Harvard Style Cover Page Generator

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The Harvard citing style system is another name for the Author-Date (parenthetical) referencing and citation style. Harvard style originates from Harvard University, where a Zoology professor, Edward Laurens Mark, used parenthetical references in the 1880s. This referencing style has specific rules for making a title page and referencing.

Use this instant Harvard Style cover page generator to ease the research paper writing. Our team of experts also developed this guide for you to introduce the details of the Harvard referencing style.

  • ️📌 Harvard Cover Page Generator
  • ️❗ Harvard Cover Page Requirements
  • ️👉 How to Make an Outline
  • ️🤩 Why Use Our Tool
  • ️🔗 References

📌 Harvard Style Cover Page Generator

Harvard referencing style requires you to follow many details, including formatting, capitalization, line spacing, etc. Creating a title page has never been easier with this Harvard-style title page generator. All you need is to provide the following:

  • The paper title & subtitle;
  • Your name & surname;
  • University;
  • Course details;
  • Instructor’s name & surname;

The generator will give a ready-made title page instantly.

❗ Requirements for a Harvard Style Cover Page

A Harvard-style cover page is one of the most demanding styles. Its purpose is to introduce all of the information about the author. For a particular title page, you should complete the following instructions:

  • Place a header and page number in the upper right corner.
  • Put the title of the paper halfway down the page.
  • The title must be written in capital letters.
  • Write the name of the author three lines below the title.
  • Provide the details about the class four lines down the author’s name.
  • Put the name of the professor one line down the course details.
  • Place the name of the school on the following line.
  • Write the city and state name where the school is located.
  • Provide the date on the last line.

The picture lists Harvard-style cover page requirements.

You may get a low grade if you are not careful with all these formatting rules.

👉 Table of Contents for Harvard Referencing Style

What comes after a cover page? In a Harvard-style paper, you need to provide an outline of your work with all the subsections.

  • The title. Write the word Outline or Table of Contents and place it in the center of the page in the first line.
  • The numbered list. Use a numbered list to put all the headings of your paper.
  • Subheadings. Put subheadings after each heading it belongs to.
  • Alignment. Make sure that you align everything to the left and capitalize headings.

🤩 5 Reasons to Use a Harvard Cover Page Generator

There are many reasons why a Harvard Cover Page Generator is the one to beat when writing a paper of this requirement.

  • It is precise. It uses an algorithm that follows only the Harvard style.
  • It is automatic. Unlike other AI technologies, the title page generator allows you to enter the data according to the instructions and get the cover page you want in the format required.
  • It is free. You will not be required to pay. It is user-friendly, and no registration is required.
  • It is online. You do not even need to download anything just to use the tool.

📜 Harvard Style Title Page Examples

Now let’s look at the example of a well-formatted Harvard cover page template on nursing .

The picture provides a Harvard cover page template.

Pay attention to the header, title capitalization, and the alignment of each detail. It is also essential to use Arial 12 pt or Times New Roman font to format the title page correctly.

Our final advice would be to check the formatting and contents of your title page at each step. Refer to our free Harvard-style generator when you feel lost or doubt something. Good luck!

🔗 References

  • Harvard referencing | The University of Sheffield
  • Harvard Style - Learn To Cite - Research Guides at Modesto Junior College Library
  • Quick guide to Harvard referencing (Cite Them Right) | Library Services | Open University


Essay Cover Page - MLA, Chicago, Harvard, and APA Format Cover Sheet

Picture this, you have completed your daily duties and now settling in to complete an essay. What is the worst that would happen? Well, the majority of high school, college, university, and graduate students undervalue the need to format an essay cover page properly. In return, most of them end up with either great essays with a poorly done cover page or a poorly done essay with a poorly formatted cover page.

I don’t know which of the above categories, but mine was worse. It is a great mistake to care less about the proper formatting of a title page for any essay. Sometimes the content in the entire class can be great, and the cover page becomes what separates a good grade from a poor grade. You do not have to leave anything to chance when working to maintain a good GPA, do you?

Why master how to make an essay Cover Sheet?

Your title page informs the reader or the professor what to anticipate in your essay. Sometimes, if they are in a hurry, a catchy topic can entice them to read your essay from introduction to conclusion.

The cover page has your name, title of the essay, institution, instructor, and date. A well-formatted title page is enough a getaway to a strict professor’s marks or grade fountain.

And when you are almost giving up on your cover page, we give you a reason to smile. In this article, we will teach you how to make a cover page for an essay, MLA cover page format, Chicago cover page format, APA cover page format, and Harvard cover page format, with examples.

Why should you learn How to Make a Cover Page for an essay?

Sometimes professors and instructors assume the basic things like formatting a college essay. In the end, students end up losing marks over flimsy mistakes. A common question students ask is “how do you make a cover page for an essay?” or “what is to be included on a title page?”

If you have had these questions or related ones, you are in the right place at the right time. We will take you through cover page essay essentials. But before then, why do we have an essay cover page. Or simply, what is an essay cover page?

An essay cover page is the opening page, sometimes called the title page, and offers a comprehensive description of the essay title, identifies the student, and sometimes bears the date and the instructors’ names.

You will notice that the cover pages for essays differ depending on the specific format you are using. For instance, when creating the MLA essay cover page format, you should only do so if the essay prompt requires you to. If not asked for one, there is never any need to include one. The same applies to Harvard, Chicago, and APA cover page formats.

MLA Essay Cover Page Format with Template/Example

Also known as the Modern Language Association, MLA is a unique essay writing and citation format. It is important to mention that most MLA essays do not require an essay cover page. Nevertheless, some instructors insist on you having a cover page for your MLA paper.

