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Locating and Using Images for Presentations and Coursework

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Copyright Resources

  • Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States from Cornell University Library
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Attribution

Again, the majority of images you find are under copyright and cannot be used without permission from the creator. There are exceptions with Fair Use, but this Libguide is intended to help you locate images you can use with attribution (and in some case, the images are free to use without attribution when stated, such as with stock images from pixabay). ***Please read about public domain . These images aren't under copyright, but it's still good practice to include attribution if the information is available. Attribution : the act of attributing something, especially the ascribing of a work (as of literature or art) to a particular author or artist. When you have given proper attribution, it means you have given the information necessary for people to know who the creator of the work is.

Citation General Guidelines

Include as much of the information below when citing images in a paper and formal presentations. Apply the appropriate citation style (see below for APA, MLA examples).

  • Image creator's name (artist, photographer, etc.)
  • Title of the image
  • Date the image (or work represented by the image) was created
  • Date the image was posted online
  • Date of access (the date you accessed the online image)
  • Institution (gallery, museum) where the image is located/owned (if applicable)
  • Website and/or Database name

Citing Images in MLA, APA, Chicago, and IEEE

  • Directions for citing in MLA, APA, and Chicago MLA: Citing images in-text, incorporating images into the text of your paper, works cited APA 6th ed.: Citing images in-text and reference list Chicago 17th ed.: Citing images footnotes and endnotes and bibliography from Simon Fraser University
  • How to Cite Images Using IEEE from the SAIT Reg Erhardt Library
  • Image, Photograph, or Related Artwork (IEEE) from the Rochester Institute of Technology Library

Citing Images in Your PPT

Currently, citing images in PPT is a bit of the Wild West. If details aren't provided by an instructor, there are a number of ways to cite. What's most important is that if the image is not a free stock image, you give credit to the author for the work. Here are some options:

1. Some sites, such as Creative Commons and Wikimedia, include the citation information with the image. Use that citation when available. Copy the citation and add under the image. For example, an image of a lake from Creative Commons has this citation next to it:  "lake"  by  barnyz  is licensed under  CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 .

2. Include a marker, such as Image 1. or Figure 1., and in the reference section, include full citation information with the corresponding number

3. Include a complete citation (whatever the required format, such as APA) below the image

4. Below the image, include the link to the online image location

5. Hyperlink the title of the image with the online image location

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APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : Images, Charts, Graphs, Maps & Tables

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Image reproduced from a magazine or journal, image reproduced from a website.

Reproducing Images, Charts, Tables & Graphs

Reproducing happens when you copy or recreate an image, table, graph or chart that is not your original creation. If you reproduce one of these works in your assignment, you must create a note underneath the image, chart, table or graph to show where you found it. You do not include this information in a Reference list.

Citing Information From an Image, Chart, Table or Graph

If you refer to information from an image, chart, table or graph, but do not reproduce it in your paper, create a citation both in-text and on your Reference list.

If the information is part of another format, for example a book, magazine article, encyclopedia, etc., cite the work it came from. For example if information came from a table in an article in National Geographic magazine, you would cite the entire article.

If you are only making a passing reference to a well known image, you would not have to cite it, e.g. describing someone as having a Mona Lisa smile.

Figure Numbers

Each image you reproduce should be assigned a figure number, starting with number 1 for the first image used in the assignment.

Images may not have a set title. If this is the case give a description of the image where you would normally put the title.

Copyright Information

When reproducing images, include copyright information in the citation if it is given, including the year and the copyright holder. Copyright information on a website may often be found at the bottom of the home page.

Note: Applies to Graphs, Charts, Drawings, Maps, Tables and Photographs

Figure X . Description of the image or title of the image. From "Title of Article," by Article Author's First Initial. Second Initial. Last Name, year, day, (for a magazine) or year (for a journal), Title of Magazine or Journal, volume number, page(s). Copyright year by name of copyright holder.

Note : Information about the image is placed directly below the image in your assignment. If the image has been changed, use "Adapted from" instead of "From" before the source information.

Figure 1 . Man exercising. Adapted from "Yoga: Stretching Out," by A. N. Green, and L. O. Brown, 2006, May 8, Sports Digest, 15 , p. 22. Copyright 2006 by Sports Digest Inc.

Note: Applies to Graphs, Charts, Drawings, Tables and Photographs

Figure x.  Description of the image or image title if given. Adapted from "Title of web page," by Author/Creator's First Initial. Second Initial. Last Name if given, publication date if given, Title of Website . Retrieved Month, day, year that you last viewed the website, from url. Copyright date by Name of Copyright Holder.

Note : Information about the image is placed directly below the image in your assignment. If the image has not been changed but simply reproduced use "From" instead of "Adapted from" before the source information.

7

55

9

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~

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66

Figure 2 . Table of symbols. Adapted from Case One Study Results  by G. A. Black, 2006, Strong Online. https://www.strongonline/ casestudies/one.html. Copyright 2010 by G.L. Strong Ltd.

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Referencing style - APA 7th: Images, tables and figures

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APA examples: Images, tables and figures

All images, figures and tables referred to in the text or reproduced in an essay, assignment or presentation, must be cited and included in your reference list. 

