## Assignment Problem: Meaning, Methods and Variations | Operations Research

After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Assignment Problem 2. Definition of Assignment Problem 3. Mathematical Formulation 4. Hungarian Method 5. Variations.

## Meaning of Assignment Problem:

An assignment problem is a particular case of transportation problem where the objective is to assign a number of resources to an equal number of activities so as to minimise total cost or maximize total profit of allocation.

The problem of assignment arises because available resources such as men, machines etc. have varying degrees of efficiency for performing different activities, therefore, cost, profit or loss of performing the different activities is different.

Thus, the problem is “How should the assignments be made so as to optimize the given objective”. Some of the problem where the assignment technique may be useful are assignment of workers to machines, salesman to different sales areas.

## Definition of Assignment Problem:

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Suppose there are n jobs to be performed and n persons are available for doing these jobs. Assume that each person can do each job at a term, though with varying degree of efficiency, let c ij be the cost if the i-th person is assigned to the j-th job. The problem is to find an assignment (which job should be assigned to which person one on-one basis) So that the total cost of performing all jobs is minimum, problem of this kind are known as assignment problem.

The assignment problem can be stated in the form of n x n cost matrix C real members as given in the following table:

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## Assignment Problem: Maximization

There are problems where certain facilities have to be assigned to a number of jobs, so as to maximize the overall performance of the assignment.

The Hungarian Method can also solve such assignment problems , as it is easy to obtain an equivalent minimization problem by converting every number in the matrix to an opportunity loss.

The conversion is accomplished by subtracting all the elements of the given matrix from the highest element. It turns out that minimizing opportunity loss produces the same assignment solution as the original maximization problem.

- Unbalanced Assignment Problem
- Multiple Optimal Solutions

## Example: Maximization In An Assignment Problem

At the head office of www.universalteacherpublications.com there are five registration counters. Five persons are available for service.

How should the counters be assigned to persons so as to maximize the profit ?

Here, the highest value is 62. So we subtract each value from 62. The conversion is shown in the following table.

On small screens, scroll horizontally to view full calculation

Now the above problem can be easily solved by Hungarian method . After applying steps 1 to 3 of the Hungarian method, we get the following matrix.

Draw the minimum number of vertical and horizontal lines necessary to cover all the zeros in the reduced matrix.

Select the smallest element from all the uncovered elements, i.e., 4. Subtract this element from all the uncovered elements and add it to the elements, which lie at the intersection of two lines. Thus, we obtain another reduced matrix for fresh assignment. Repeating step 3, we obtain a solution which is shown in the following table.

## Final Table: Maximization Problem

Use Horizontal Scrollbar to View Full Table Calculation

The total cost of assignment = 1C + 2E + 3A + 4D + 5B

Substituting values from original table: 40 + 36 + 40 + 36 + 62 = 214.

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## Hungarian Algorithm for Assignment Problem | Set 1 (Introduction)

- Hungarian Algorithm for Assignment Problem | Set 2 (Implementation)
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- For each row of the matrix, find the smallest element and subtract it from every element in its row.
- Do the same (as step 1) for all columns.
- Cover all zeros in the matrix using minimum number of horizontal and vertical lines.
- Test for Optimality: If the minimum number of covering lines is n, an optimal assignment is possible and we are finished. Else if lines are lesser than n, we haven’t found the optimal assignment, and must proceed to step 5.
- Determine the smallest entry not covered by any line. Subtract this entry from each uncovered row, and then add it to each covered column. Return to step 3.

Try it before moving to see the solution

Explanation for above simple example:

An example that doesn’t lead to optimal value in first attempt: In the above example, the first check for optimality did give us solution. What if we the number covering lines is less than n.

Time complexity : O(n^3), where n is the number of workers and jobs. This is because the algorithm implements the Hungarian algorithm, which is known to have a time complexity of O(n^3).

Space complexity : O(n^2), where n is the number of workers and jobs. This is because the algorithm uses a 2D cost matrix of size n x n to store the costs of assigning each worker to a job, and additional arrays of size n to store the labels, matches, and auxiliary information needed for the algorithm.