When requested to have an opening or cover page for MLA papers, these are some of the details to include:

  • Author’s Name
  • Instructor’s Name
  • The Due Date

Here is a sample MLA cover page template

MLA Sample essay cover page

Note that the format for MLA research paper cover page is slightly different. It will contain:

  • Name of university
  • Title of the Research Paper
  • The subtitle of the research paper
  • Your Name (Author’s Name)
  • Course Name and Number
  • Instructor/Professor’s Name

Below is a sample MLA research paper cover sheet

MLA research paper title page cover sheet

Some professors or instructors will advise you to use the research paper MLA format title page for your essay.

How do you format an MLA Cover Page?

Formatting an MLA title page is easy!

  • It should be double-spaced.
  • The preferable font is Times New Roman size 12 or a legible font.
  • All the letters must be in Title Case.
  • It should have 1-inch margins throughout the paper.
  • Ensure that the title page is double spaced.
  • Remove any spaces between paragraphs from your Microsoft Word settings page.

See the details in the sample MLA format cover page provided above. Notice the difference between the two and always read the instructor’s essay prompt before deciding on which one to settle for.

APA Cover Page Format with Example/Template

Students have been asking this for a while, and we felt like addressing it would save many of you out there. “How do I make an APA cover sheet?” Well, just like MLA, an APA essay cover page is easy to make.

To begin with, the APA style title page should include:

  • Running head (Left aligned in the header section).
  • Page Number (Right aligned).
  • Title and subtitle of the essay/paper (centered)
  • Name of the author (centered).
  • Institutional Affiliation (centered).
  • Author’s Note (for long research papers, thesis, and dissertations).

An important note, in APA the title should not exceed 50 characters and should be in capital letters. Times New Roman font size 12 is always preferred as well.

For more details, see the example APA title page provided below.

sample APA essay cover page

Note that there are changes to APA 6. In APA 7, there is no "Running head" instead, you will only need a page number situated to the top left of the paper. Here is a sample APA 7 Cover page.

APA 7 sample Cover Page

Chicago Cover Page Format with Example/Template

Even though less common in academic essay writing, understanding the Chicago essay title page is necessary. It can save you some trouble when writing a Chicago style paper, which is the case with most literature and humanities subjects such as history. Thus, after reading this, you should understand how to format a Chicago essay title cover page correctly.

Here are tips when making Chicago format opening page:

  • Chicago title page has no page number or running head in the header section.
  • Using Times New Roman or any legible font of size 12 is preferred.
  • All the text on the cover page is centered.
  • The cover page is double spaced with no spaces between paragraphs

You see, a Chicago style paper opening page is relatively simple to make. A caution, though, when making any type of cover page, your professor’s guidelines are your rule book. Therefore, everything you need to format an essay cover page is always in the prompt.

Chicago style papers are the easiest to handle. However, despite the ease of inserting a title page, it remains a challenge to most students. Sometimes, seeking professional help can be the only option. Our experts can help you craft your Chicago format essays and research papers, talk to us!

Here is a Chicago style format essay cover page.

Harvard Cover Page Format with Example/Template

Harvard formatting has a specific and well-organized cover page.

  • The shortened version of the title of the paper comes in the header section (aligned to the right) and is preceded by the page number).
  • The full title, written in all capital letters , appears halfway through the page.
  • The author’s name (three lines from the title).
  • Then four lines down you will have class name and code, name of the professor, City and State the university is located, and the due date.

Here is an example of the Harvard format Cover Sheet Page.

harvard  essay cover page template

Bottom Line

A cover page for an essay is a critical aspect when undertaking your academic writing tasks. Even though it might seem boring and unnecessary, it can be the only aspect left to differentiate who passes a course and who fails.

When writing an APA, MLA, Harvard, or Chicago format paper, produce an essay cover page that fits each formatting and citation style. I don’t know about you, but I find it easier to do the cover page as the last part of the essay after writing and proofreading. Yet some in our team prefer setting the cover page for their essays first before they outline the essays . As a ritual, it is my last part to shake hands with the mighty Microsoft Word or Google Document applications.

Check out our article on indenting paragraphs and how to title an article when writing an essay. 

Sometimes, you can ask the instructor or professor how to make a cover page for your essay. We believe no teacher will reprimand you. These are essential basics to keep with you as they will help you understand how to make a cover page for an essay. If you need help writing an essay, our professional writers can always come in handy. Until then, have a happy academic writing session!

cover page for research paper harvard

Gradecrest is a professional writing service that provides original model papers. We offer personalized services along with research materials for assistance purposes only. All the materials from our website should be used with proper references. See our Terms of Use Page for proper details.

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Format Your Paper & Cite Your Sources

  • Harvard Style
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  • Avoid Plagiarism
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What is Harvard Style?

What you need to know, harvard style tutorial.

  • Other Styles
  • Annotated Bibliographies
  • How to Create an Attribution

Harvard Style

The Harvard referencing system is known as the Author-Date style . It emphasizes the name of the creator of a piece of information and the date of publication, with the list of references in alphabetical order at the end of your paper.

Unlike other citation styles, there is no single, definitive version of Harvard Style. Therefore, you may see a variation in features such as punctuation, capitalization, abbreviations, and the use of italics. 

Always check with your instructor and follow the rules he or she gives you.

  • Harvard Style Guidelines Your class handout
  • Harvard Referencing Quick Guide From Staffordshire University

Harvard Style will affect your paper in two places:

  • In-text citations in the body of your paper, and
  • The reference list at the end of your paper
  • All in-text citations should be listed in the reference list at the end of your paper.
  • Reference list entries need to contain all the information that someone reading your paper would need in order to find your source.
  • Reference lists in Harvard Style are arranged alphabetically by first author.
  • Begin your Reference list on a new page after your text and number it consecutively.