See this guides images, figures and tables tab to view how the attribution of these examples below are treated within the text. 

See  APA Style examples, Clip Art Image and  Artwork References  for general notes and more examples. 

Copied Image (reproduced within the document)

For

Example: 

Species such as the Pilotus flower (Figure 2) are ideal for weed control due to their spreading habit.

 

:  No need to cite the author of an image when you refer to an image figure within your text.  

 

Provide the full end-text reference for any copyrighted images you have used in your text in your reference list. 

Denisbin. (2012). [Photograph]. Flickr.

This should consist of: Author, year of publication, title, description in brackets, source (usually the name of the website and URL).

See for an example of full attribution required in the below the image, as well as an example of an image not requiring attribution. 

 

Image (reproduced in the document, no copyright attribution required)

For

 

Use the title of the image figure if referring to it within your text.  

E.g.: (Figure 1)

No end-text reference is required for images used that do not require copyright attribution. 

: Includes images that are yours and haven't been published elsewhere. 

See with and without attribution for clarification. 

 Artwork or Image (referred to in the document)

Use the Artist and date the artwork was produced. 

(Millais, 1851-2)

or 

Ophelia by Millais (1851-2)...

Provide a full end-text reference for the artwork or image referred to within your document. 

Millais, J. E. (1851-2).   [Painting]. Tate, London, United Kingdom. 

This image has not been reproduced in the text. 

Copied figure (reproduced within the document)

For   

When you refer to the figure in-text you can just use the figure title rather than the author-date style.

  ....

Provide a full text reference for the source of the figure following the end-text reference guidelines for that format. This reference is for a figure copied from a journal article: 

Watts, N., Amann, M., Arnell, N., Ayeb-Karlsson, S., Belesova, K., Berry, H., Bouley, T., Boykoff, M., Byass, P., Cai, W., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Chambers, J., Daly, M., Dasandi, N., Davies, M., Depoux, A., Dominguez-Salas, P., Drummond, P., Ebi, K. L., ... Costello, A. (2018). The 2018 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: Shaping the health of nations for centuries to come.  (10163), 2479-2514. 

See   for an example of a copyright acknowledgment required in the  below the figure.

Adapted figure

For

Use the figure title.

Provide a full text reference for the source of the figure following the end-text reference guidelines for that format. This reference is for a figure adapted from a webpage:

International Monetary Fund. (2021, April).  . 

See   for an example of a copyright acknowledgment required in the  below the figure.

 

Copied table (reproduced within the document)

For   Farley's (2018) inquiry into municipalities' economic development

Use the table title. 

Provide a full text reference for the source of the table following the end-text reference guidelines for that format. This reference is for a table copied from a blog post:

Farley, B. (2018, October 10). Community wealth shapes local economic development programs.

See   for an example of a copyright acknowledgment required in the  below the table.

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APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Figures/Images

  • General Style Guidelines
  • One Author or Editor
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  • Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
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Helpful Tip!

If you are unable to find the author/artist then use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses.

If there is no date available then use the abbreviation "n.d." (for "no date").

When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, you may use the year of publication.

Situations this Section Covers

There are are many different types of figures, however, APA uses certain basic principles for all figure types.

Types of figures:

  • photographs/images

This section will cover the following examples:

  • Image from an Electronic Source

For more examples and information, consult the following publications:

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association  (7th ed.)

Call Number:  BF76.7 .P83 2020

Locations:  Main Reference Collection 1st Floor (1 copy); Book Stacks (5 copies)

About Citing Works of Art

Online Map: Title of work [Map]. (Date or date of latest update {Year, Month Day }). Site name (if needed). URL

Online Image/Web site; Artist's last name, artist’s initials. (Year). Title of work [Online image]. Site name (if needed). URL

For each type of source in this guide, both the general form and an example   will be provided.

The following format will be used:

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase) - entry that appears in the body of your paper when you express the ideas of a researcher or author using your own words.  For more tips on paraphrasing check out The OWL at Purdue .

In-Text Citation (Quotation) - entry that appears in the body of your paper after a direct quote.

References - entry that appears at the end of your paper.

Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

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APA Citation Style Guide (7th Edition)

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Finding Online Images

  • Citing Business Resources

Looking for online images?

Please refer to our Open Educational Resources (OER) research guide for more information.

Look under the "Find Images, Videos and More" tab for open resource websites.

Citing an image in-text:

To cite an image you found online, use the image title or a general description in your text, and then cite it using the first element in the works cited entry and date. Examples: The Dream (Rousseau, 1910) baffled art critics when it debuted, mere months before the artist's death in September of that year.

As demonstrated in Up Close and Personal with the Very Large Telescope (Salgado, 2010), the fish eye camera lens creates uniquely distorted images, which often evokes the curvature of the earth.

