Pronoun
  • Personal Pronoun - Definition, Rules and Examples
  • Interrogative Pronoun
  • Reciprocal Pronouns - Definition, Examples & Uses
  • What is a Verb? Types, Uses, Examples
  • Main Verbs - Meaning, Types and Examples
  • Helping Verb: Definition, Types and Examples
  • Auxiliary Verbs: Definition, Examples & List
  • Irregular Verbs
  • What Are Modal Verbs? – Definition, Usage & Examples
  • What is A Gerund? Definition and Examples
  • Adjective - Definition, List, Types, Uses and Examples
  • Proper Adjectives Definition and Examples
  • Possessive Adjectives - Definition, Example and List
  • Interrogative Adjective - Meaning, Definition and Examples
  • What Is an Adverb? Definition, List & Examples
  • Conjunctive Adverbs - Meaning, Examples and Exercises
  • Adverbs of Time - Examples, Meaning, and Definition
  • Adverbs of Frequency - Definition, Examples, and Usage
  • Adverbs of Place - Definition, List and Examples
  • What are Adverbs of Degree? Definition, List and Examples
  • Adverbs of Manner - Meaning, Definition and Examples

Conjunction

  • What is a Conjunction - Meaning, Definition, Types & Exercises
  • Subordinating Conjunction - Meaning, Definition, Types and Examples

Preposition

Interjection.

  • Interjections - Definition, Types, Rules and Examples
  • Definite and Indefinite Articles ( A, An, The)
  • Subject-Verb Agreement Rules: Examples & Exercises
  • Active and Passive Voice Rules for Competitive Exams
  • What is Tense? Types, Definitions & Examples
  • Tense Chart in English - Rules, Examples, Types & Mind map

Parts of Speech: Definitions, Examples & 8 Types

Every word is a part of speech playing a specific role in sentences or paragraphs. Parts of speech provide an organized way to align words and phrases, it is a fundamental meaning for a language to become more understandable and serve a specific purpose. Here, in this article, we will see what is Part of Speech, its types, and its uses. So let us dive in deeper to learn more about it!

Parts of Speech

Table of Content

What is Part of Speech?

Parts of speech chart.

  • Different Types of Parts of Speech :
  • Parts of Speech Examples Using Sentences
  • Quiz to practice Parts of Speech 

Parts of Speech – FAQs

The English language has thousands of words and every word has some function to perform. Some words are there to show action, some to join, and some to name something. There are 8 different parts of speech including nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunction, and interjection. And together, all the functions performed by words in the English language fall under Parts of speech.           

Parts of Speech Definition

The parts of speech are the “traditional grammatical categories to which words are assigned in accordance with their syntactic functions, such as noun, verb, adjective, adverb, and so on.” In other words, they refer to the different roles that words can play in a sentence and how they relate to one another based on grammar and syntax.

All Parts of Speech with Examples 

There are 8 different types of parts of speech i.e., Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, Verbs, Adverb, prepositions, Conjunction, and Interjection.

Noun –

A   noun   is a word that names a person, place, thing, state, or quality. It can be singular or plural. Nouns are a part of speech.

  • Function: Refers to Things or person
  • Examples: Pen, Chair, Ram, Honesty
  • Sentences: Cars are expensive, This chair is made of wood, and Ram is a topper, Honesty is the best policy.

Pronoun –

The word used in place of a noun or a noun phrase is known as a pronoun. A pronoun is used in place of a noun to avoid the repetition of the noun. 

  • Function: Replaces a noun
  • Examples: I, you, he, she, it, they
  • Sentences: They are expensive, It is of wood, He is a topper, It is the best policy

Adjective –

A word that modifies a noun or a pronoun is an adjective. Generally, an adjective’s function is to further define and quantify a noun or pronoun.

  • Function: Describes a noun
  • Examples: Super, Red, Our, Big, Great, class
  • Sentences: Supercars are expensive, The red chair is for kids, Ram is a class topper, and Great things take time.

Verb –

A word or a group of words that describes an action, a state, or an event is called a verb. A verb is a word that says what happens to somebody or what somebody or something does.

  • Function: Describes action or state
  • Sentences: I play football, I will be a doctor, I like to work, I love writing poems.

Adverb –

A verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, clause, preposition, or sentence is typically modified by an adverb . Adverbs often answer questions like “how,” “in what way,” “when,” “where,” and “to what extent” by expressing things like method, place, time, frequency, degree, level of certainty, etc

  • Function: Describes a verb, adjective, or adverb
  • Examples: Silently, too, very
  • Sentences: I love reading silently, It is too tough to handle, He can speak very fast.

Preposition –

A preposition is called  a connector or linking word which has a very close relationship with the noun, pronoun or adjective that follows it . Prepositions show position in space, movement, direction, etc.

  • Function: Links a noun to another word
  • Examples: at, in, of, after, under,
  • Sentences: The ball is under the table, I am at a restaurant, she is in trouble, I am going after her, It is so nice of him

Conjunction –

A  conjunction  is a word that connects clauses, sentences, or other words.  Conjunctions  can be used alone or in groups of two.

  • Function: Joins clauses and sentences
  • Examples: and, but, though, after
  • Sentences: First, I will go to college and then I may go to Fest, I don’t have a car but I know how to drive, She failed the exam though she worked hard, He will come after he finishes his match. 

Interjection –

An  interjection  is a word or phrase expressing some sudden feelings of sadness or emotions. 

  • Function: Shows exclamation
  • Examples: oh! wow!, alas! Hurray!
  • Sentences: Oh! I got fail again, Wow! I got the job, Alas! She is no more, Hurray! We are going to a party.

These are the main parts of speech, but there are additional subcategories and variations within each. Understanding the different parts of speech can help construct grammatically correct sentences and express ideas clearly.

Sentence Examples for the 8 Parts of Speech

  • Examples: Luggage, Cattle.
  • Sentence:  Never leave your luggage unattended.
  • In some places, cattle are fed barely.
  • Examples: who, either, themselves
  • Sentence: I know a man who plays the guitar very well.
  • Either of the two cars is for sale.
  • They enjoyed themselves at the party.
  • Examples: kind, moving, wounder.
  • Sentence: 
  • She is a kind person.
  • Boarding a moving bus can be dangerous.
  • Never poke a wounded animal.
  • Examples: Praise, Hate, Punish
  • Sentence: She always praises her friends.
  • I don’t hate anybody.
  • The boy has been punished by his teacher
  • Examples: Always, enough, immediately
  • Sentence: we should always help each other.
  • We should be wise enough to understand what is good for us.
  • We should leave bad habits immediately.
  • Examples: Off, Below, From. to
  • He plunged off the cliff
  • I live below the 9th floor.
  • I travel daily from Delhi to Noida.
  • Examples: whereas, as well as, so, 
  • Sentence: The new software is fairly simple whereas the old one was a bit complicated.
  • The finance company is not performing well as well as some of its competitors.
  • He was ready so he may come. 
  • Examples: oops! whoa! phew! 
  • Sentence: Oops! I forgot to mention her name.
  • Whoa! you drive fast. 
  • Phew! That was a close call, we had a narrow escape.

Parts of Speech Exercise – Test your Knowledge of Part of speech 

Choose the correct Parts of Speech of the BOLD word from the following questions.

1. Let us play, Shall We?

       a. Conjunction        b. Pronoun        c. Verb

2.  I t is a good practice to arrange books on shelves.

      a. Verb       b. Noun       c. Adjective

3. Whose books are these?

      a. Pronoun      b. Preposition      c. verb

4.   Father, please get me that toy. 

     a. Pronoun      b. Adverb      c. Adjective

5.  His mentality is rather obnoxious.

     a. Adverb      b. Adjective      c. Noun

6.  He is the guy whose money got stolen.

      a. Pronoun       b. Conjunction       c. Adjective

7. I will have finished my semester by the end of this year.

      a. Interjection       b. Conjunction       c. Preposition

8. Bingo! That’s the one I have been looking for

    a. Interjection      b. Conjunctio      c. Preposition

Quiz Answers:

1. c,  2. b,  3. a,  4. c,  5. a,  6. b,  7. c,  8. a

Also Check:

  • English Grammar
  • Figures of Speech
  • Learn English Grammar Online
  • Difference Between Adjective and Verb

Q1. What are Parts of Speech?

A word is assigned to a category as per its function, and those categories are together known as Parts of Speech.

Q2. What are the 8 Parts of Speech?

Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection.

Q3. How many Parts of Speech are there?

There are a total of 8 parts of Speech.

Q4. What Part of Speech is “our”?

“Our” is a adjective type of Part of Speech. Eg. Our car.

Q5. What Part of Speech is “Quickly”?

Adverb. let us understand it with this example – Milk sours quickly in warm weather.

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When you start breaking it down, the English language is pretty complicated—especially if you're trying to learn it from scratch! One of the most important English words to understand is the.

But what part of speech is the word the, and when should it be used in a sentence? Is the word the a preposition? Is the a pronoun? Or is the word the considered a different part of speech?