Sample References List:

Example of Harvard References List

Click on the Links Below to See Additional Examples:

  • Sample Paper Paper provided by Kurt Olson
  • Harvard Citation Examples Document created by The University of Western Australia

Click on the image below to launch this tutorial that was created by the University of Leeds. The section on Citing in Text is especially useful.

cover page for research paper harvard

  • << Previous: Chicago Style
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  • Last Updated: May 1, 2024 2:04 PM
  • URL: https://libguides.mjc.edu/citeyoursources

Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 and CC BY-NC 4.0 Licenses .


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Harvard Style & Format: A 5-Minute Guide + Samples

Harvard referencing style

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The Harvard referencing style is a widely used system for citing and referencing sources in academic writing. It provides a consistent and standardized format for acknowledging the works of others that you have used in your research.

Struggling to remember tricky peculiarities of Harvard style referencing and formatting? Don’t worry, you have come across a helpful material. In this article, you will find the basics of Harvard style formatting which would be useful for your academic progress. This easy but detailed Harvard style guide contains all format requirements for a paper and some structural tips. Besides, it covers general rules on how to cite your sources properly in your text. Feel free to use these guidelines for your academic endeavors. Let us go through details of Harvard style referencing and formatting together!  

Reference Harvard Style: Basics

Harvard style is an author-date system of referencing. It’s similar to an  APA paper format  in terms of general formatting of pages and text. But this style follows its own rules for bibliography and in-text citations formatting. Harvard style is typically used for essays in such academic disciplines:  

  • Behavioral Sciences
  • Philosophy.

But this doesn’t mean you can’t use this paper format in other areas of study. The general rule is to put references to your sources in round brackets. Specify author’s name and publication year. These references should come after your quotes (direct or indirect) in the end of a respective sentence or paragraph. Full details about all sources you have used should be provided at the end of your work. This section should be named ‘Reference List’. Buy coursework or any other type of research paper that will be referenced for you by our experts. 

Harvard Format: General Requirements

Let us explore some general rules for Harvard formatting:

  • Font: Times New Roman or Arial
  • Size: 12 pt
  • Text: double-spaced and left-aligned
  • Indent: first line of a paragraph has indent of 0.5 inch
  • Margins: 1 inch from each side

A Harvard style citation  must have a Title page, header (or running head), headings and Reference list. We will take a closer look at formatting each section down below.  

Harvard Style Title Page

What are the requirements for a Harvard style cover page? Title page is otherwise known as front page. This is the first page of your paper to be observed by your reader, i.e. your teacher first of all. Therefore, it is highly important to format it properly. Formatting rules for Harvard Title page:  

  • Paper title is fully capitalised and centered. Should be placed at approximately 33% of your page counting from its top.
  • Your name as an author, centered and placed at the middle of your page.
  • Course name at approximately 66% of the page.
  • Instructor’s name on a new line.
  • University’s name.
  • Submission date.

See the sample of a Harvard title page down below.

Example of Harvard  title page

Formatting a Header in Harvard

An important detail: you are required to use a header in  Harvard referencing  format. This section is repeatedly shown on all pages of your paper except the title page. You have to configure it once. Then, headers will get automatically added on each new page. Headers in Harvard referencing format contains such information:  

  • Page number, right aligned
  • Shortened title of your paper, not capitalized, right-aligned, to the left of page number.

It is important to use shortened title because there is not too much space in any header. Also, another requirement is putting exactly 5 spaces between your title and a page number in headers.

Harvard Style Heading

Now let us explore some rules of using subheadings in Harvard style, in detail. Typically there are 2 levels of section headings recommended for use in such papers. They have different formatting. This helps to tell one from another, without using different font sizes for them.

  • Level-1 subheadings for a bigger section. They must be centered, capitalized, but at the same time not indented, not bold, not underscored, not italicized.
  • Level-2 subheading for any subsection, typically 1-2 paragraphs. They must be capitalized, left-aligned, not indented. Besides, they should be italicized.

The plain text of any paragraph should go on a new line after subheadings in Harvard style, be it Level-1 or Level-2 subheading.

Harvard Reference List

Listing all sources you have used for your research in a proper order is a core element of Harvard style. Reference list should be the last part of your paper but absolutely not the least. Now let us explore some critical rules for a reference list formatting. The Harvard-style reference list section has its own subtitle, namely ‘Reference List’. Similarly to a Level-1 subheading, it should be capitalized and centered. The rest of your content in this section goes from a new line after your title. No extra empty lines are to be added. Your references in this list are numbered and sorted alphabetically. No lines are indented. Each item in this list starts from a new line. Below we will describe a format for referencing in detail.  

Harvard Style Bibliography

Sometimes your professor or instructor might ask you to create a Bibliography section instead of a common Reference list. So what is the Harvard Bibliography format? Harvard style bibliography includes not only those sources you have cited in your text but also. It also includes materials which you have read to get ideas for your research and to better understand the context of a selected problem. So, such section would contain more items than a Reference list. Apart of that, the general Harvard Bibliography format is the same:  

  • Heading, ‘Bibliography’ is formatted the same way as a Level-1 subheading
  • Sources are put into alphabetical order
  • List is double-spaced
  • Lines do not have any indent
  • Each item of this list starts from a new line.