Incorporating images into the text of your paper:

  • In the text, refer to figures by their number (i.e., Figure 1 or Figure 2). Do not refer to figures as "the figure below" or "the figure above."
  • Place the figure close as possible to the part of text referencing it, unless otherwise instructed by your professor.
  • Centre the image in the paper.
  • Number the figures consecutively, beginning with Figure 1.
  • Provide a brief description of the image. The caption should serve as both a title and explanation.
  • On the same line as the figure number and caption, provide the source and copyright information for the image in the following format:

Figure X.  Descriptive caption of image. From Image title, by Creator’s Name, Year of creation, Database/URL.  Copyright Date by Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted with permission (if applicable).

how to cite a picture from a research paper

Reference list:

Creator's last name, first initial. (Role of creator). (Year of creation).  Title of image  or description of image. [Type of work]. URL/database

Note:  If you can only find the screen name of an author (such as a photographer on Flickr), that will do as the author's name. If the screen name is all lowercase, keep the name lowercase in the in-text citation and the references list.

Electronic Image (No Author)

Title of work [Type of work]. (Year of creation). URL (address of website)

Electronic Image (No Author, No Title, No Date)

Many images found on the Web are of this category, but you should still look for this missing information: try clicking on the image, and/or looking at the bottom of the image.

[Format and subject of work]. URL (address of website)

Sphinx  [Digital Image]. (2006). http://www.bergoiata.org/fe/divers28/10.htm

Bonsu, O. (Sculptor). (ca. 1960). Female figure (akua ba). [Wood and glass sculpture]. http://africa.si.edu/exhibits/mosaic/womanhood.html

Kulbis, M. (Photographer). (2006). Men pray [Photograph], http://accuweather.ap.org/cgi-bin/aplaunch.pl

sinead-marie (Photographer). (2012). Dyslexia [Photograph], https://flic.kr/p/cCrXHQ

[Untitled photograph of a baby chimpanzee]. http://perso.wanadoo.fr/jdtr/struc/chimp3.htm

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How to Cite Images, Tables and Diagrams

The pages outlines examples of how to cite images, tables and diagrams using the Harvard Referencing method .

An image found online

In-text citations

Mention the image in the text and cite the author and date:

The cartoon by Frith (1968) describes ...

If the image has no named author, cite the full name and date of the image:

The map shows the Parish of Maroota during the 1840s (Map of the Parish of Maroota, County of Cumberland, District of Windsor 1840-1849)

List of References

Include information in the following order:

  • author (if available)
  • year produced (if available)
  • title of image (or a description)
  • Format and any details (if applicable)
  • name and place of the sponsor of the source
  • accessed day month year (the date you viewed/ downloaded the image)
  • URL or Internet address (between pointed brackets).

Frith J 1968, From the rich man’s table, political cartoon by John Frith, Old Parliament House, Canberra, accessed 11 May 2007, <http: // www . oph.gov.au/frith/theherald-01.html>.

If there is no named author, put the image title first, followed by the date (if available):

Khafre pyramid from Khufu’s quarry 2007, digital photograph, Ancient Egypt Research Associates, accessed 2 August 2007, <http: // www . aeraweb.org/khufu_quarry.asp>.

Map of the Parish of Maroota, County of Cumberland, District of Windsor 1840-1849, digital image of cartographic material, National Library of Australia, accessed 13 April 2007, <http: // nla . gov.au/nla.map-f829>.  

Online images/diagrams used as figures

Figures include diagrams, graphs, sketches, photographs and maps. If you are writing a report or an assignment where you include a visual as a figure, unless you have created it yourself, you must include a reference to the original source.

Figures should be numbered and labelled with captions. Captions should be simple and descriptive and be followed by an in-text citation. Figure captions should be directly under the image.

Cite the author and year in the figure caption:

how to cite a picture from a research paper

Figure 1: Bloom's Cognitive Domain (Benitez 2012)

If you refer to the Figure in the text, also include a citation:

As can be seen from Figure 1 (Benitez 2012)

Provide full citation information:

Benitez J 2012, Blooms Cognitve Domain, digital image, ALIEM, accessed 2 August 2015, <https: // www . aliem.com/blooms-digital-taxonomy/>.   

Online data in a table caption

In-text citation

If you reproduce or adapt table data found online you must include a citation. All tables should be numbered and table captions should be above the table.

  Table 2: Agricultural water use, by state 2004-05 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006)

NSW (including Canberra) 3 976 108
Vic. 2 570 219
Qld 2 864 889
SA 1 004 828
WA 429 372
Tas 255 448
NT 45 638

If you refer to the table in text, include a citation:

As indicated in Table 2, a total of 11 146 502 ML was used (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006)

Include the name of the web page where the table data is found.

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006, Water Use on Australian Farms , 2004-05, Cat. no. 4618.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 4 July 2007, <https: // www . abs.gov.au>.

FAQ and troubleshooting

Harvard referencing

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APA Image Citation

APA does not have a written standard for images. There will be differences in how other Research Guides show you how to do them. You will want to talk with your professor or editor before turning in your work.

APA Original Artwork, Sculpture or Image Citation

A painting, sculpture, or photograph:.

Image Francisco de Goya. (1820-1823). Saturn Devouring One of his Sons. [mural painting transferred to canvas]. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

Fig. #. Artist Name. (date). Title of work . [medium]. Location of artwork. city, state/country.