To help you learn exactly how the word the works in the English language, we're going to do the following in this article:

  • Answer the question, "What part of speech is the ?"
  • Explain how to use the correctly in sentences, with examples
  • Provide a full list of other words that are classified as the same part of speech as the in the English language

Okay, let's get started learning about the word the !

body-question-mark-blue-circle

What Part of Speech Is the Word The?

In the English language the word the is classified as an article, which is a word used to define a noun. (More on that a little later.)

But an article isn't one of the eight parts of speech. Articles are considered a type of adjective, so "the" is technically an adjective as well. However, "the" can also sometimes function as an adverb in certain instances, too.

In short, the word "the" is an article that functions as both an adjective and an adverb, depending on how it's being used . Having said that, the is most commonly used as an article in the English language. So, if you were wondering, "Is the a pronoun, preposition, or conjunction," the answer is no: it's an article, adjective, and an adverb!

body-newspaper-graphic

While we might think of an article as a story that appears in a newspaper or website, in English grammar, articles are words that help specify nouns.

The as an Article

So what are "articles" in the English language? Articles are words that identify nouns in order to demonstrate whether the noun is specific or nonspecific. Nouns (a person, place, thing, or idea) can be identified by two different types of articles in the English language: definite articles identify specific nouns, and indefinite articles identify nonspecific nouns.

The word the is considered a definite article because it defines the meaning of a noun as one particular thing . It's an article that gives a noun a definite meaning: a definite article. Generally, definite articles are used to identify nouns that the audience already knows about. Here's a few examples of how "the" works as a definite article:

We went to the rodeo on Saturday. Did you see the cowboy get trampled by the bull?

This (grisly!) sentence has three instances of "the" functioning as a definite article: the rodeo, the cowboy, and the bull. Notice that in each instance, the comes directly before the noun. That's because it's an article's job to identify nouns.

In each of these three instances, the refers to a specific (or definite) person, place, or thing. When the speaker says the rodeo, they're talking about one specific rodeo that happened at a certain place and time. The same goes for the cowboy and the bull: these are two specific people/animals that had one kinda terrible thing happen to them!

It can be a bit easier to see how definite articles work if you see them in the same sentence as an indefinite article ( a or an ). This sentence makes the difference a lot more clear:

A bat flew into the restaurant and made people panic.

Okay. This sentence has two articles in it: a and the. So what's the difference? Well, you use a when you're referring to a general, non-specific person, place, or thing because its an indefinite article . So in this case, using a tells us this isn't a specific bat. It's just a random bat from the wild that decided to go on an adventure.

Notice that in the example, the writer uses the to refer to the restaurant. That's because the event happened at a specific time and at a specific place. A bat flew into one particular restaurant to cause havoc, which is why it's referred to as the restaurant in the sentence.

The last thing to keep in mind is that the is the only definite article in the English language , and it can be used with both singular and plural nouns. This is probably one reason why people make the mistake of asking, "Is the a pronoun?" Since articles, including the, define the meaning of nouns, it seems like they could also be combined with pronouns. But that's not the case. Just remember: articles only modify nouns.

body-two-cats-big-small

Adjectives are words that help describe nouns. Because "the" can describe whether a noun is a specific object or not, "the" is also considered an adjective.

The as an Adjective

You know now that the is classified as a definite article and that the is used to refer to a specific person, place, or thing. But defining what part of speech articles are is a little bit tricky.

There are eight parts of speech in the English language: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. The thing about these eight parts of speech in English is that they contain smaller categories of types of words and phrases in the English language. A rticles are considered a type of determiner, which is a type of adjective.

Let's break down how articles fall under the umbrella of "determiners," which fall under the umbrella of adjectives. In English, the category of "determiners" includes all words and phrases in the English language that are combined with a noun to express an aspect of what the noun is referring to. Some examples of determiners are the, a, an, this, that, my, their, many, few, several, each, and any. The is used in front of a noun to express that the noun refers to a specific thing, right? So that's why "the" can be considered a determiner.

And here's how determiners—including the article the —can be considered adjectives. Articles and other determiners are sometimes classified as adjectives because they describe the nouns that they precede. Technically, the describes the noun it precedes by communicating specificity and directness. When you say, "the duck," you're describing the noun "duck" as referring to a specific duck. This is different than saying a duck, which could mean any one duck anywhere in the world!

body-five-star-rating

When "the" comes directly before a word that's not a noun, then it's operating as an adverb instead of an adjective.

The as an Adverb

Finally, we mentioned that the can also be used as an adverb, which is one of the eight main parts of speech we outlined above. Adverbs modify or describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs, but never modify nouns.

Sometimes, the can be used to modify adverbs or adjectives that occur in the comparative degree. Adverbs or adjectives that compare the amounts or intensity of a feeling, state of being, or action characterizing two or more things are in the comparative degree. Sometimes the appears before these adverbs or adjectives to help convey the comparison!

Here's an example where the functions as an adverb instead of an article/adjective:

Lainey believes the most outrageous things.

Okay. We know that when the is functioning as an adjective, it comes before a noun in order to clarify whether it's specific or non-specific. In this case, however, the precedes the word most, which isn't a noun—it's an adjective. And since an adverb modifies an adjective, adverb, or verb, that means the functions as an adverb in this sentence.

We know that can be a little complicated, so let's dig into another example together:

Giovanni's is the best pizza place in Montana.

The trick to figuring out whether the article the is functioning as an adjective or an adverb is pretty simple: just look at the word directly after the and figure out its part of speech. If that word is a noun, then the is functioning as an adjective. If that word isn't a noun, then the is functioning like an adverb.

Now, reread the second example. The word the comes before the word best. Is best a noun? No, it isn't. Best is an adjective, so we know that the is working like an adverb in this sentence.

body-right-wrong

How to Use The Correctly in Sentences

An important part of answering the question, "What part of speech is the word the ?" includes explaining how to use the correctly in a sentence. Articles like the are some of the most common words used in the English language. So you need to know how and when to use it! And since using the as an adverb is less common, we'll provide examples of how the can be used as an adverb as well.

Using The as an Article

In general, it is correct and appropriate to use the in front of a noun of any kind when you want to convey specificity. It's often assumed that you use the to refer to a specific person, place, or thing that the person you're speaking to will already be aware of. Oftentimes, this shared awareness of who, what, or where "the" is referring to is created by things already said in the conversation, or by context clues in a given social situation .

Let's look at an example here:

Say you're visiting a friend who just had a baby. You're sitting in the kitchen at your friend's house while your friend makes coffee. The baby, who has been peacefully dozing in a bassinet in the living room, begins crying. Your friend turns to you and asks, "Can you hold the baby while I finish doing this?"

Now, because of all of the context surrounding the social situation, you know which baby your friend is referring to when they say, the baby. There's no need for further clarification, because in this case, the gives enough direct and specific meaning to the noun baby for you to know what to do!

In many cases, using the to define a noun requires less or no awareness of an immediate social situation because people have a shared common knowledge of the noun that the is referring to. Here are two examples:

Are you going to watch the eclipse tomorrow?

Did you hear what the President said this morning?

In the first example, the speaker is referring to a natural phenomenon that most people are aware of —eclipses are cool and rare! When there's going to be an eclipse, everyone knows about it. If you started a conversation with someone by saying, "Are you going to watch the eclipse tomorrow?" it's pretty likely they'd know which eclipse the is referring to.

In the second example, if an American speaking to another American mentions what the President said, the other American is likely going to assume that the refers to the President of the United States. Conversely, if two Canadians said this to one another, they would likely assume they're talking about the Canadian prime minister!

So in many situations, using the before a noun gives that noun specific meaning in the context of a particular social situation .

Using The as an Adverb

Now let's look at an example of how "the" can be used as an adverb. Take a look at this sample sentence:

The tornado warning made it all the more likely that the game would be canceled.

Remember how we explained that the can be combined with adverbs that are making a comparison of levels or amounts of something between two entities? The example above shows how the can be combined with an adverb in such a situation. The is combined with more and likely to form an adverbial phrase.

So how do you figure this out? Well, if the words immediately after the are adverbs, then the is functioning as an adverb, too!

Here's another example of how the can be used as an adverb:

I had the worst day ever.

In this case, the is being combined with the adverb worst to compare the speaker's day to the other days . Compared to all the other days ever, this person's was the worst... period . Some other examples of adverbs that you might see the combined with include all the better, the best, the bigger, the shorter, and all the sooner.

One thing that can help clarify which adverbs the can be combined with is to check out a list of comparative and superlative adverbs and think about which ones the makes sense with!

body-number-three-3

3 Articles in the English Language

Now that we've answered the question, "What part of speech is the ?", you know that the is classified as an article. To help you gain a better understanding of what articles are and how they function in the English language, here's a handy list of 3 words in the English language that are also categorized as articles.

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What's Next?

If you're looking for more grammar resources, be sure to check out our guides on every grammar rule you need to know to ace the SAT ( or the ACT )!