In the next post, we will be discussing implementation of the above algorithm. The implementation requires more steps as we need to find minimum number of lines to cover all 0’s using a program. References: http://www.math.harvard.edu/archive/20_spring_05/handouts/assignment_overheads.pdf https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQDZNHwuuOY

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## Unbalanced Assignment Problem: Definition, Formulation, and Solution Methods

Table of Contents

Are you familiar with the assignment problem in Operations Research (OR)? This problem deals with assigning tasks to workers in a way that minimizes the total cost or time needed to complete the tasks. But what if the number of tasks and workers is not equal? In this case, we face the Unbalanced Assignment Problem (UAP). This blog will help you understand what the UAP is, how to formulate it, and how to solve it.

## What is the Unbalanced Assignment Problem?

The Unbalanced Assignment Problem is an extension of the Assignment Problem in OR, where the number of tasks and workers is not equal. In the UAP, some tasks may remain unassigned, while some workers may not be assigned any task. The objective is still to minimize the total cost or time required to complete the assigned tasks, but the UAP has additional constraints that make it more complex than the traditional assignment problem.

## Formulation of the Unbalanced Assignment Problem

To formulate the UAP, we start with a matrix that represents the cost or time required to assign each task to each worker. If the matrix is square, we can use the Hungarian algorithm to solve the problem. But when the matrix is not square, we need to add dummy tasks or workers to balance the matrix. These dummy tasks or workers have zero costs and are used to make the matrix square.

Once we have a square matrix, we can apply the Hungarian algorithm to find the optimal assignment. However, we need to be careful in interpreting the results, as the assignment may include dummy tasks or workers that are not actually assigned to anything.

## Solutions for the Unbalanced Assignment Problem

Besides the Hungarian algorithm, there are other methods to solve the UAP, such as the transportation algorithm and the auction algorithm. The transportation algorithm is based on transforming the UAP into a transportation problem, which can be solved with the transportation simplex method. The auction algorithm is an iterative method that simulates a bidding process between the tasks and workers to find the optimal assignment.

In summary, the Unbalanced Assignment Problem is a variant of the traditional Assignment Problem in OR that deals with assigning tasks to workers when the number of tasks and workers is not equal. To solve the UAP, we need to balance the matrix by adding dummy tasks or workers and then apply algorithms such as the Hungarian algorithm, the transportation algorithm, or the auction algorithm. Understanding the UAP can help businesses and organizations optimize their resource allocation and improve their operational efficiency.

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## Operations Research

1 Operations Research-An Overview

- History of O.R.
- Approach, Techniques and Tools
- Phases and Processes of O.R. Study
- Typical Applications of O.R
- Limitations of Operations Research
- Models in Operations Research
- O.R. in real world

2 Linear Programming: Formulation and Graphical Method

- General formulation of Linear Programming Problem
- Optimisation Models
- Basics of Graphic Method
- Important steps to draw graph
- Multiple, Unbounded Solution and Infeasible Problems
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- Application of Linear Programming in Business and Industry

3 Linear Programming-Simplex Method

- Principle of Simplex Method
- Computational aspect of Simplex Method
- Simplex Method with several Decision Variables
- Two Phase and M-method
- Multiple Solution, Unbounded Solution and Infeasible Problem
- Sensitivity Analysis
- Dual Linear Programming Problem

4 Transportation Problem

- Basic Feasible Solution of a Transportation Problem
- Modified Distribution Method
- Stepping Stone Method
- Unbalanced Transportation Problem
- Degenerate Transportation Problem
- Transhipment Problem
- Maximisation in a Transportation Problem

5 Assignment Problem

- Solution of the Assignment Problem
- Unbalanced Assignment Problem
- Problem with some Infeasible Assignments
- Maximisation in an Assignment Problem
- Crew Assignment Problem