Fig. 4. Francisco de Goya. (1820-1823). Saturn Devouring One of his Sons . [mural painting transferred to canvas]. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

In-Text Citation:

(last name, Date)

(Goya, 1820-1823)

Reference List:

last name, first initial. (date). Title of work . [medium]. Location of artwork. city, state/country.

de Goya, F. (1820-1823). Saturn Devouring One of his Sons . [mural painting transferred to canvas]. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain.

APA Photographic Reproductions of Art

Image Celebration of the Modern City. From Art History (p. 1058), by Umberto Boccioni, 1911, New York, NY: Harry N Abrams, Inc. Copyright [1995] by M. Stockstad.

Fig. number . Description or title of image. From Title of Book (p. xxx), by Author, year, Place of Publication: Publisher. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder.

Fig. 1 . Celebration of the modern city in abstract. From Art History (p. 1058), by Umberto Boccioni, 1911, New York, NY: Harry N Abrams, Inc. Copyright [1995] by M. Stockstad.

Artist or Author. (Year of image creation). Description or title of image [Image format]. Place artwork is located. From Author or Editor, Title of Book (pages). Location: Publisher, Year of book publication.

Boccioni, Umberto (1911). States of Mind: The Farewells [Oil on Canvas]. The Museum of Modern Art, New York. From M. Stockstad, Art History (p. 1058). New York, NY: Harry N Abrams, Inc., 1995.

APA Online Image Citation

advice from a caterpillar

Captions under illustrations/ figures: 

Figure 1. Alice and the Caterpillar [woodblock]. From "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" (p. 59), by john. Tennial 1865, London: Macmillian and Co. Copyright [1866] by Lewis Carroll. 

Reference List 

Tenniel, John (1865). Advice from a Caterpillar [Woodblock]. Gettysburg College, Musselman Library, Special Collections. Gettysburg, PA. Retrieved from https://archive.org/details/alicesadventur00carr/page/58/mode/2up?view=theater` .  

In-Text 

(Fig. 1 Tennial, 1865) 

APA Image from Library Database

how to cite a picture from a research paper

Creator (Last, First). (date). Title [medium]. Database. Retrieved from Web address.

Peters, J.L. (1872). Phrenological Waltzes [Print, Electronic resource].  Library of Congress: Music Division .  Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/item/sm1872.06931/.

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How to cite images and graphs in your research paper

Deeptanshu D

Table of Contents

How-to-cite-images-and-graphs-in-a-research-paper

If you are confused about whether you should include pictures, images, charts, and other non-textual elements in your research paper or not, I would suggest you must insert such elements in your research paper. Including non-textual elements like images and charts in the research paper helps extract a higher acceptance of your proposed theories.

An image or chart will make your research paper more attractive, interesting, explanatory, and understandable for the audience. In addition, when you cite an image or chart, it helps you describe your research and its parts with far more precision than simple, long paragraphs.

There are plenty of reasons why you should cite images in your research paper. However, most scholars and academicians avoid it altogether, losing the opportunity to make their research papers more interesting and garner higher readership.

Additionally, it has been observed that there are many misconceptions around the use or citation of images in research papers. For example, it is widely believed and practiced that using pictures or any graphics in the research papers will render it unprofessional or non-academic. However, in reality, no such legit rules or regulations prohibit citing images or any graphic elements in the research papers.

You will find it much easier once you know the appropriate way to cite images or non-textual elements in your research paper. But, it’s important to keep in mind some rules and regulations for using different non-textual elements in your research paper. You can easily upgrade your academic/ research writing skills by leveraging various guides in our repository.

In this guide, you will find clear explanations and guidelines that will teach you how to identify appropriate images and other non-textual elements and cite them in your research paper. So, cut the clutter; let’s start.

Importance of citing images in a research paper

Although it’s not mandatory to cite images in a research paper, however, if you choose to include them, it will help showcase your deep understanding of the research topic. It can even represent the clarity you carry for your research topic and help the audience navigate your paper easily.

Why-it-is-important-to-use-images-and-graphs-in-a-research-paper.

There are several reasons why you must cite images in your research paper like:

(i) A better explanation for the various phenomenon

While writing your research paper, certain topics will be comparatively more complex than others. In such a scenario where you find out that words are not providing the necessary explanation, you can always switch to illustrating the process using images. For example, you can write paragraphs describing climate change and its associated factors and/or cite a single illustration to describe the complete process with its embedded factors.

(ii) To simplify examples

To create an impeccable research paper, you need to include evidence and examples supporting your argument for the research topic. Rather than always explaining the supporting evidence and examples through words, it will be better to depict them through images. For example, to demonstrate climate change's effects on a region, you can always showcase and cite the “before and after” images.

(iii) Easy Classification

If your research topic requires segregation into various sub-topics and further, you can easily group and classify them in the form of a classification tree or a chart. Providing such massive information in the format of a classification tree will save you a lot of words and present the information in a more straightforward and understandable form to your audience.

(iv) Acquire greater attention from the audience

Including images in your research paper, theses, and dissertations will help you garner the audience's greater attention. If you add or cite images in the paper, it will provide a better understanding and clarification of the topics covered in your research. Additionally, it will make your research paper visually attractive.