Learning more about English grammar can be really helpful when you're studying a foreign language, too. We highly recommend that you study a foreign language in high school—not only is it great for you, it looks great on college applications, too. If you're not sure which language to study, check out this helpful article that will make your decision a lot easier.

Speaking of applying for college... one of the most important parts of your application packet is your essay. Check out this expert guide to writing college essays that will help you get into your dream school.

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Ashley Sufflé Robinson has a Ph.D. in 19th Century English Literature. As a content writer for PrepScholar, Ashley is passionate about giving college-bound students the in-depth information they need to get into the school of their dreams.

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At New Jersey rally, Trump launches into bizarre riff on Hannibal Lecter

After a tense week of court proceedings in New York, former President Donald Trump spent his Saturday at a campaign rally, speaking to a crowd of supporters dotting the New Jersey shoreline.

He rattled off some of his greatest hits: Joe Biden insults, warnings of an open border, and complaints about political witch hunts.

More: Trump trial live updates: Listen to recording of Trump, Cohen allegedly talking hush money

But nestled between Trump’s usual talking points was some newer material, like disparaging comments about Manhattan District Attorney Allan Bragg , whom he referred to as “fat Alvin.” And—strangely—praise for the fictional serial killer Hannibal Lecter .

Why was Trump talking about Hannibal Lecter?

“Has anyone ever seen ‘The Silence of the Lambs?’” Trump asked the crowd of supporters at the rally. “The late, great Hannibal Lecter. He’s a wonderful man.”

Prep for the polls: See who is running for president and compare where they stand on key issues in our Voter Guide

The psychotic serial killer is known for eating his victims in the Oscar-winning film.

More: Un-silence of the lambs: Donald Trump (again) praises fictional cannibal Hannibal Lecter

Trump continued, “He often times would have a friend for dinner. Remember the last scene? ‘Excuse me, I’m about to have a friend for dinner,’ as this poor doctor walks by. ‘I’m about to have a friend for dinner.’ But Hannibal Lecter. Congratulations, the late, great Hannibal Lecter…”

In the same breath, Trump went on to make familiar attacks on migrants, saying, “We have people that are being released into our country that we don’t want in our country….”

It’s unclear what line of thinking made Trump invoke the fictional mass murderer – or whether he was encouraging his followers to act like Hannibal Lecter or referencing some flesh-eating bogeyman from south of the border.  

This is not the first time the former president has discussed the “Silence of the Lambs” character. At a New Hampshire rally this January, Trump compared migrants – many of whom are coming to the United States to legally seek asylum – to the crazed serial killer.“Did you ever hear of Hannibal Lecter? They’re being dropped into our country. Hannibal Lecter is coming.”

How many people attended Trump’s New Jersey rally?

According to Trump campaign officials, nearly 100,000 people reportedly flocked to Wildwood, New Jersey for the beachside rally. They dubbed it a “mega crowd.”

But the Republican major of Wildwood had previously stated that the beach could hold up to 20,000 people , and roughly that many tickets had been requested.

It’s unclear just how many people showed up – and how many stayed through the winding 90-minute speech. On X, formerly Twitter, Walter Masterson shared “35 unedited minutes showing thousands of MAGA walking out on Trump while he’s still talking.”

USA Today reporter Zac Anderson posted a similar video on X, showing that much of the crowd had dispersed long before the former president stopped speaking. This whole area was full of people when Trump started,” Anderson wrote.

Meanwhile, the crowds were as big as ever in Trump World. Roger Stone, a staunch Trump ally with a storied past, shared a photo on X that he claimed showed an aerial view of Saturday’s crowd.

The image was actually a photo of massive crowds from a 1994 Rod Stewart concert in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil—not Trump’s rally.

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Australian Court Sides With Elon Musk’s X in Freedom of Speech Row

By Patrick Frater

Patrick Frater

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Elon Musk Twitter Disparaged

An Australian court on Monday sided with Elon Musk ’s X (formerly Twitter) in an argument over graphic video.

The federal government’s internet safety watchdog, known as the eSafety Commissioner, had last month won an injunction against X over video footage of a knife attack at a Sydney church.

The government had ruled that the attack in which four people were seriously injured, constituted a terrorist incident and applied to the courts for an order requiring the removal of the footage within 24 hours.

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“Our concern is that if ANY country is allowed to censor content for ALL countries, which is what the Australian ‘eSafety Commissar’ is demanding, then what is to stop any country from controlling the entire Internet?” Musk said on X.

Musk’s stance outraged the Australian Prime Minister Anthony Albanese who accused Musk of “arrogance” and acting “above Australian law.” “The e-Safety Commissioner has made a ruling. The other social media platforms all complied without complaint,” Albanese said in interviews in April. “This is a measure that has a bipartisan support in this country.”

On Monday, however, Justice Geoffrey Kennett rejected the eSafety Commissioner’s application to extend the injunction. He did not explain his reasoning and a further hearing on the matter is scheduled later this week ahead of a final decision.

The issues of government controls over the internet, national security versus censorship and the extent of jurisdiction, is fraught with contradictions and ongoing cases – Bytedance is currently arguing that a U.S. decision to force it to sell social media platform TikTok is against the U.S. First Amendment right to free speech, yet TiKtok’s sister company Douyin actively complies with the Chinese government’s content censorship regime.

“X says [..] global removal is reasonable when X does it because X wants to do it, but it becomes unreasonable when it is told to do it by the laws of Australia,” Begbie told the court.

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Jerry Seinfeld Sees Dozens Walk Out On His Duke Commencement Speech

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Jerry Seinfeld

Duke University’s commencement ceremony on Sunday saw dozens walk out in protest of guest speaker Jerry Seinfeld , who has been a big supporter of Israel during the conflict in Gaza.

A group of students left their seats when Seinfeld began, with at least one carrying a Palestinian flag.

The remaining crowd cheered for Seinfeld, chanting, “Jerry! Jerry!” at the start of his talk. He was given an honorary degree from Duke. 

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He also met with families of the hostages and visited a kibbutz destroyed by the terror attack during a trip to Israel in December.

Seinfeld did not touch on the Gaza conflict during his speech at Duke. He told students to embrace hard work and what they love, according to WRAL News.

“Find something where you love the good parts and don’t mind the bad parts too much — the torture you’re comfortable with,” the comedian joked.

“This is the golden path to victory in life. Work. Exercise. Relationships,” he added.” They all have a solid component of pure torture, and they are all 1,000% worth it.”

The walkout was the only disruption to the commencement ceremony.

BREAKING: DUKE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS WALK OUT OF GRADUATION AS JERRY SEINFIELD’S SPEECH IS ANNOUNCED pic.twitter.com/1taNZyREun — Sulaiman Ahmed (@ShaykhSulaiman) May 12, 2024

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8 Types of Speeches to Captivate Any Audience

  • The Speaker Lab
  • May 8, 2024

Table of Contents

Words have power. In a speech, words can shift mountains, sway opinions, and light the fire for change. For anyone stepping up to the mic, knowing what kind of speech to deliver makes all the difference in winning over listeners. From informative talks to persuasive pitches, each type of speech serves a unique purpose and requires a specific approach. In this post, we’ll explore the 8 essential types of speeches you need to know to become a master communicator:

  • Informative speeches
  • Persuasive speeches
  • Demonstration speeches
  • Entertaining speeches
  • Special occasion speeches
  • Impromptu speeches
  • Debate speeches
  • Acceptance speeches

Let’s get started!

Types of Speeches to Master for Success

Every single day people across the world stand up in front of some kind of audience and speak. While the core purpose of any speech is to deliver a message to an audience, the type of message and manner in which it’s delivered helps us distinguish a given speech from others. As a result, we can categorize speeches based on four main concepts: entertaining, informing, demonstrating and persuading. Let’s take a look at each.

Informative Speech

In an informative speech , the presenter will share information about a particular person, place, object, process, concept, or issue by defining, describing, or explaining. The primary purpose of informative presentations is to share one’s knowledge of a subject with an audience. Reasons for making an informative speech vary widely.

For example, you might be asked to report to a group of managers how your latest project is coming along. Similarly, a local community group might wish to hear about your volunteer activities in New Orleans during spring break, or your classmates may want you to share your expertise on Mediterranean cooking.

Persuasive Speech

A persuasive speech proposes to change a person’s beliefs or actions on a particular issue. The presenter takes a side and gives his/her opinion with factual evidence to support their viewpoint. The topics tend to be debatable and the speech itself should have a convincing tone.

Demonstrative Speech

As the name suggests, a demonstrative speech is the type of speech you want to give to demonstrate how something works or how to do a certain thing. A demonstrative speech utilizes the use of visual aids and/or physical demonstration along with the information provided. Some might argue that demonstrative speeches are a subclass of informative speeches, but they’re different enough to be considered two distinct types. Think of it as the difference between explaining the history and tradition of gumbo as opposed to actually teaching a crowd how to make gumbo.