Harvard Style Citations: General Rules

Another crucial element of Harvard style is referring to your sources inside your essay. That’s why you should know how to cite in Harvard style. Keep in mind that the main purpose of a proper format is to ensure your paper is plagiarizm-free. Sometimes, you should cite ideas from books, magazines or newspapers. But you can only refer to such ideas, otherwise it will be considered a form of plagiarism. Below we will show you how to cite in Harvard style, providing general information about published sources. So let us proceed and learn more about shortened quotes and full references.  

How to Quote in Harvard Style

Here are the rules of Harvard format in-text citation:

  • Add them in parentheses, usually at the end of quotes.
  • Put an author’s last name and a publication year into round brackets, add page number if needed.

Example of in-text citation a quote in Harvard style

  • When quoting a web page, give a paragraph number instead of a page since many websites don’t divide text into pages.
  • Direct citation requires quotation marks and a page number is mandatory in parenthesis
  • If you have mentioned an author’s name in your quote, do not include it into brackets, just leave a year and a page numbers there.

Example of Harvard style citation a quote with author’s name

  • Sometimes you might need to quote two different sources at once. In such case include both into the same parenthesis and divide them by a semicolon.

Example of Harvard style citation a quote from two different sources

Creating References in Harvard Style

And this is how you should be referencing in Harvard style, providing full descriptions of the sources you have used. Let us start with the general book format:

  • Last name of the author followed by comma and initials
  • If there are multiple authors, their names are separated with comma, except the last one which must be separated by ‘&’
  • Year of publication follows, without a comma
  • A full title of the book is given, italicized
  • Publisher name
  • City and country where this book was published are the last to be provided.

Example of Harvard style citing  references

Here are several Harvarvard referencing rules for other source types:

  • Refer to an edited book by putting ‘(ed.)’ or ‘(eds)’ after the editor name(s)
  • If a book was translated, add ‘trans. I Lastname’
  • Refer to an article in any book or journal by adding an article name in quotation marks but not italicized
  • Refer to a website by adding ‘viewed’ and the date when you’ve opened it, followed by the URL in angle brackets.

Bottom Line

In this article we have explored the Harvard referencing guide, one of the most popular ones for students in the UK. Feel free to use these tips and proceed to writing a winning essay with flawless formatting! Just keep in mind the following key concepts of the Harvard style:

  • Title or cover page
  • Headers and their contents
  • Subheadings of two levels with different formatting
  • Reference list with full-detailed description of sources
  • In-text citations with lots of different forms for various quote types.

In conclusion, consider our  custom term paper writing solution if you lack the time or got into writer's block.


If you have questions, please visit our FAQ section or contact our expert writers. They will gladly help you create references in line with all requirements. On top of that, our writers are highly experienced in academic writing and can assist you with any type of formatting.  

FAQ About Harvard Format

1. is harvard reference style used in colleges.

The Harvard style can be used in colleges as well as in other educational institutions and even by professional researchers. While it is relatively popular in many countries for research paper referencing, Harvard style is most widespread in universities of the UK nowadays. Other styles (APA, MLA and Chicago) dominate the US educational institutions.

2. What is the difference between Harvard and Oxford referencing styles?

The Harvard style format is a typical example of an author-date system as it requires using author’s names and publication dates for in-text referencing. You should create a complete reference list as a separate section in the end of your research paper. The Oxford style on the contrary uses numbered footnotes for citing sources used on your page. In-text citations on this page consist just from numbers of respective notes.  


Emma Flores knows all about formatting standards. She shares with StudyCrumb readers tips on creating academic papers that will meet high-quality standards.


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If you need to submit some papers, a thesis, an assignment, etc. your teacher may have given you instructions to follow a certain format for the page layout. This helps to make the document formal and neatly organized. One of these formats is the Harvard Style one.

What is a Harvard Referencing Cover Page?

The Harvard Referencing format is a really specific and organized one. It needs to have a particular title page that should be followed strictly. It is the style that needs to be followed for the page that lists your, papers, professors, university, etc. details.

What to Include in a Harvard Referencing Cover Page?

If you need to create a Harvard Referencing Cover Page you can consider the below points:

Microsoft Word-

The paper may be written in Microsoft Word where this format can be carefully followed.

Title of the paper (IN CAPITAL LETTERS) –

The title of the paper needs to be placed in such a way that it is halfway down your page. It should be written in capital letters as well. Follow this strictly. The title should be right justified. The partial title shows the main idea within the essay between it, moreover, the page number will be exactly five spaces. The header will be a short description of your title. It should be flushed right.

Author’s name (not in capital letters) –

After the title has been written, after three lines down, you need to write the author’s name. This will be in small letters. It is important that you state these three lines down from the title.

Student and professor details

  • Name of the class – Now move four lines down then put the name of your class.
  • Professor’s name – When you have done the above, move one line down then state the name of your professor.
  • Schools name- The next line will have the name of your school.
  • City and state- Go to the next and state the city as well as the state located.
  • Date- The final line will have the date.
  • Text- The text must be Times New Roman or Arial. It should be 12 pt. remember to not make it bold, underlined, and italicized. This is important and should be followed.
  • All information about the author- The cover page of this Harvard Referencing format provides one with all the information that they should know about the concerned author.

Advantages of a Harvard Referencing Cover Page:

The Harvard Referencing Cover Page has the following advantages:

  • It is an organized way to format a paper, thesis, assignment, etc. so that it looks formal and presentable.
  • Helps students and the author to include all the necessary information that is required to be known

If your professor or teacher has told you to follow the Harvard Referencing Style, you should do this carefully. You may need to follow it for the complete paper. The cover page for this style has the above format. It is important that you do not ignore any points and follow them strictly. The font should not be fancy as well.