Types of Images that you can use or cite in your research paper

Using and citing images in a research paper as already explained can make your research paper more understanding and structured in appearance. For this, you can use photos, drawings, charts, graphs, infographics, etc. However, there are no mandatory regulations to use or cite images in a research paper, but there are some recommendations as per the journal style.

Before including any images in your research paper, you need to ensure that it fits the research topic and syncs with your writing style. As already mentioned, there are no strict regulations around the usage of images. However, you should make sure that it satisfies certain parameters like:

  • Try using HD quality images for better picture clarity in both print and electronic formats
  • It should not be copyrighted, and if it is, you must obtain the license to use it. In short cite the image properly by providing necessary credits to its owner
  • The image should satisfy the context of the research topic

You can cite images in your research paper either at the end, in between the topics, or in a separate section for all the non-textual elements used in the paper. You can choose to insert images in between texts, but you need to provide the in-text citations for every image that has been used.

Additionally, you need to attach the name, description and image number so that your research paper stays structured. Moreover, you must cite or add the copyright details of the image if you borrow images from other platforms to avoid any copyright infringement.

Graphs and Charts

You can earn an advantage by providing better and simple explanations through graphs and charts rather than wordy descriptions. There are several reasons why you must cite or include graphs and charts in your research paper:

  • To draw a comparison between two events, phenomena, or any two random parameters
  • Illustration of statistics through charts and graphs are most significant in drawing audience attention towards your research topic
  • Classification tree or pie charts goes best to show off the degree of influence of a specific event, or phenomenon in your research paper

With the usage of graphs and charts, you can answer several questions of your readers without them even questioning. With charts and graphs, you can provide an immense amount of information in a brief yet attractive manner to your readers, as these elements keep them interested in your research topic.

Providing these non-textual elements in your research paper increases its readability. Moreover, the graphs and charts will drive the reader’s attention compared to text-heavy paragraphs.

You can easily use the graphs or charts of some previously done research in your chosen domain, provided that you cite them appropriately, or else you can create your graphs through different tools like Canva, Excel, or MS PowerPoint. Additionally, you must provide supporting statements for the graphs and charts so that readers can understand the meaning of these illustrations easily.

Similarly, like pictures or images, you can choose one of the three possible methods of placement in your research paper, i.e., either after the text or on a different page right after the corresponding paragraph or inside the paragraph itself.

How to Cite Images and Graphs in a Research Paper?

How-to-cite-images-and-graphs-in-a-research-paper.

Once you have decided the type of images you will be using in your paper, understand the rules of various journals for the fair usage of these elements. Using pictures or graphs as per these rules will help your reader navigate and understand your research paper easily. If you borrow or cite previously used pictures or images, you need to follow the correct procedure for that citation.

Usage or citation of pictures or graphs is not prohibited in any academic writing style, and it just differs from each other due to their respective formats.

Cite an Image/Graphs in APA (American Psychological Association) style

Most of the scientific works, society, and media-based research topics are presented in the APA style. It is usually followed by museums, exhibitions, galleries, libraries, etc. If you create your research paper in APA style and cite already used images or graphics, you need to provide complete information about the source.

In APA style, the list of the information that you must provide while citing an element is as follows:

  • Owner of the image (artist, designer, photographer, etc.)
  • Complete Date of the Image: Follow the simple DD/MM/YYYY to provide the details about the date of the image. If you have chosen a certain historical image, you can choose to provide the year only, as the exact date or month may be unknown
  • Country or City where the Image was first published
  • A Name or Title of the Image (Optional: Means If it is not available, you can skip it)
  • Publisher Name: Organization, association, or the person to whom the image was first submitted

If you want to cite some images from the internet, try providing its source link rather than the name or webpage.

Format/Example of Image Citation:

Johanson, M. (Photographer). (2017, September, Vienna, Austria. Rescued bird. National gallery.

Cite an Image/Graphs in MLA (Modern Language Association) style

MLA style is again one of the most preferred styles worldwide for research paper publication. You can easily use or cite images in this style provided no rights of the image owner get violated. Additionally, the format or the information required for citation or usage is very brief yet precise.

In the MLA style, the following are the details that a used image or graph must carry:

  • Name of the creator of the owner
  • Title, Name, or the Description of the Image
  • Website Or the Source were first published
  • Contributors Name (if any)
  • Version or Serial Number (if any)
  • Publisher’s Details; at least Name must be provided
  • Full Date (DD:MM: YYYY) of the first published Image
  • Link to the original image

Auteur, Henry. “Abandoned gardens, Potawatomi, Ontario.” Historical Museum, Reproduction no. QW-YUJ78-1503141, 1989, www.flickr.com/pictures/item/609168336/

Final Words

It is easy to cite images in your research paper, and you should add different forms of non-textual elements in the paper. There are different rules for using or citing images in research papers depending on writing styles to ensure that your paper doesn’t fall for copyright infringement or the owner's rights get violated.

No matter which writing style you choose to write your paper, make sure that you provide all the details in the appropriate format. Once you have all the details and understanding of the format of usage or citation, feel free to use as many images that make your research paper intriguing and interesting enough.