Entertaining Speech

The core purpose of an entertaining speech is to amuse the audience, and obviously, entertain them. They’re usually less formal in nature to help communicate emotions rather than to simply deliver facts. Some examples include speeches given by maids of honor or best men at weddings, acceptance speeches at the Oscars, or even the one given by a school’s principal before or after a talent show.

Special Occasion Speech

Beyond the four main types of public speeches we mentioned, there are a few other different types of speeches worth exploring, namely, special occasion speeches. Often shorter than other types of speeches, special occasion speeches focus on the occasion at hand, whether it’s a wedding , funeral , awards ceremony , or other special event. The goal is to connect with the audience on an emotional level and deliver a heartfelt message that resonates with the occasion. Personal stories, anecdotes, and expressions of gratitude are common elements in special occasion speeches.

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How to Deliver an Engaging Informative Speech

In an informative speech, the presenter will share information about a particular person, place, object, process, concept, or issue by defining, describing, or explaining. An informative speech’s purpose is to simplify complex theories into simpler, easier-to-digest and less ambiguous ideas. In other words, the goal of this type of speech is to convey information accurately.

Choose a Specific Topic

The first step in delivering an engaging informative speech is to choose a specific topic. Trying to cover too much ground in a single speech can be overwhelming for both the speaker and the audience. By narrowing your focus to a specific aspect of a larger topic, you can provide more in-depth information and keep your audience engaged. For example, instead of trying to explain the entire history of the internet, you could focus on the development of social media platforms.

Simplify Complex Concepts

One of the main goals of an informative speech is to simplify complex theories and concepts into more easily understandable ideas. This requires breaking down information into smaller, more digestible chunks. Use analogies, examples, and visual aids to help illustrate your points and make the information more relatable to your audience. Remember, your goal is to provide a general understanding of the topic, not to overwhelm your listeners with technical jargon or minute details.

Engage Your Audience

Keeping your audience engaged is crucial for the success of your informative speech. One way to do this is by using storytelling techniques to make the information more interesting and memorable. You can also ask rhetorical questions, encourage audience participation, and use humor when appropriate. By making your speech interactive and dynamic, you’ll be more likely to hold your audience’s attention and effectively communicate your message.

Use Visual Aids

Visual aids can be a powerful tool in an informative speech. They help to reinforce your message, clarify complex ideas, and make your presentation more engaging. Some effective visual aids include charts, graphs, images, videos, and physical objects. Just be sure not to rely too heavily on visuals at the expense of your content.

Practice and Refine

As with any type of public speaking, practice is essential for delivering a successful informative speech. Rehearse your presentation multiple times, paying attention to your pacing, tone, and body language. Consider practicing in front of a mirror, recording yourself, or presenting to a small group of friends or colleagues for feedback. Use their input to refine your speech and make improvements before the big day.

Mastering the Art of Persuasive Speaking

Speeches can be delivered to serve various purposes. A persuasive speech proposes to change a person’s beliefs or actions on a particular issue. Accordingly, the presenter takes a side and gives his/her opinion, supporting their argument with factual evidence.

Know Your Audience

The first step in crafting a persuasive speech is to know your audience. Understanding their beliefs, values, and concerns will help you tailor your message to resonate with them. In particular, consider factors such as age, gender, cultural background, and education level when analyzing your audience. This information will guide you in choosing the most effective arguments and examples to support your position.

Use Persuasive Language

The language you use in your persuasive speech can have a significant impact on how your audience receives your message. Use powerful, emotive words that evoke a strong response from your listeners.

Rhetorical devices such as repetition, metaphors, and rhetorical questions can also be effective in persuading your audience. However, be careful not to overuse techniques like pathos , as they can come across as manipulative or insincere if employed too frequently.

Provide Strong Evidence

To convince your audience to adopt your point of view, you need to provide strong evidence to support your claims. Use facts, statistics, expert opinions, and real-life examples to bolster your arguments. In addition, be sure to cite credible sources and present the information in a clear, logical manner. Finally, anticipate potential counterarguments and address them proactively to strengthen your position.

Inspire Positive Change

The goal of this type of speech is not only to change minds but also to inspire positive action. Conclude your persuasive speech with a clear call-to-action, urging your audience to take specific steps towards implementing the change you advocate for. In addition, paint a vivid picture of the benefits that will result from adopting your position, and make it easy for your listeners to understand how they can contribute to the cause.

Address Counterarguments

No matter how compelling your arguments may be, there will always be those who disagree with your position. To deliver a truly persuasive speech, you must anticipate and address potential counterarguments. That means acknowledging the validity of opposing viewpoints and then providing evidence to refute them. By demonstrating that you have considered alternative perspectives, you’ll come across as more credible and trustworthy to your audience.

Demonstrative Speeches: A Step-by-Step Guide

If you’ve ever watched a cooking show or a DIY tutorial, you’ve seen a demonstrative speech in action. This type of speech is all about teaching your audience how to do something, step by step. The key to a successful demonstrative speech is to be organized and concise. You need to break down the process into clear, easy-to-follow steps that your audience can grasp and replicate themselves.

Choose a Relevant Topic

When selecting a topic for your demonstrative speech, choose something that’s relevant and useful to your audience. It can be about anything that requires a demonstration, such as cooking a recipe, performing a science experiment, using a software program, or even tying a tie.

Consider your audience’s interests and needs. What skills or knowledge would benefit them the most? Choosing a topic that resonates with your listeners will keep them engaged and motivated to learn.

Plan Your Demonstration

Once you have your topic, it’s time to plan your demonstration from start to finish. Break down the process into logical, sequential steps. Consider the supplies or equipment you’ll need and any potential challenges or safety concerns. Creating an outline can help you stay organized and ensure you don’t miss any crucial steps. Remember, your goal is to make the process as clear and straightforward as possible for your audience.

Prepare Your Materials

Gather all the necessary materials, props, or visual aids you’ll need for your demonstration. Visual aids like props, slides, or even live demonstrations are incredibly helpful in illustrating your points. They can help your audience better understand and remember the steps you’re teaching them. During your speech, make sure everything is in working order and easily accessible.

A great demonstrative speech is not only informative but also engaging. You need to ignite a sense of enthusiasm and curiosity in your audience. Encourage them to ask questions and participate in the demonstration if possible.

In addition, use clear, concise language and maintain eye contact with your listeners. Inject some personality and humor into your delivery to keep things interesting and relatable.

Allow Time for Questions

After your demonstration, allow time for your audience to ask questions or seek clarification. This interaction can help reinforce their understanding and show that you’re invested in their learning.

At the end of your presentation, encourage your listeners to try out the skill or technique themselves. Finally, provide any additional resources or tips that can help them succeed. Remember, your ultimate goal is to empower your audience with new knowledge and abilities.

The Power of Entertaining Speeches

Sometimes, the best way to captivate an audience is simply to entertain them. An entertaining speech can range from a humorous anecdote at a conference to a moving story at a fundraiser. If you want to nail this type of speech, you need to engage your listeners and leave them with a memorable message.

As with any speech, understanding your audience is crucial for an entertaining speech. What kind of humor or stories will they appreciate? What tone and style will resonate with them? Consider factors like age, background, and the event itself. A joke that lands well at a casual gathering might not be appropriate for a formal business meeting.

Use Humor Effectively

Humor is a powerful tool in entertaining speeches, but it must be used skillfully. A well-crafted joke can break the ice, lighten the mood, and make your message more memorable. However, humor can also backfire if it’s offensive, inappropriate, or poorly delivered. Make sure your jokes are tasteful, relevant, and well-rehearsed. If you’re not confident in your comedic abilities, it’s better to err on the side of caution.

Share Personal Anecdotes

Personal stories and anecdotes can be incredibly effective in entertaining speeches. They help humanize you as a speaker as well as create a connection with your audience. As such, choose stories that are relevant to your message and that highlight your unique experiences or perspectives. Use descriptive language and engaging delivery to draw your listeners into the narrative.

An entertaining speech is all about engagement. You want your audience to be actively involved and invested in your message. In order to achieve this, use techniques like rhetorical questions, audience participation, or even props to keep your listeners engaged. Additionally, make eye contact, vary your tone and pace, and use gestures to emphasize key points.

End on a High Note

The conclusion of your entertaining speech is just as important as the beginning. You want to leave your audience with a positive, memorable impression. To accomplish this, consider ending with a call to action, a thought-provoking question, or a powerful quote. Tie your conclusion back to your main message and leave your listeners with something to ponder or act upon.

Captivating Your Audience with Special Occasion Speeches

Not all speeches are about imparting knowledge or persuading opinions. Sometimes, a speech’s primary purpose is to entertain, inspire, or commemorate a special event. This type of speech is known as a special occasion speech . Whether it’s a wedding toast, a eulogy , or an acceptance speech, special occasion speeches require a unique approach. Here are some tips for crafting a memorable and impactful special occasion speech.