Harvard Referencing Cover Page

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Harvard Referencing

Harvard Referencing Style Guide

What is referencing.

Whenever you write, the writings of others will influence your work. Although it is difficult to gauge all the influences, many of your ideas can be traced back to the resources and materials that you have consulted. These might be books, images , articles, reports, or, of course, the internet. These sources help enrich your writing by giving you ideas to build on. It is important always to give credit to the original thinkers and authors.

Referencing is the method that gives credit to the sources you have used in your work. You should provide references whenever you use a direct quote, paraphrase someone else’s idea, or borrow conceptual words and phrases.

Referencing not only allows credit to be given where credit is due, but it also helps track the various influences on any original piece of writing. If you do not cite the sources of the ideas that you have used in your work, you run the risk of plagiarism. Plagiarism is not only unethical but is also an actual crime in some of its forms. But how do you reference?

Elements of Harvard referencing style

Harvard referencing is a popular method of adding citations to your work. Its appeal lies in the simplicity of the basic system it uses – the author-date structure. Along with this, in Harvard style, you only need to mention the source in two locations: in the in-text reference(s) and in the reference list. Both elements together incorporate all the necessary details about a source in the most efficient way.

So, while reading something, when you come across a citation that looks something like this:

Furley (1999) or (Furley, 1999)

it is an in-text reference that follows the author-date system.

This is an entry in the reference list for the same in-text reference.

Furley, D. (1999) Routledge history of philosophy volume II: from Aristotle to Augustine . 1st edn. London: Routledge.

These Harvard referencing examples provide details about the citation formats for different types of sources.

In-text reference/citation

As is obvious from the name, Harvard in-text citations are references included within the text, that is, inside the sentences that make up its content. These can either be direct statements or quotes, or a paraphrasing of the original work. This type of reference helps in precisely pointing out which portions of the text are borrowed from or influenced by which particular source.

In his work, Furley (1999) wrote about… OR …from Aristotle’s works (Furley, 1999).

As you can see, in-text references provide the author’s surname and the year of publication. The year is provided because sometimes two or more works by the same author are referenced. In this case, the year helps in distinguishing between these works. Note that if you are citing a direct quotation, the in-text citation should also include the page number of that quote, for example (Furley, 1999, p. 2).

However, in-text citations don’t provide other important details about these resources. Rather, they are short enough that you don’t get interrupted while reading the text. Other details are presented in the reference list that you include at the end of your paper.

Reference list

A reference list presents the details of all the resources cited throughout the text in the form of a list at the end of your paper. It includes detailed entries about each of the referenced sources.

Citation structure:

Surname, Initial. (Publication year) Name of the document . Place of publication: Publisher.

Every in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the reference list. So, the reference list entry for the in-text citations discussed above would be:

Einstein, M. (2004) Media diversity: economics, ownership, and the FCC. New Jersey: Routledge.

This entry can also include other details like page numbers, editor’s name, edition, URL, access date, etc., depending upon the type of resource. A reference list allows you to provide all the necessary information without crowding your paper. With this list, you can keep track of how many materials you have consulted and even see if you need to include any more or any other kind of references in your text.

The difference between a bibliography and the Harvard referencing system

Typically, you’ll refer to multiple sources and materials for writing a text, and just using a bibliography can be confusing. You can use the Harvard referencing system to point out the exact location of all your references.

By marking the in-text reference, you can easily locate which idea or quote corresponds to which author. This makes your work easy to read and understand. This way, you and your reader can easily trace the specific portions of the work back to the original texts.

You can also show how much of your text uses source material (whether directly or indirectly) and how much of it is your own ideas and thoughts.

Format for Harvard Referencing

Typically, a paper that uses Harvard referencing has the following format:

  • 2.5 cm OR 1-inch margins on all sides
  • Recommended fonts: Arial 12 pt or Times New Roman, with double-spacing
  • Title is in the center of the page just above the text
  • Left-aligned text, with the first sentence of every paragraph indented by 0.5 inch
  • Last name is at the top-right corner of the header, followed by page number
  • Title page is centre-aligned
  • Subheadings are in sentence case and left-aligned

Key takeaways

  • Referencing is a way of crediting the various resources consulted while writing a text. Harvard referencing is a system that allows you to include information about the source materials. It is based on the author-date system.
  • It includes references: 1) as in-text citations and 2) in a reference list (which is different from a bibliography).
  • In-text citations: (Author Surname, Year Published).
  • Reference list entry: Author Surname, Initial. (Year Published) Title . Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

For more help creating citations in Harvard style, try the EasyBib Harvard referencing generator !

Published October 25, 2020.

Harvard Formatting Guide

Harvard Formatting

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  • Direct Quotes
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  • Multiple Authors
  • Page Numbers
  • Writing an Outline
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A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing | Citation Examples

Published on 14 February 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 15 September 2023.

Referencing is an important part of academic writing. It tells your readers what sources you’ve used and how to find them.

Harvard is the most common referencing style used in UK universities. In Harvard style, the author and year are cited in-text, and full details of the source are given in a reference list .

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Table of contents

Harvard in-text citation, creating a harvard reference list, harvard referencing examples, referencing sources with no author or date, frequently asked questions about harvard referencing.

A Harvard in-text citation appears in brackets beside any quotation or paraphrase of a source. It gives the last name of the author(s) and the year of publication, as well as a page number or range locating the passage referenced, if applicable:

Note that ‘p.’ is used for a single page, ‘pp.’ for multiple pages (e.g. ‘pp. 1–5’).

An in-text citation usually appears immediately after the quotation or paraphrase in question. It may also appear at the end of the relevant sentence, as long as it’s clear what it refers to.