If you still have doubts about how to use or cite images, join our SciSpace (Formerly Typeset) Community and post your questions there. Our experts will address your queries at the earliest. Explore the community to know what's buzzing and be a part of hot discussion topics in the academic domain.

Learn more about SciSpace's dedicated research solutions by heading to our product page. Our suite of products can simplify your research workflows so that you can focus more on what you do best: advance science.

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  • Library Catalogue

Citing tables, figures & images: APA (7th ed.) citation guide

On this page, introduction, general guidelines, examples for citing figures & images, examples for citing tables.

how to cite a picture from a research paper

This guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed. It provides selected citation examples for common types of sources. For more detailed information consult directly a  print copy  of the style manual.

Check out APA's Guide to what's new for APA 7 .

Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with Citation management software .

Tables and figures (includes images) follow similar set up and formatting. The guidelines below focus on common examples used by students for academic papers . For details on creating tables or figures for submission to journals or graduate theses, see APA's Tables and figures or consult the guide directly (Section 7, pp. 195–250).

Wondering if you can use that image you found online? Refer to SFU's Copyright and your coursework or the FAQ What is fair dealing? for guidelines on use.

  • All figures and tables must be mentioned in the text (a "callout") by their number. Do not refer to the table/figure using either "the table above" or "the figure below."
  • Assign table/figure # in the order as it appears, numbered consecutively, in your paper - not the figure # assigned to it in its original resource.
  • A note is added when further description, for example, definitions or copyright attribution, is necessary to explain the figure or table. Most student papers will require a general note for copyright attribution and acknowledgement whether it is reprinted or adapted from another source. Consult the guide directly for detailed instructions on formatting notes (Section 7.14, pp. 203–205).
  • For copyright attribution templates , consult Table 12.1 on page 390 of the guide (Section 12.18, pp. 389-390).
  • If permission is required for reprinting or adapting, at the end of the citation place: Reprinted with permission or  Adapted with permission followed by a period.
  • All the sources must have a full bibliographic entry in your Reference List .
  • Review your figure/table against the appropriate checklist found only in the guide (Sections 7.20, Table, p. 206 and 7.35, Figure, p. 232).

Order of components

Above the figure/table.

  • Write " Figure " or " Table " in bold font, flush left, followed by the number, for example, Figure 1 .
  • Write the figure/table title using italic case below the figure/table number,
  • Double-space the figure/table number and title,
  • Embed image.

Below the figure/table

  • On a new line below the figure/table, flush left, place Note. Provide further details/explanation about the information in the figure/table only if necessary. State if material is reprinted or adapted —use " From " if reprinted or " Adapted from " if adapted. Followed directly by the copyright attribution —this is basically the same information as found in the reference list entry but in a different order.
  • Separate figure/table from the text with one blank double-spaced line.

Placement in paper

  • embed in the text after it is first mentioned or,
  • place on a separate page after the reference list (an appendix).
  • When embedding all figures and tables are aligned with the left margin .
  • All examples in this guide show embedded figures and tables.

Refer directly to the guide for more detailed notes on placement (Section 7.6, p. 198).

Figures include: images found online, maps , graphs , charts, drawings, and photographs, or any other illustration or non-textual depiction in printed or electronic resources.

See APA's Figure set up for detailed information on the basic components of a figure, principles of creation, and placement in papers with formatting requirements, or consult the guide directly (Section 7.22–7.36, pp. 225–250).

Review APA's guide for Accessible use of colour in table/figures for best practices.

Exact copy from a single source (aka reprinted)

The following example is when it is reproduced in your paper exactly as it appears in another source : Same format or state, no reconfiguration or new analysis.

visualization of vision statement of Iskwewuk E-wichiwitochik (Women Walking Together)

Compiled from variety of sources

The following example is for citing a figure that you have created by compiling information from a variety of sources. For example, if you combined data from a database, a website , and a government report to create a new chart. Each source requires a copyright attribution in a general note and full bibliographic entry in the Reference List.

graph comparing meat consumption of Canada, USA, France, and Finland

See APA's Clip art or stock image references ,  Image with no attribution required ,  Image requires an attribution , or consult the guide directly (Section 12.14–12.18, pp. 384–390 ).

Citing but not reproducing the image? See Visual: Artwork in museum, PowerPoint slides, photographs, clipart/stock image, maps retrieved online in this guide for examples or consult the guide directly (Section 10.14, pp. 346–347).

Image with attribution

image of three stars aligned in the sky over observatory buildings in Chile known as syzygy

Reference list examples

Beletsky, Y. (2013).  Three planets dance over La Silla [Photograph]. European Southern Observatory. https://www.eso.org/public/images/potw1322a/

Euromonitor International. (2020). [Statistical data on market sizes of fresh food]. Passport . Retrieved January 21, 2021, from https://go.euromonitor.com/passport.html

FranceAgriMer. (2020, September). Consommation des produits carnes en 2019 . https://www.franceagrimer.fr/content/download/64994/document/STA-VIA-Consommation%20des%20produits%20carn%C3%A9s%20en%202019.pdf

Natural Resources Institute Finland. (2020). Consumption of food commodities per capita by year and commodity [Statistics database]. http://statdb.luke.fi/PXWeb/sq/d1b368d7-9c07-4efd-b727-13e57db90ee6

Okemasim–Sicotte, D. R., Gingell, S., & Bouvier, R. (2018). Iskwewuk E–wichiwitochik. In K. Anderson, M. Campbell, & C. Belcourt (Eds.), Keetsahnak /Our missing and murdered Indigenous sisters (pp. 243–269). University of Alberta Press.