Understand the Occasion

Every special occasion has its own unique tone, purpose, and expectations. A wedding toast, for example, is typically light-hearted and celebratory, while a eulogy is more somber and reflective. Before you start writing your speech, make sure you understand the nature of the occasion and the role your speech will play. This context will guide your content, tone, and delivery.

Special occasion speeches are often delivered to a specific group of people who share a connection to the event or honoree. As such, it’s crucial to tailor your speech to resonate with this particular audience. Consider their relationship to the occasion, their background, and their expectations. What stories, anecdotes, or insights will they appreciate and relate to?

Use Appropriate Humor

Humor can be a powerful tool in special occasion speeches, especially in celebratory situations like weddings or retirements. A well-placed joke or funny story can help break the ice, engage the audience, and create a warm, positive atmosphere. However, it’s important to use humor appropriately and tastefully. Avoid jokes that might be offensive, insensitive, or ill-suited to the occasion. When in doubt, err on the side of caution.

Share Personal Stories

Special occasion speeches often revolve around honoring or commemorating a person, relationship, or milestone. By sharing personal stories or anecdotes, you can help bring your speech to life and create an emotional connection with your audience. Choose stories that highlight the qualities or experiences you want to celebrate. In addition, use vivid details and descriptive language to help your audience visualize and engage with your memories.

Express Gratitude

Many special occasion speeches, such as wedding toasts or acceptance speeches, involve expressing gratitude to those who have supported or contributed to the occasion. Accordingly, take time to acknowledge and thank the people who have made the event possible or played a significant role in your life. Be specific in your praise and sincere in your appreciation.

Impromptu Speaking: Tips for Thinking on Your Feet

Imagine you’re at a meeting and your boss suddenly calls on you to share your thoughts on the project. Or maybe you’re at a networking event and someone asks you to introduce yourself to the group. These scenarios can be nerve-wracking, especially if you’re not prepared. That’s where impromptu speaking comes in.

Impromptu speeches are delivered without prior preparation or planning. You’re given a topic or question on the spot and must quickly organize your thoughts to deliver a coherent speech. It’s an essential skill that tests your ability to think on your feet and communicate effectively in spontaneous situations.

Stay Calm and Focused

When faced with an impromptu speech , the first thing to do is stay calm. Take a deep breath and focus on the task at hand. Remember, the audience wants you to succeed, so don’t let nerves get the best of you.

Use a Simple Structure

To quickly organize your thoughts, use a simple structure like the P-R-E-P method: Point, Reason, Example, Point. Start with your main point, give a reason to support it, provide an example, and then reiterate your point. This structure will help you stay on track and deliver a clear message.

Draw from Personal Experiences

When you’re put on the spot, it’s easier to draw from personal experiences than to try to come up with something completely new. Share a relevant story or anecdote that supports your point. This will help you communicate emotions and connect with your audience.

Even though you’re speaking off the cuff, don’t forget to engage your audience. Make eye contact, use gestures, and vary your tone of voice. These techniques will help you capture and maintain your audience’s attention.

Practice Regularly

Like any skill, impromptu speaking improves with practice. Seek out opportunities to speak on the spot, whether it’s at work, in social situations, or even just with friends and family. The more you do it, the more comfortable and confident you’ll become.

Debate Speeches: Crafting Compelling Arguments

Debate speeches are a common type of speech, especially in school competitions. They involve presenting arguments and evidence to support a particular viewpoint on a topic. Whether you’re a high school or college student, mastering the art of debate can be a valuable skill.

Research Your Topic

The first step in crafting a compelling debate speech is to thoroughly research your topic. Gather facts, statistics, and expert opinions to support your argument. Make sure to use reputable sources and fact-check your information.

Develop Your Argument

Once you’ve done your research, it’s time to develop your argument. Choose your strongest points and organize them in a logical manner. Use persuasive language and rhetorical devices to make your case more compelling.

Anticipate Counterarguments

In a debate, you must be prepared to defend your position against counterarguments. Anticipate what your opponent might say and have rebuttals ready. This requires critical thinking and the ability to think on your feet.

The language you use in your debate speech can make a big difference. Use strong, active verbs and vivid imagery to paint a picture in your audience’s mind. Rhetorical questions, repetition, and tricolons (a series of three parallel elements) can also be effective persuasive devices.

Deliver with Confidence

Finally, deliver your debate speech with confidence. Speak clearly, maintain eye contact, and use gestures to emphasize your points. Remember, your delivery is just as important as the content of your speech.

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Delivering Powerful Acceptance Speeches

Whether you’re accepting an award at work or being honored at a community event, an acceptance speech is your chance to express gratitude and share your story. Here are some tips for delivering a powerful acceptance speech.

First, express gratitude. Thank the organization presenting the award, as well as any individuals who have supported you along the way. Be specific in your thanks and show genuine appreciation.

Share a Personal Story

An acceptance speech is a great opportunity to share a personal story that relates to the award or honor you’re receiving. This could be a story of overcoming obstacles, learning an important lesson, or achieving a goal. Your story will help the audience connect with you on a personal level.

Inspire Your Audience

Use your acceptance speech to inspire your audience. Share the lessons you’ve learned or the wisdom you’ve gained. Additionally, encourage others to pursue their dreams and never give up. Your words have the power to motivate and uplift those listening.

Keep It Concise

While it’s important to express gratitude and share your story, it’s also important to keep your acceptance speech concise. Aim for a speech that’s no more than 3-5 minutes long. Be mindful of the time and the event schedule.

Practice and Prepare

Finally, practice and prepare for your acceptance speech. Write out your key points and practice delivering your speech out loud. This will help you feel more confident and prepared when the big moment arrives.

When it comes to rocking public speaking, getting a grip on the different types of speeches is the first step. Then you know whether to share info, sway opinions, show how it’s done, or just give your audience a good time. As a result, you can really make your speeches hit home and stick with your audience.

Remember, no matter what type of speech you’re giving, the key to success lies in understanding your purpose, knowing your audience, and adapting your message accordingly. With practice and persistence, you’ll soon be able to captivate any crowd, no matter the occasion.

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  • Last Updated: May 7, 2024

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RFK Jr. is not alone. More than a billion people have parasitic worms

Gabrielle Emanuel

what is the part of speech of type

Robert F. Kennedy Jr. , who is running as a third party candidate for president, made news this week for his deposition from 2012 that "a worm ... got into my brain and ate a portion of it and then died." Michael M. Santiago/Getty Images hide caption

Robert F. Kennedy Jr. , who is running as a third party candidate for president, made news this week for his deposition from 2012 that "a worm ... got into my brain and ate a portion of it and then died."

"A worm ... got into my brain and ate a portion of it and then died."

These are words nobody wants to say.

They were spoken by a U.S. presidential candidate. According to a 2012 deposition, uncovered and reviewed by The New York Times , Robert F. Kennedy Jr. said he sought medical attention after experiencing mental fogginess and memory loss. Eventually, he said, a doctor helped him determine a brain abnormality found on a scan was caused by a worm. He now tells The Times he has recovered with no long lasting consequences.

what is the part of speech of type

A magnification of the anterior of the larva of the pork tapeworm, showing hooks and suckers. Colors of this image have been manipulated. Parasitic worms made the news after the press reported on a past deposition by Robert F. Kennedy Jr. that he had been infected by a parasitic worm. RFK Jr. did not specify the type of worm but worm researchers believe it could have been a pork tapeworm. Science Source hide caption

A magnification of the anterior of the larva of the pork tapeworm, showing hooks and suckers. Colors of this image have been manipulated. Parasitic worms made the news after the press reported on a past deposition by Robert F. Kennedy Jr. that he had been infected by a parasitic worm. RFK Jr. did not specify the type of worm but worm researchers believe it could have been a pork tapeworm.

The story has created a lot of buzz in the world of politics. But it's not just a story about one politician's health history. The World Health Organization estimates over a billion people are infected with parasitic worms. The implications are often serious and lifelong.

Could You Fight Off Worms? Depends On Your Gut Microbes

Could You Fight Off Worms? Depends On Your Gut Microbes

NPR spoke with Francisca Mutapi , a professor of global health infection and immunity at the University of Edinburgh who has studied parasites for 25 years. She shared her insights on what might have happened to RFK Jr. – and the toll that parasitic worms take around the world. The conversation was edited for length and clarity.

Let's start with RFK Jr. What we know about his particular case is vague. Do you have an instinct about what this worm might have been and how he might have been infected with it?

So I have absolutely no idea about his case. From what I have read, it might have been a particular infection known as Taeniasis. And Taeniasis is an infection you get from a tropical parasitic worm – the easy name is tapeworms [which can be carried by pigs].

What happens is when you're infected with a tapeworm, usually from raw pork or undercooked pork, you ingest the eggs and those eggs will go on to hatch. And in their larvae form, they will spread throughout the body and, depending on what tissues in the body they end in, they cause a disease called cysticercosis.

Where might these larvae travel in the body and what harm can they bring?

For example, if the larvae end up in the eyes, they can cause blurred vision and blindness. If they end up in the muscle, they can cause weak muscles. But if they end up in any part of your central nervous system – your spine or brain – then they cause a form of disease that's called neurocysticercosis.