When your sentence already mentions the name of the author, it should not be repeated in the citation:

Sources with multiple authors

When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors’ names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ‘ et al. ’:

Sources with no page numbers

Some sources, such as websites , often don’t have page numbers. If the source is a short text, you can simply leave out the page number. With longer sources, you can use an alternate locator such as a subheading or paragraph number if you need to specify where to find the quote:

Multiple citations at the same point

When you need multiple citations to appear at the same point in your text – for example, when you refer to several sources with one phrase – you can present them in the same set of brackets, separated by semicolons. List them in order of publication date:

Multiple sources with the same author and date

If you cite multiple sources by the same author which were published in the same year, it’s important to distinguish between them in your citations. To do this, insert an ‘a’ after the year in the first one you reference, a ‘b’ in the second, and so on:

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A bibliography or reference list appears at the end of your text. It lists all your sources in alphabetical order by the author’s last name, giving complete information so that the reader can look them up if necessary.

The reference entry starts with the author’s last name followed by initial(s). Only the first word of the title is capitalised (as well as any proper nouns).

Harvard reference list example

Sources with multiple authors in the reference list

As with in-text citations, up to three authors should be listed; when there are four or more, list only the first author followed by ‘ et al. ’:

Reference list entries vary according to source type, since different information is relevant for different sources. Formats and examples for the most commonly used source types are given below.

  • Entire book
  • Book chapter
  • Translated book
  • Edition of a book

Journal articles

  • Print journal
  • Online-only journal with DOI
  • Online-only journal with no DOI
  • General web page
  • Online article or blog
  • Social media post

Sometimes you won’t have all the information you need for a reference. This section covers what to do when a source lacks a publication date or named author.

No publication date

When a source doesn’t have a clear publication date – for example, a constantly updated reference source like Wikipedia or an obscure historical document which can’t be accurately dated – you can replace it with the words ‘no date’:

Note that when you do this with an online source, you should still include an access date, as in the example.

When a source lacks a clearly identified author, there’s often an appropriate corporate source – the organisation responsible for the source – whom you can credit as author instead, as in the Google and Wikipedia examples above.

When that’s not the case, you can just replace it with the title of the source in both the in-text citation and the reference list:

Harvard referencing uses an author–date system. Sources are cited by the author’s last name and the publication year in brackets. Each Harvard in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the alphabetised reference list at the end of the paper.

Vancouver referencing uses a numerical system. Sources are cited by a number in parentheses or superscript. Each number corresponds to a full reference at the end of the paper.

A Harvard in-text citation should appear in brackets every time you quote, paraphrase, or refer to information from a source.

The citation can appear immediately after the quotation or paraphrase, or at the end of the sentence. If you’re quoting, place the citation outside of the quotation marks but before any other punctuation like a comma or full stop.

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

Though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, there is a difference in meaning:

  • A reference list only includes sources cited in the text – every entry corresponds to an in-text citation .
  • A bibliography also includes other sources which were consulted during the research but not cited.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2023, September 15). A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing | Citation Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 29 April 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/referencing/harvard-style/

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What’s a Title or Cover Page? And How Do I Make One?

By Cite This For Me

A title or cover page is exactly what you’d imagine—it’s the very front page of your academic essay or paper, which includes important information about your work. The function of a title or cover page is that it allows the reader to identify your work at a glance, but it can also help your assignments to look neater and more professionally put-together. Additionally, it provides a handy buffer against any finger smudges and will protect your work from whatever might be lurking at the bottom of your school bag!

Title or cover pages are common in work that’s formatted using the APA style rules, although you may also need to include them when following other popular formatting styles such as MLA or Chicago. If you’re unsure as to whether you need to create a title page, check with your teacher, tutor, or college advisor.

Failing to include a title page if required could give a negative first impression to whoever is reading your work. It could even cause you to lose marks for presentation, so don’t be tempted to skip this simple formatting task that should only take a few minutes to complete.

How to Make an APA Title Page

If you’ve been instructed to use APA style formatting then it’s likely that your tutor is expecting to see a title page including the following information:

  • Title of the paper
  • Author name
  • Author institution i.e. the name of your school, college or university
  • Running head i.e. an abridged title that features at the top left of every page

For example:

  • Title : Does The Internet Encourage Individualization?
  • Author : Roxanne Wells
  • Institution : The University of Derby
  • Running Head : Internet And Individualization

The above information should be centered (with the exception of the running head) and double-spaced, in Times New Roman font, size 12. See an APA example below:

Title page APA 6 example

How to Make an MLA Title Page

Title or cover pages are less common when following the MLA style of formatting. Instead, your tutor might prefer you to include a header with the required information at the top left of the first page of your assignment. These usually look like this:

  • Tutor/Professor name
  • Course name and number
  • Due date of the paper
  • Author: Roxanne Wells
  • Tutor/Professor Name: Professor Dale
  • Course: Sociology 100
  • Due Date: 1 May 2018

The above header should sit under a one-inch top margin, to the left of the page. It should be double-spaced and in a legible font (Times New Roman is a safe choice), size 12. The title of your essay should follow, centered, with the body of your work commencing underneath. In addition, every page should have a right-aligned header with the author’s last name and the page number.


If you do need to make up a cover page, however, you would set out the above information, plus the title/subtitle of your assignment and the name of your institution, centered and presented over a full page.

When it comes to creating a correctly formatted and professional-looking title page, we’ve got you covered!

Harvard Format (With Example)

Harvard style paper guidelines, harvard style cover page.