Irish, J. (2019).  Sequoia National Park.  [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/destinations/north-america/united-states/61-national-parks-photos/#/giant-tree-trail-sequoia-national-park.jpg

Drewes, W. (n.d.).  Frog and insects (no.200) . [Painting]. The Smithsonian Institution. https://www.si.edu/object/saam_1968.9.50

  • See the General Notes in this guide for help with creating citations with missing information , e.g. using a description if no title—see Euromonitor International in the reference list above.
  • For figures compiled from multiple sources, identify individual source information using the following format in the "From" statement: Note . The data for Country Name are from [copyright attribution according to source]. End each copyright attribution with a period.
  • Use author-date in-text citation when the data is transformed (reconfigured or reanalyzed) to produce different numbers. (Section 12.15 Data subsection, p. 385).
  • If work is published or read online, use live links—check with your instructor for their preference.

Tables are characterized by a row-column structure. See APA's Table set up for detailed information on the basic components of a table, principles of creation, and placement in papers with formatting requirements, or consult the guide directly (Section 7.8–7.21, pp. 199–224).

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When writing research articles and papers, the use of visual elements like images, diagrams, and tables can significantly enhance the presentation of data and arguments. However, you have to properly cite these elements to maintain academic integrity and respect copyright laws. This article guides you through the general rules and specific scenarios for citing images, with a focus on Harvard referencing, and explains how to list these references effectively.

Citing Images in Academic Works – General Rules

When you incorporate an image, table, or diagram into your academic work, it’s essential to provide a citation that includes the author, date, title, and source of the image. The purpose of citing images is to acknowledge the original creator and to allow your readers to trace the source material. This process typically involves two components: an in-text citation and a corresponding entry in the list of references.

For the list of references, the full citation of an image should include:

  • the author’s name,
  • the year of publication,
  • the title of the image,
  • and the internet address or publication where the image was found.

If the image is untitled, a brief description can be used in place of a title.

Citing and Referencing Specific Types of Images

Online/Digital Images . When citing an online image or diagram, the citation should include the author (if known), the date of creation (or the date it was accessed) for the in-text citation, and the title, and the internet address for full reference. The Harvard referencing system requires these details in both the in-text citation and the list of references.

In-Text Citation Example : “The cartoon by Frith (1968) humorously illustrates the political climate of the time, highlighting…” .

Reference Example: Frith J 1968, From the rich man’s table, political cartoon by John Frith, Old Parliament House, Canberra, accessed 11 May 2007, http://www.oph.gov.au/frith/theherald-01.html.

Online Images/Diagrams Used as Figures . Online images used as figures in your work should be properly numbered and include a figure caption. The figure caption typically consists of the figure number, a brief description, and an in-text citation.

For example: Figure 1: A diagram of the solar system (Smith, 2020).

Citing a Photograph or Image from a Museum or Institution (Viewed Online). In the case of citing photographs or images from museums or institutions viewed online, include the name of the artist, the year of creation, the title of the image, the name of the institution, and the internet address where the image was found. This type of citation recognizes both the creator of the work and the institution that houses it.

In-Text Citation Example: “The picture (Van Gogh) evokes a deep sens of..”

Example Reference: Van Gogh, Vincent. Starry Night. 1889. The Museum of Modern Art, www.moma.org/collection/works/79802.

Properly Citing a Photograph You Took. If you are citing a photograph that you took, the citation should include your name, the year the photo was taken, a title or descriptive caption, and a note indicating that it is your own work. For instance, in the Harvard referencing style, it would be: (Your Name, 2024, View of the Grand Canyon, author’s collection).

In-Text Citation Example: “The landscape’s stark beauty is captured in the photograph (Doe),” if the photograph was taken by a student named Jane Doe.”

Reference List Citation Example: Smith, Jade. Playing dogs. 21 Aug. 20010. Author’s personal collection.