6 Application of Excel Solver to Solve LPP

- Building Excel model for solving LP: An Illustrative Example

7 Goal Programming

- Concepts of goal programming
- Goal programming model formulation
- Graphical method of goal programming
- The simplex method of goal programming
- Using Excel Solver to Solve Goal Programming Models
- Application areas of goal programming

8 Integer Programming

- Some Integer Programming Formulation Techniques
- Binary Representation of General Integer Variables
- Unimodularity
- Cutting Plane Method
- Branch and Bound Method
- Solver Solution

9 Dynamic Programming

- Dynamic Programming Methodology: An Example
- Definitions and Notations
- Dynamic Programming Applications

10 Non-Linear Programming

- Solution of a Non-linear Programming Problem
- Convex and Concave Functions
- Kuhn-Tucker Conditions for Constrained Optimisation
- Quadratic Programming
- Separable Programming
- NLP Models with Solver

11 Introduction to game theory and its Applications

- Important terms in Game Theory
- Saddle points
- Mixed strategies: Games without saddle points
- 2 x n games
- Exploiting an opponent’s mistakes

12 Monte Carlo Simulation

- Reasons for using simulation
- Monte Carlo simulation
- Limitations of simulation
- Steps in the simulation process
- Some practical applications of simulation
- Two typical examples of hand-computed simulation
- Computer simulation

13 Queueing Models

- Characteristics of a queueing model
- Notations and Symbols
- Statistical methods in queueing
- The M/M/I System
- The M/M/C System
- The M/Ek/I System
- Decision problems in queueing

- Operations Research Problems

Statements and Solutions

- © 2014
- Raúl Poler 0 ,
- Josefa Mula 1 ,
- Manuel Díaz-Madroñero 2

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## Table of contents (10 chapters)

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Book Title : Operations Research Problems

Book Subtitle : Statements and Solutions

Authors : Raúl Poler, Josefa Mula, Manuel Díaz-Madroñero

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-5577-5

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## IMAGES

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## COMMENTS

Operation Research Calculators ( examples ) 1.Assignment problem 1.1 Assignment problem (Using Hungarian method-2) 1.2 Assignment problem (Using Hungarian method-1) 2.1 Travelling salesman problem using hungarian method 2.2 Travelling salesman problem using branch and bound (penalty) method 2.3 Travelling salesman problem using branch and bound ...

Solving the Assignment Problem. There are various methods for solving the assignment problem, including the Hungarian method, the brute force method, and the auction algorithm. Here, we will focus on the steps involved in solving the assignment problem using the Hungarian method, which is the most commonly used and efficient method. Step 1: Set ...

After reading this article you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Assignment Problem 2. Definition of Assignment Problem 3. Mathematical Formulation 4. Hungarian Method 5. Variations. Meaning of Assignment Problem: An assignment problem is a particular case of transportation problem where the objective is to assign a number of resources to an equal number of activities so as to minimise total ...

5.1 INTRODUCTION. The assignment problem is one of the special type of transportation problem for which more efficient (less-time consuming) solution method has been devised by KUHN (1956) and FLOOD (1956). The justification of the steps leading to the solution is based on theorems proved by Hungarian mathematicians KONEIG (1950) and EGERVARY ...

The Assignment Problem is a classic optimization challenge in operations research, where the objective is to assign a set of tasks to a set of resources in a way that minimizes the total cost or ...

Title: "Cracking the Balanced Assignment Problem in Operations Research!"🔍 Uncover the secrets of the Balanced Assignment Problem in this quick guide to Ope...

This Video will help the student to Understand the Algorithm of Assignment Model.Accordingly, Row Operation / Column Operation and, Row Assignment / Column A...

The assignment problem represents a special case of linear programming problem used for allocating resources (mostly workforce) in an optimal way; it is a highly useful tool for operation and project managers for optimizing costs. The lpSolve R package allows us to solve LP assignment problems with just very few lines of code.

The Hungarian Method can also solve such assignment problems, as it is easy to obtain an equivalent minimization problem by converting every number in the matrix to an opportunity loss. The conversion is accomplished by subtracting all the elements of the given matrix from the highest element. It turns out that minimizing opportunity loss ...