Harvard essay format is very specific and organized unlike argumentative essay . It requires a very particular title page with the following instructions:

  • The title of the paper is placed halfway down the page and written in capital letters.
  • After the title, three lines down write the name of the author in small letters.
  • Move four lines down and place the name of the class.
  • Move one line down put the name of the professor.
  • The next line entails the name of the school.
  • Then move to the next and write the city and state located and the final line should have the date.
  • The cover page of the Harvard essay format gives you all the information one needs to know about the author in question.

There are several key components to note when using the Harvard format. The title in a Harvard essay format is right justified. A partial title expresses the main idea in the essay between it, and the page number is exactly five spaces. The Harvard essay format cover sheet would like roughly like this:

The Harvard Essay Template

  • by (Name of the author)
  • Name of the Class (Course)
  • Name of University
  • City and State where university is located

Here are other essay formatting styles:

Paragraphs in a Harvard Format Essay

The Harvard essay format paragraphs are highly structured. The first section of the article is supposed to be captivating and entertaining. The article may begin with a lively quotation or an interesting fact and information that sheds light on the essay in question.

As in the  definition essay , introduction should smoothly lead to the thesis statement. The thesis statement refers to the main idea of the sentence and a summary of what the article body entails.

The first sentence in the body paragraph should tell the reader what the paragraph is discussing. The topic sentence is followed by supporting facts that relate to it. The details in the supporting sentences can be facts, quotations or analysis.

The paragraph then concludes with a sentence that summarizes what the paragraph is about and leads into the next section smoothly. Subheadings can also be used to introduce new subtopics and are italicized.

Transition between the Paragraphs

Writing an article using the Harvard format one should show the transition from one paragraph to the next and these paragraphs should be interconnected.

The topic should gradually grow from one point to the next. A paragraph in Harvard format has three parts:

– The topic sentence

– Supporting details 

– Closing sentence form

Citations in a Harvard Style Paper

One can use in-text citations. With the Harvard style, a quote uses the author’s name and first initial, year of publication and page number where the information appears. Citation for each fact is provided, if not it is considered plagiarism which is a serious offense. In-text citations for example from J. K. Rowling book published in 2004 page 45 would look like (Rowling J.K,2004,45).These quotes make the Harvard format essay easy to understand and comprehend as one read.

Harvard style uses a standard font such as Times New Roman or Arial at size 12. Fancy fonts are not allowed because the Harvard format is used in writing outstanding academic and research essays. The essay should be double-spaced with smooth left margins. In the Harvard format titles of journals, newspapers or books or websites are italicized in in-text citations while that of poems and short stories is written in “quotation marks”. This helps readers know what they are referring to read quickly through an essay written in the Harvard format.

The conclusion of a Harvard format essay is vital and should be written with high accuracy understanding and mastery. The first sentence of the conclusion is used to put emphasis on the thesis statement and remind the reader what the essay has proved showed or theorized. After the first sentence provides brief information of the main points that were discussed throughout the whole piece to encourage remembrance of the most important points that were discussed. It mainly involves a summary of the main points of the article in other words. The essay should then finish with an outstanding powerful message that leaves the reader still thinking minutes or hours after they have finished reading the article.

The conclusion is followed by the reference page which consists of the reference list and is placed in its page known as the reference page.

Harvard essay

Read more! Looke at the argumentative essay example about nutrition

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Harvard Library Is Launching Harvard Open Journals Program

Harvard Library is launching a new initiative called the Harvard Open Journals Program (HOJP), which will help researchers advance scholarly publishing that is open access, sustainable, and equitable. HOJP will provide publishing services, resources, and seed funding to participating Harvard researchers for new academic journals. All journal articles will be entirely free for authors and readers, with no barriers to publish or to access.

Martha Whitehead, Vice President for the Harvard Library and University Librarian, sees the initiative as an important step in championing open access. Whitehead said, “We want to model the original ethos of open access by reducing barriers and enabling the free flow of ideas and knowledge across the research ecosystem and beyond to the public at large.”

The Harvard Open Journals Program will offer publishing and hosting services to help the Harvard community launch new open access journals, or to convert existing journals to open access. The program will offer two support models: an overlay model which takes advantage of open access repositories, such as Harvard’s  DASH , and a brand-new academic press model. 

Yuan Li, University Scholarly Communication Officer and Director of Open Scholarship and Research Data Services at Harvard Library, pointed out the innovative nature of the program, “It is new for an institution to support faculty in seeking out an academic press to publish a no-fee open access journal and to provide assistance in securing its long-term funding. And offering a repository overlay journal model provides an alternative that appeals to some editorial boards and is gaining traction through initiatives such as Episciences. As we implement and refine this program on our campus, we hope it will inspire other universities to adopt such approaches to supporting barrier-free scholarly publishing.”

The program is a direct response to faculty interest in alternatives to the article-processing-charge model, in which journals charge author-side fees to publish papers open access. It also supports federal requirements that publications resulting from publicly-funded research be open access.

The open access movement in scholarly publishing seeks to grant free and public online access to publications and data. In recent decades, many researchers have become increasingly concerned that commercial rather than scholarly interests are driving the publishing ecosystem. With some publishers charging article processing fees of over $10,000 per article, skyrocketing costs inhibit many researchers and institutions from publishing in these journals. At the same time, research institutions continue to pay high subscription costs, even as their faculty provide editorial and peer review services mainly for free to the publishers. These practices have led to widespread outcry in the scholarly community, and tensions between publishers and editorial boards have led to the latter’s  mass resignations .

Scott Edwards, Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, and a member of the Harvard Library Faculty Advisory Council, applauds the library’s exploration of new models for supporting open access publishing. Edwards said, “In this increasingly challenging publishing ecosystem, the Harvard Open Journals Program is a welcome new approach.” 