And this particular form of the disease will range depending on your immune system and your health status and where exactly those larvae have ended up. It can cause headaches and seizures. For example, the disease is the leading preventable cause of epilepsy worldwide. It can also cause issues with cognition. And some people have problems with balancing problems, with lack of attention and also confusion. Excess fluid in the brain can actually make this a very dangerous condition. And in very, very rare cases, people do die from neurocysticercosis.

The U.S. Thought It Was Rid Of Hookworm. Wrong

The U.S. Thought It Was Rid Of Hookworm. Wrong

How likely is this in a U.S. context?

What tends to happen is that you are exposed to the parasites when traveling to areas where this disease is widespread. So Asia, for example, South America and in some parts of Africa. In the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , you have about 1,000 new cases hospitalized with cysticercosis every year.

What are the treatment options?

Well, first of all, these diseases are preventable with things like good food hygiene – making sure pork is well-cooked – good hand-washing and good sanitation, of course.

But if you fail to prevent [the disease], then it is treatable and the drugs work very well. Two widely used drugs that kill the larval stages are praziquantel and albendazole. They are usually good for doing two things: They can reduce or kill the parasites, and they can also reverse some of the pathological manifestations of the disease, such as inflammation. In extreme cases, you have to have surgery.

Tell us more broadly about the global burden of parasites and particularly worms?

Diseases caused by parasitic worms are mostly part of a group of diseases called neglected tropical diseases and about 1.7 billion people are affected by NTDs.

In Africa alone, for example, we have over 200 million people who are affected by bilharzia, a disease caused by parasitic worms [that can trigger a series of health problems from anemia to blood in your urine to cognitive issues].

So it's a huge burden. If you take all the children in the world that have bilharzia and get them to hold hands, they would encircle the world one and a half times. That is the burden of just one of the 21 neglected tropical diseases.

While we have few deaths [from diseases caused by parasitic worms], what we do have is a huge impact on day-to-day general health and ability to function.

So can you talk about the consequences of cysticercosis – or other parasitic worms?

Think about having an epileptic seizure. You cannot hold down a job easily or long-term if you're having epileptic seizures. If [the worm goes to your eye and] impacts your vision, that affects the jobs you are able to do and your safety. If you have problems with balance, it makes it difficult to move around. So that the quality of life becomes really reduced.

Similarly bilharzia in my mother tongue – Shona from Zimbabwe – is called the disease of cognitive function. Some of the classic symptoms are children who are tired, have poor memory and poor cognition. One of the big improvements that we see whenever we treat children and we catch the disease early is that the academic performance goes up as well as their physical activity.

What is being done to combat this globally – and is it enough?

A lot is being done, but a lot more can be done. We have what we call preventative chemotherapy, which is treatment of populations at risk of disease – you give them the drugs and they catch the infection before it causes the serious disease manifestations. These drugs are mostly donated by international pharmaceutical companies.

We now need to accelerate these efforts so we can try and eliminate these kinds of diseases as quickly as possible. We can do that by increasing treatments. But we can do that by also being more innovative in our interventions. We can develop vaccines, for example.

#NPRWormWeek: The Scientist Who's Waging A War On Worms

#NPRWormWeek: The Scientist Who's Waging A War On Worms

RFK Jr.'s spokesperson has said he contracted the parasite by traveling to places in Africa, South America, and Asia in his role as "an environmental advocate." Is there anything people can do to protect themselves in these parts of the world?

In areas where we do have cysticercosis, you can improve the hygiene so that people do not make contact with the fecal matter or the urine of pigs. That kind of intervention is very, very cheap but very, very effective.

And as you note, even though the RFK JR. story is a bit ... unusual ... it does offer an opportunity to talk about the global problem of parasitic worms.

Trading Cards: The Who's Who Of #NPRWormWeek

Trading Cards: The Who's Who Of #NPRWormWeek

Clarification may 10, 2024.

The original version of this story stated that neurocysticercosis disease, triggered by parasitic worms, is the leading cause of the onset of epilepsy in adults. It is the leading preventable cause of epilepsy worldwide.

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Opinion | Donald Trump wants Paul Ryan fired. You can probably guess why.

The former Republican speaker of the House is on the board of Fox Corp.

what is the part of speech of type

Former President Donald Trump wants Rupert Murdoch to fire Paul Ryan, the former Republican speaker of the House, from the board of Fox Corp. Why? Because Ryan says he won’t vote for Trump in November.

In a post on his Truth Social late last week, Trump wrote, “Rupert Murdoch should fire pathetic RINO Paul Ryan from the Board of Fox. Ryan is a loser, always has been, and always will be. He was the WEAKEST & MOST INCOMPETENT Speaker of the House in its History. Fox will sink to the absolute bottom of the pack if Paul Ryan has anything to do with it!”

Last Tuesday, Ryan was speaking at the Milken Institute Global Conference when he said, “Character is too important to me. And it’s a job that requires the kind of character that he just doesn’t have.”

But that does not mean Ryan is endorsing or voting for President Joe Biden.

Ryan said he would write in another candidate instead, although he didn’t say who. He said, “Having said that, I really disagree with (Biden) on policy. I wrote in a Republican the last time, I’m gonna write in a Republican this time.”

Vanity Fair’s Bess Levin wrote , “Note: This is not the way to prevent Trump from becoming president.”

Ryan is just one of many Republicans who say they will not vote for Trump, but also are not voting for Biden, either.

Trump’s vice president, Mike Pence, won’t endorse his former boss, but said, “I would never vote for Joe Biden. I’m a Republican.” Former New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie, who made an unsuccessful bid to become the Republican nominee, said he won’t vote for Trump, but also won’t vote for Biden.

The Guardian’s David Smith wrote , “While such dissent from Trump and his authoritarian ambitions is welcome, critics say, refusing to support his opponent because of policy differences draws a false equivalence between them. If a significant number of Republican voters do likewise, not voting or writing in a name such as ‘Ronald Reagan,’ it could prove costly to Biden in a close election.”

Joe Walsh, a former Republican congressman, told Smith, “I have zero respect for guys like Chris Christie, Mike Pence and Paul Ryan who come out and say. ‘I’m not gonna vote for Trump but I won’t vote for the only guy who can beat the guy who’s unfit.’ To me, that’s cowardly. What they’re doing is staying relevant as Republicans. They want to run again as Republicans.”

Walsh added, “Here’s the deal. If, as a Republican, you say I’m voting for Joe Biden because Trump is unfit, you end your career as a Republican. I did that five years ago. (Former congressman) Adam Kinzinger did that this past year. Then you end your relevance as a Republican. Guys like Chris Christie, Paul Ryan, Mike Pence don’t want to give that up. It’s purely a political decision.”

Addressing the future

what is the part of speech of type

MSNBC president Rashida Jones gives the commencement address at the University of District of Columbia on Saturday. (Courtesy: Patricia McDougall)

MSNBC President Rashida Jones gave the commencement address at the University of the District of Columbia, an HBCU in the nation’s capital, on Saturday.

Jones told the graduating class, “I know a number of you are first-generation graduates. You are setting the example in your own families and communities. That pressure — the pressure of being a first or only — is a privilege. There is a certain responsibility when you are the first to do something. I have personally seen it and felt it. But that pressure means you are doing something extraordinary.”

Jones also talked about journalism, adding, “Pressure comes in all shapes and sizes in a role like mine. As journalists, we are writing the first draft of history and a lot of responsibility comes with that. I lead an organization that values the First Amendment and the power journalism has in putting a mirror up to the world. It is important for all of us, in each of our ways, to hold the powerful accountable and to leave the world in a better place because of it. That responsibility that pressure empowered journalists like Ida B. Wells and Ethel Payne to lay down a foundation for fundamental change and inspire the modern civil rights movement.”

And another speech …

There was another notable commencement address on Saturday as comedian Jerry Seinfeld spoke at Duke University. That speech did include some boos, as well as students leaving, as part of anti-war protests that took place on college campuses across the country. Most reports said the number of walkouts was in the “dozens.” The Associated Press said the number was about 30 out of 7,000.

NBC News Doha Madani wrote , “It’s unclear whether the booing was intended for Seinfeld or the student protest, or potentially both, but chants of ‘Jerry’ were heard shortly after. Seinfeld was later able to deliver his speech uninterrupted.”

Seinfeld also received an honorary degree from Duke — where his daughter previously graduated and his son currently attends. Madani wrote, “Seinfeld, who is Jewish, has been vocally supportive of Israel and visited the country following the Oct. 7 attack on Israel that sparked the ongoing war between Israel and Hamas.”

In recent interviews promoting his new Netflix movie, “Unfrosted,” Seinfeld stirred up some controversy. In an interview with The New Yorker , Seinfeld claimed “the extreme left and P.C. crap” killed comedy on television.