The problem of optimally assigning m individuals to m jobs, so that each individual is assigned to one job, and each job is filled by one individual. The problem can be formulated as a linear-programming problem with the objective function measuring the (linear) utility of the assignment as follows:

This paper presents a new algorithm for solving the assignment problem. The algorithm is based on a scheme of relaxing the given problem into a series of simple network flow (transportation) problems for each of which an optimal solution can be easily obtained. The algorithm is thus seen to be able to take advantage of the nice properties in ...

The above approach provides a step-by-step process to maximize an assignment problem. Here are the steps in summary: Convert the assignment problem into a matrix. Reduce the matrix by subtracting the minimum value in each row and column. Cover all zeros in the matrix with the minimum number of lines. Add the minimum uncovered value to each ...

The problem is to find the assignment that minimizes the total cost or distance, taking into account both the distances and the flows. The distance matrix a. 11 min read. Job Assignment Problem using Branch And Bound. Let there be N workers and N jobs. Any worker can be assigned to perform any job, incurring some cost that may vary depending on ...

OPERATIONS RESEARCH Chapter 2 Transportation and Assignment Problems Prof. Bibhas C. Giri Professor of Mathematics Jadavpur University West Bengal, India E-mail : [email protected]. MODULE-3: Assignment Problem and Its ... Theorem 2.2: If an assignment problem with cost (cij >0) ...

as the transportation problem, the assignment problem, the shortest path problem, the maximum ﬂow problem, and the minimum cost ﬂow problem. Very efﬁcient algorithms exist which are many times more efﬁcient than linear programming in the utilization of computer time and space resources. Introduction to Operations Research - p.6

The Unbalanced Assignment Problem is an extension of the Assignment Problem in OR, where the number of tasks and workers is not equal. In the UAP, some tasks may remain unassigned, while some workers may not be assigned any task. The objective is still to minimize the total cost or time required to complete the assigned tasks, but the UAP has ...

ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM Consider an assignment problem of assigning n jobs to n machines (one job to one machine). Let c ij be the unit cost of assigning ith machine to the jth job and,ith machine to jth job. Let x ij = 1 , if jth job is assigned to ith machine. x ij = 0 , if jth job is not assigned to ith machine. K.BHARATHI,SCSVMV. ASSIGNMENT ...

The objective of this book is to provide a valuable compendium of problems as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, researchers and practitioners of operations research and management science. These problems can serve as a basis for the development or study of assignments and exams. Also, they can be useful as a guide ...

'operation research', the ass ignment problem is very challenging and interesting that can represents many real-life problems. The optimal assignment problem is a classical combinatorial optimization problem. It entails optimally matching the elements of two or more sets, where the dimension of the problem refers to the number of sets of

Operations Research (OR) is a field in which people use mathematical and engineering methods to study optimization problems in Business and Management, Economics, Computer Science, Civil Engineering, Industrial Engineering, etc. This course introduces frameworks and ideas about various types of optimization problems in the business world.

Abstract. This note is concerned with two target assignment models. An optimum assignment is one which maximizes the expected value of targets destroyed. The first model, which admits an explicit solution, associates values only with the number of targets destroyed. An algorithm which enjoys a computational nicety is established when the values ...

Abstract. This paper is concerned with a target assignment model of a probabilistic and nonlinear nature, but nevertheless one which is closely related to the "personnel-assignment" problem. It is shown here that, despite the apparent nonlinearities, it is possible to devise a linear programming formulation that will ordinarily provide a ...

Highlights. •. Study the online generalized assignment problem in the random order model. •. Use historical information to boost the performance of online algorithms. •. Design competitive algorithms and computationally efficient heuristics. •. Evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms via experiments.

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We also consider the more general online stochastic knapsack problem where each individual allocation can consume an arbitrary fraction of the initial capacity. Here we introduce a new "best-fit" procedure with a performance guarantee of 1 3 + e − 2 ≈ 0.319 , which we also show is tight with respect to the standard LP relaxation.