“These are sustainable and equitable open access publishing models that allow scholars to take control of scholarly communication,” added Li. “I hope that many research-heavy institutions adopt our approach. The first  Harvard Open Access policy launched in 2008 has been adopted nationally and internationally, and it would be great to see similar reach.”

Under Harvard’s Open Access policies, Harvard faculty and researchers give the University a nonexclusive, irrevocable right to distribute their scholarly articles for any non-commercial purpose. Stored and preserved in  DASH , Harvard Library’s open access repository, these articles are made available to the scholarly community and the public—anyone with an internet connection can read them for free.

Harvard Library is working closely with the Office of the Vice Provost for Research on launching the HOJP program. John Shaw, Vice Provost for Research and Harry C. Dudley Professor of Structural and Economic Geology, is eager to promote the initiative in the suite of programs that support faculty research. Shaw said, “The launch of HOJP provides very encouraging options for removing barriers to making research results open and expanding their reach.”

The Harvard Open Journals Program will be open to all journals with a current Harvard affiliate on the editorial team or editorial board. Student-run journals are also eligible, as long as they are sponsored by a Harvard faculty member or administrator.

In preparing to launch HOJP this summer, Harvard Library is currently seeking input on program details from interested faculty. HOJP will begin accepting applications in the fall from journals and editorial boards. Colleen Cressman, Librarian for Open Publishing, will manage the program and can be reached by email for more information.

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We discuss the considerable literature that has developed in recent years providing rigorous evidence on how industrial policies work. This literature is a significant improvement over the earlier generation of empirical work, which was largely correlational and marred by interpretational problems. On the whole, the recent crop of papers offers a more positive take on industrial policy. We review the standard rationales and critiques of industrial policy and provide a broad overview of new empirical approaches to measurement. We discuss how the recent literature, paying close attention to measurement, causal inference, and economic structure, is offering a nuanced and contextual understanding of the effects of industrial policy. We re-evaluate the East Asian experience with industrial policy in light of recent results. Finally, we conclude by reviewing how industrial policy is being reshaped by a new understanding of governance, a richer set of policy instruments beyond subsidies, and the reality of de-industrialization. 

We distinguish between ideational and interest-based appeals to voters on the supply side of politics, integrating the Keynes-Hayek perspective on the importance of ideas with the Stigler-Becker approach emphasizing vested interests. In our model, political entrepreneurs discover identity and worldview “memes” (narratives, cues, frames) that invoke voters’ identity concerns or shift their views of how the world works. We identify a complementarity between worldview politics and identity politics and illustrate how they may reinforce each other. Furthermore, we show how adverse economic shocks (increasing inequality) lead to greater incidence of ideational politics. We use these results to analyze data on 60,000 televised political ads in U.S. localities over the years 2000 through 2018. Our empirical work quantifies ideational politics and provides support for key model implications, including the impact of higher inequality on the supply of both identity and worldview politics.

Using Fontana et al.’s (2019) database, we analyze levels and trends in the global distribution of authorship in economics journals, disaggregating by country/region, quality of journal, and fields of specialization. We document striking imbalances. While Western and Northern European authors have made substantial gains, the representation of authors based in low-income countries remains extremely low -- an order of magnitude lower than the weight of their countries or regions in the global economy. Developing country representation has risen fastest at journals rated 100 th or lower, while it has barely increased in journals rated 25 th or higher. Fields such as international or development where global diversification may have been expected have not experienced much increase in developing country authorship. These results are consistent with a general increase in the relative supply of research in the rest of the world. But they also indicate authors from developing countries remain excluded from the profession’s top-rated journals.

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  4. Harvard Style

    The reference list at the end of your paper; Rules: All in-text citations should be listed in the reference list at the end of your paper. Reference list entries need to contain all the information that someone reading your paper would need in order to find your source. Reference lists in Harvard Style are arranged alphabetically by first author.

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  11. Harvard Referencing Style Guide

    Format for Harvard Referencing. Typically, a paper that uses Harvard referencing has the following format: 2.5 cm OR 1-inch margins on all sides; Recommended fonts: Arial 12 pt or Times New Roman, with double-spacing; Title is in the center of the page just above the text; Left-aligned text, with the first sentence of every paragraph indented ...

  12. Harvard Referencing Sample Paper

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  13. A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing

    When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors' names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ' et al. ': Number of authors. In-text citation example. 1 author. (Davis, 2019) 2 authors. (Davis and Barrett, 2019) 3 authors.

  14. What's a Title or Cover Page? And How Do I Make One?

    In addition, every page should have a right-aligned header with the author's last name and the page number. See an MLA example below: If you do need to make up a cover page, however, you would set out the above information, plus the title/subtitle of your assignment and the name of your institution, centered and presented over a full page.


    Sample Cover Page TITLE: NOT TOO LONG BUT NOT TOO SHORT EITHER A thesis presented by STUDENT FULL NAME to The Harvard University Department of Sociology in partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Arts With Honors in Sociology Harvard College Cambridge, Massachusetts March 8, 2012 .

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  17. Harvard Format (With Example)

    There are several key components to note when using the Harvard format. The title in a Harvard essay format is right justified. A partial title expresses the main idea in the essay between it, and the page number is exactly five spaces. The Harvard essay format cover sheet would like roughly like this: The Harvard Essay Template. by (Name of ...

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    The use of steganography to transmit secret data is becoming increasingly common in security products and malware today. Despite being extremely popular, PDF files are not often the focus of steganography research, as most applications utilize digital image, audio, and video files as their cover data. However, the PDF file format is promising for usage in medium-capacity steganography ...