The Daily Beast’s Corbin Bolies wrote , “Seinfeld’s speech largely steered clear of his recent public scuffles, focusing instead on jokes surrounding the students, AI, and his honorary degree. In a riff on the idea of privilege, though, he made specific mention of his heritage to loud cheers.”

That mention from Seinfeld: “I grew up a Jewish boy from New York. That is a privilege if you want to be a comedian.”

Shooting for ratings

The Caitlin Clark Show returns this week. The college basketball sensation who set scoring records on the court and helped boost TV ratings will return to the court and television screens. She will make her WNBA debut Tuesday night in a game that will be nationally televised on ESPN2.

And even though there’s plenty going on in the sports world, including the NBA and NHL playoffs, the WNBA is hopeful Clark can catapult TV ratings to new heights.

The Wall Street Journal’s Rachel Bachman has a good breakdown of the so-called Clark effect in “Caitlin Clark Is Already the GOAT of TV Ratings.” Bachman’s reporting shows that Clark’s impact on TV ratings provides a bigger boost than even many of the great transformative athletes such as Michael Jordan, Serena Williams and Tiger Woods.

Bachman writes, “But Clark didn’t just push up the audience of her own games. She also elevated the expectations for her sport as a televised product. Even viewership of non-Iowa games in the tournament jumped 76% year-over-year.”

Bachman rightly notes that trying to compare viewership numbers across history and sports is very much an inexact science, but there’s no question that Clark has had a profound impact on women’s college basketball. In addition, this could be the most pivotal moment in WNBA history.

what is the part of speech of type

Zahra Skaik, a Palestinian woman featured on Monday’s “Face the Nation” on CBS. (Courtesy: CBS News)

If you get a chance, make sure to check out this special feature that CBS’s “Face the Nation” did for Mother’s Day. Moderator Margaret Brennan talked with Zahra Skaik, a 44-year-old Palestinian woman who was living in Gaza City and managed to escape the war thanks to her sons, one of whom is an infantryman in the United States Army.

Skaik described how she left Gaza with nothing but a small backpack and the same clothes she had been wearing since the war began.

Remembering a legend

Roger Corman, a cult and B-film producer and director, died over the weekend. He was 98. NPR had a perfect description of Corman: a B-movie legend who launched A-list careers.

Corman produced more than 300 films and directed 50 or so, including low-budget horror films, such as “A Bucket of Blood,” “The Masque of the Red Death” and the original “The Little Shop of Horrors.”

However, The New York Times’ Aljean Harmetz notes that Corman went on to produce films for up-and-coming young directors such as Francis Ford Coppola, Martin Scorsese, Jonathan Demme, Peter Bogdanovich and Ron Howard. Corman also gave Jack Nicholson his first movie role. Those are just a few of the examples.

Harmetz wrote, “In addition to being remembered for the opportunities he gave young filmmakers, Mr. Corman was renowned for his ability to make movies with almost no money and even less time.”

Corman received an honorary Oscar in 2009.

Media tidbits

  • Speaking of Caitlin Clark, Front Office Sports’ Owen Poindexter with “Behind the Scenes of a New Caitlin Clark Docuseries.”
  • The New York Times’ Ryan Mac, Jack Nicas and Alex Travelli with “Elon Musk’s Diplomacy: Woo Right-Wing World Leaders. Then Benefit.”
  • You need a Los Angeles Times subscription for this one: Meg James with “Shari Redstone was poised to make Paramount a Hollywood comeback story. What happened?”
  • In an op-ed for The New York Times, Mark Penn, a pollster and an adviser to President Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton from 1995 to 2008, and chairman of the Harris Poll, with “Biden Is Doing It All Wrong.”
  • Also in The New York Times, Lulu Garcia-Navarro with “Charlamagne Tha God Won’t Take Sides.”
  • Robert Costa’s feature on “CBS News Sunday Morning”: “Bill Maher on not pulling punches.”

More resources for journalists

  • Delve more deeply into your editing skills with Poynter ACES Intermediate Certificate in Editing .
  • Beat Academy offers eight trainings for one low price.
  • Work-Life Chemistry six-week newsletter course: Ditch work-life balance for a more sustainable approach.
  • Understand U.S. Immigration From the Border to the Heartland — Start any time.

Have feedback or a tip? Email Poynter senior media writer Tom Jones at [email protected] .

The Poynter Report is our daily media newsletter. To have it delivered to your inbox Monday-Friday, sign up here .

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PolitiFact launches Spanish-language website to serve more than 40 million U.S. Spanish-speakers

PolitiFact en Español is also active on WhatsApp, TikTok and Instagram to sort out political and social media claims

what is the part of speech of type

Opinion | The media can’t help but pay attention to startling new Biden-Trump polls

They said they wouldn’t get caught up in the horse race coverage this year. But some new polls have the media buzzing.

what is the part of speech of type

Jay-Z didn’t bribe country radio stations to play Beyoncé’s songs. This claim started as satire

The first two singles from ‘Cowboy Carter’ landed on Billboard’s country charts. Some social posts claimed they didn’t get there on their own merit.

what is the part of speech of type

Robert F. Kennedy Jr. says a worm ate part of his brain. Experts said that’s unlikely.

Experts believe the worm was Taenia solium, or a pork tapeworm larva. This worm does not ‘eat’ brain tissue. ​

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Justice Alito warns of declining support for freedom of speech on college campuses

Supreme Court Justice Samuel Alito.

Conservative Supreme Court Justice Samuel Alito on Saturday warned that support for freedom of speech is "declining dangerously," especially on college campuses, as part of a commencement address he delivered at the Franciscan University of Steubenville, a Catholic college in Ohio.

His remarks appeared to reference unrest at various college campuses around the country arising from protests against Israel's military operations in Gaza.

“Right now in the world outside this beautiful campus, troubled waters are slamming against some of our most fundamental principles," Alito said.

"Support for freedom of speech is declining dangerously," he added, especially on college campuses, where the exchange of ideas should be most protected.

"Very few colleges live up to that ideal. This place is one of them … but things are not that way out there in the broader world," Alito said.

But Alito's support for free speech has its limits — he was a notable sole dissenter when the Supreme Court in 2011 ruled 8-1 that members of the conservative Westboro Baptist Church had a free speech right to picket the funeral of a military veteran.

"Our profound national commitment to free and open debate is not a license for the vicious verbal assault that occurred in this case," he wrote in dissent.

Alito, who is Catholic, has frequently raised the alarm about freedom of religion being under attack and has often voted in favor of expanding religious rights.

"Freedom of religion is also imperiled," he told the graduating students. "When you venture out into the world, you may well find yourself in a job, or community or a social setting when you will be pressured to endorse ideas you don’t believe, or to abandon core beliefs. It will be up to you to stand firm."

The Supreme Court is poised in the coming weeks to issue major rulings on a series of contentious issues including abortion, gun rights and whether former President Donald Trump is immune from prosecution for his attempts to overturn the results of the 2020 election.

Alito, the author of the 2022 ruling that overturned the landmark Roe v. Wade, is one of several justices making public appearances while the court prepares its rulings.

On Friday, fellow conservative Justice Clarence Thomas spoke at a judicial conference in Alabama, where he decried the "nastiness and the lies" he has faced.

He and his wife, conservative political activist Ginni Thomas, have both been in the spotlight in recent years. He has been accused of failing to follow ethics rules, while she was criticized for backing Trump's effort to challenge election results.

At another judicial conference in Texas, conservative Justice Brett Kavanaugh said Friday that Supreme Court rulings that are unpopular when issued can later become part of the "fabric of American constitutional law."

what is the part of speech of type

Lawrence Hurley covers the Supreme Court for NBC News.

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Campus protest crackdowns claim to be about antisemitism – but they’re part of a rightwing plan

Accusations of antisemitism are the tip of the spear in a frightening illiberal project serving an autocratic agenda

S ince 7 October, commentators have been ringing the alarm that a growing protest movement in solidarity with Palestine signals not just the end of a “golden age” for American Jews – as Franklin Foer recently put it in the Atlantic – but for American liberal democracy itself.

As Foer wrote, the “surge of antisemitism is a symptom of the decay of democratic habits, a leading indicator of rising authoritarianism”. Writing before the start of the encampments, he noted that Columbia was “a graphic example of the collapse of the liberalism that had insulated American Jews: it is a microcosm of a society that has lost its capacity to express disagreements without resorting to animus”. Meanwhile, on CNN, the anchor Dana Bash invoked 1930s Europe – “and I do not say that lightly … the fear among American Jews is palpable right now”.

There is no doubt that many Jewish students – especially those raised to believe that their Jewish identity is indivisible from the political ideology of Zionism – feel uncomfortable, or that many of them feel ostracized by their peers. But their discomfort has justified a powerful attack on academic freedom and first amendment rights that long predates the student encampments – part of a longstanding rightwing project to curb speech and reshape the public sphere.

Foer and Bash are right that American democracy is imperiled. But as the draconian crackdown on non-violent student protests makes clear, accusations of antisemitism are not themselves evidence of liberal decline, but rather the tip of the spear in a frightening illiberal project serving the agenda of an emboldened, autocratic right wing.

T he months since 7 October have seen shocking attacks on freedom of expression and assembly on campus. Even before the stunning display of police brutality in recent weeks, campuses have been home to canceled speakers and events , arbitrary disciplinary hearings , and outright censorship . The University of Southern California has canceled its entire commencement ceremony rather than let its valedictorian, Asna Tabassum, deliver a message of Palestine solidarity in her speech. Universities have suspended chapters of Students for Justice in Palestine (SJP) and Jewish Voice for Peace , in decisions that PEN America has said are “united by a degree of opacity, in that university leaders have not been fully forthcoming in delineating how these student groups broke campus rules, or how the decision to suspend them was reached”.

These curtailments of civil liberties, enacted in the service of “protecting Jewish students”, are not now and will not be confined to Palestine-related speech. The recent history of suppression of Palestine activism suggests that tactics employed by legislatures, universities, and other institutions will soon pop up elsewhere.

Anti-boycott laws – targeting the non-violent tactic of boycott when applied to the state of Israel – exist in 38 states, under the argument that such boycotts constitute antisemitism. In the past few years, this tactic has spread to protect other causes beloved by the right. Now, several states have laws on the books that prohibit the government from doing business with groups or individuals who are boycotting fossil fuels or the gun industry. “They’re shrinking the space for public debate and action on some of the most important issues of our time,” Meera Shah, a senior staff attorney at Palestine Legal, told Jewish Currents in 2022, underscoring why “it’s so dangerous to permit this kind of Palestine exception to speech”.

The pro-Palestine movement has also provided cover for the right to expand its attack on protest – a project advanced significantly after the Black Lives Matter protests in 2020. Building on laws that allow motorists to hit protesters with their cars, and bar convicted protesters from holding state employment or receiving public benefits, GOP lawmakers have introduced new legislation pinned to the wave of pro-Palestine protests since 7 October. In March, Senator Tom Cotton introduced the “Stop Pro-Terrorist Riots Now Act”, to “crack down on pro-Hamas riots”, increasing punishments for rioting and providing mandatory sentences for anyone committing violence as part of a riot. Senators Marsha Blackburn and Thom Tillis have introduced legislation making it a federal crime to block roads or highways, a move they said was in “direct response to radical tactics of pro-Palestinian protesters who have intentionally blocked roads and highways across the country”.

In a tactic familiar from the post-9/11 landscape , GOP lawmakers and civil society leaders from groups like the ADL and the Brandeis Center have endeavored to paint student protesters and groups as “terrorists”. This is bad news for activists across the country: a 2024 report by the Center for Constitutional Rights details how “core features” of US antiterrorism law, “driven by anti-Palestinian agendas”, were “expanded and ‘brought home’ to repress other protest movements”, including the Black Lives Matter movement and the protests against the “Cop City” Atlanta police training center. As early as next week, the Senate could vote on a bill designed to penalize criticism of Israel by suspending tax-exempt status for “terrorist supporting organizations” – which Lara Friedman, president of the Foundation for Middle East Peace, said would “dispense with the due process” and empower “a single US official to act as prosecutor, judge, jury, and executioner of [American] orgs whose viewpoints that official disagrees with”.

Of course, some student groups have adopted inflammatory rhetoric, reminiscent of some anti-Vietnam war campus protesters’ adoption of the Viet Cong flag . Many observers have referenced a toolkit released by National SJP in the days after 7 October affirming their support for armed struggle. But these are political opinions that constitute protected political speech. “Students’ independent political rhetoric is not material support for terrorism,” Hina Shamsi, director of the National Security Project at the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), told Jewish Currents in November. “A blanket call to investigate every chapter of a pro-Palestinian student group for material support – without even an attempt to cite evidence – is unwarranted, wrong, and dangerous.”

johnson with fellow lawmakers behind a podium

Alongside this effort to tar protest as terrorism, the right is seizing on the emotions inflamed by Israel’s war to make headway in a longstanding offensive on education. Over the past several years, the GOP has sought to meddle in the academic freedom of universities, which they allege are indoctrinating students into “woke”, leftwing ideology. This is perhaps most dramatic in Florida, where, in a bid to control access to history and information, Governor Ron DeSantis has all but remade the public liberal arts college New College in his image , and has introduced the Stop Woke Act, curtailing what teachers can teach on topics of race and gender. Republicans have also taken aim nationally at diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) initiatives, introducing more than 30 bills targeting DEI funding, practices, and promotion at schools. Nine have been signed into law – efforts that the ACLU says “represent yet another attempt to re-whitewash America’s history of racial subjugation, and to reverse efforts to pursue racial justice”.

The moral panic around antisemitism has been a useful vehicle to further the campaign against DEI, as congressional hearings on antisemitism since 7 Octoberhave made clear. “Evidence shows that campus DEI bureaucracies play a major role in propagating the spread of antisemitism,” said the US representative Burgess Owens at a November hearing . “It is a dirty little secret at the heart to DEI.”

Though these attacks on academic freedom and free speech on campus have been spearheaded by the right wing, under the guise of “fighting antisemitism”, Democrats are playing along. Last week, a bipartisan House vote affirmed the Antisemitism Awareness Act , which would codify the controversial International Holocaust Remembrace Alliance (IHRA) definition of antisemitism for the purpose of campus harassment investigations. According to the ACLU , the adoption of this “overbroad” definition “could result in colleges and universities suppressing a wide variety of speech critical of Israel or in support of Palestinian rights in an effort to avoid investigations by the Department [of Education] and the potential loss of funding.” At the City University of New York (Cuny), faculty have been whispering for months about how the Democratic governor Kathy Hochul’s independent review into the school’s policies on antisemitism and discrimination has chilled speech and could feed calls to defund Cuny from Republican lawmakers at the state and federal level. This effort to defund higher education is part of a broader GOP plan to punish universities, as the Republican US representative Jim Banks admitted in a Zoom call with business leaders leaked to CNBC . “The hearing was the first step,” he said, in reference to the congressional hearings grilling college presidents about antisemitism allegations on their campuses.

Private universities will not be immune from these repressive headwinds, if the April testimony of Columbia’s president, Minouche Shafik, before Congress was any indication. Rather than stand up for academic freedom, Shafik obliged GOP lawmakers ’ agendas, suggesting she would meddle in departmental appointments, investigate and punish protected speech, and cordon off protest, all in the name of protecting Jewish students. A day later, she invited police to Columbia’s campus to arrest more than 100 students who had been peacefully protesting.

To be clear, all of the most serious violent attacks since October have been on Palestinians and their supporters. In Chicago, a six-year-old Palestinian American was killed and his mother injured in a stabbing attack by their landlord. In Vermont, three Palestinian students were shot while wearing keffiyehs and speaking Arabic; one is permanently paralyzed . At Stanford, an Arab Muslim student was targeted in a hit-and-run after a Palestine solidarity protest. Just this week, a cousin of the extremist Jewish leader Meir Kahane allegedly rammed protesters with his car outside the home of a Columbia trustee. And last week at UCLA, 25 students were hospitalized after an attack by a Zionist mob with wooden planks, fireworks, and pepper spray.

Yet there is no discourse in Washington suggesting that Palestinians are unsafe in the United States, or that pro-Israel supporters are “genocidal” – and no comparable rush to legislate.

Liberals, particularly older ones, have long scolded college students for their illiberalism, their “safe spaces”, and their low tolerance for discomfort and disagreement. But to watch the full-throated support for the violent repression of student activism resounding in the media, in university administrations, and at every level of government these past several weeks is to witness an astounding repudiation of our civil liberties on account of their discomfort. It’s worth remembering that the Vietnam anti-war protests were also unpopular at the time – three-quarters of the American public opposed them, and the country elected a racist, criminal president, Richard Nixon, in part to restore “law and order” .

Liberals know there is an autocratic strain spreading across this country – they identify it in Trump’s efforts to steal the election, or DeSantis’s attacks on history. Come November, Trump could return to office, and the erosions in our civil liberties we have written into law and practice in these months will be there for his use. But it’s worth remembering that the crackdowns on our first amendment rights over the last several weeks have happened under a Democratic president, in defense of a US-funded war that enjoys bipartisan support in Congress, if not among a changing Democratic party base.

As the White House repeatedly accuses the students of antisemitism, in a tacit endorsement of the police swarming university campuses, it’s worth taking the students’ word for why they’re there in the first place: Biden’s disastrous foreign policy , in which every opportunity for Israeli accountability has been spurned, has turned Gaza into a mass grave – off the charts compared with any other contemporary conflict by every metric – and brought the entire Middle East to the brink of all-out regional war.

I believe history will vindicate these students and their call for Palestinian liberation and an end to US complicity in a brutal, futile Israeli war. But even if you disagree, it’s clear that protecting them is also an investment in the protection of our fundamental liberties.

Arielle Angel is the editor-in-chief of Jewish Currents

  • US campus protests
  • Antisemitism
  • Israel-Gaza war

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