The Differences of Citing Images in APA, MLA, and Chicago

Citing images in academic writing is an important practice for acknowledging sources and respecting copyright. The citation style varies depending on the format (APA, MLA, Chicago) and where the image was accessed (online, in-person). Here are general rules and unique examples for each style:

Online Images:

  • General APA Format : Author Last Name, Initials. (Year). Image title [Format]. Site Name. URL
  • Reference Entry Example: Johnson, K. (2022). Sunset Over the Mountains [Photograph]. Unsplash. https://unsplash.com/photos/sunset-mountains
  • In-Text Citation: (Johnson, 2022)

Images Viewed in Person:

  • APA Format: Author Last Name, Initials. (Year). Image title [Format]. Institution Name, Location. URL (if applicable)
  • APA Reference Entry Example: Monet, C. (1900). Water Lilies [Painting]. The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.
  • APA In-Text Citation: (Monet, 1900)
  • General MLA Format: Author Last Name, First Name. “Image Title.” Website Name, Day Month Year, URL.
  • Works Cited Entry Example: Thompson, Alice. “Full Moon Reflection.” Pixabay, 5 Apr. 2022, https://pixabay.com/photos/full-moon-reflection-2022
  • In-Text Citation: (Thompson)
  • General MLA Format: Author Last Name, First Name. “Image Title.” Year, Institution Name, City.
  • Works Cited Entry Example: Van Gogh, Vincent. “Starry Night.” 1889, The Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  • In-Text Citation: (Van Gogh)

Chicago Style

  • Chicago Bibliography Entry Example: Smith, Robert. Morning Dew on Leaves . May 15, 2021. Photograph. Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/morning-dew-leaves
  • Chicago Footnote: 1. Robert Smith, Morning Dew on Leaves , May 15, 2021, photograph, Flickr, https://flic.kr/p/morning-dew-leaves.
  • Chicago Bibliography Entry Example: Degas, Edgar. The Star . 1878. Pastel on paper, 73 x 60 cm. The Louvre, Paris.
  • Chicago Footnote: 1. Edgar Degas, The Star , 1878, pastel on paper, 73 x 60 cm, The Louvre, Paris.

When citing images via a free citation machine , it’s important to include all necessary details such as the creator’s name, the title of the image, the year it was created or published, the format (e.g., photograph, painting), and its location or source. If the image is included directly in the text as a figure, a copyright/permissions statement should also be provided. Following these guidelines allows proper attribution and enhances the credibility of your academic work.

Accurately citing images, whether sourced online, from a database or taken personally, is a critical aspect of academic writing.  Now, that you know how to cite an image, you can move on to bigger things and learn how to cite Youtube videos . It upholds academic integrity and shows respect for the original creators of these visual elements. By following these guidelines and using the Harvard referencing system, you can be sure that your use of images, tables, and diagrams adheres to the best practices of academic writing, making your work credible and ethically sound. Remember, a well-cited image not only adds value to your argument but also enhances the overall quality and reliability of your academic work.

Do I need to cite images in academic papers?

Yes, you need to cite images in academic papers. Citing images is crucial for several reasons: it acknowledges the original creator’s work, avoids plagiarism, and provides your readers with a source they can refer to for more information. Whether the image is a photograph, a painting, a diagram, or any other type, proper citation is essential in academic writing.

Is there a difference in citing images from websites and books?

Yes, there is a difference in citing images from websites and books. When citing an image from a website, you typically need to include the author’s name, the date the image was published or accessed, the title of the image, the format (e.g., photograph, digital image), the website name, and the URL. For images in books, the citation should include the author’s name, the date of publication, the title of the image, the format, the title of the book, the publisher, and the page number or location of the image in the book.

How do I cite an image with no author or date?

If an image does not have an author or a specific date, you can still cite it by providing as much information as possible. For an image without an author, start the citation with the title of the image. If the date is unavailable, use ‘n.d.’ (no date) to indicate this. For example, in APA style, it would look like this: Image Title [Format]. (n.d.). Website Name. URL.

Should I include URLs in image citations?

Yes, you should include URLs in image citations for images found online. URLs are important as they allow readers to directly access the source material. However, for images found in print sources or physical locations like museums, URLs are not necessary unless there is a specific webpage for the image.

How to format image citations?

The format of image citations depends on the citation style you are using (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.). Generally, the citation should include the author’s name, the year of creation or publication, the title of the image, the format, and where the image was found (website and URL, book title and page number, museum location, etc.). Follow the specific rules of the citation style required for your academic work, including how to format in-text citations and the reference list or bibliography entries.

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  • USC Libraries
  • Research Guides

Using Images and Non-Textual Materials in Presentations, Papers, Theses, and Dissertations

  • Documenting and Citing Images
  • Finding Images - Select Sources

Documenting and Citing Images/Photographs and Their Sources

Please note that this is advice on best practices and considerations in documenting and citing images and non-print materials. It does not represent legal advice on obtaining permissions.

Generally, images copied from other sources should not be used without permissions in publications or for commercial purposes. Many American academic institutions require graduate students to archive their finished and approved theses/dissertations in institutional electronic repositories and/or institutional libraries and repositories, and/or to post them on Proquest's theses database. Unpublished theses and dissertations are a form of scholarly dissemination. Someone else's images, like someone else's ideas, words or music, should be used with critical commentary, and need to be identified and cited. If a thesis/dissertation is revised for publication,  waivers or permissions from the copyright holder(s) of the images and non-textual materials must be obtained. Best practices also apply to materials found on the internet and on social media, and, properly speaking, require identification, citation, and clearance of permissions, as relevant.

Use the following elements when identifying and citing an image, depending on the information you have available . It is your responsibility to do due diligence and document as much as possible about the image you are using:

  • Artist's/creator's name, if relevant;
  • Title of the work/image, if known, or description;
  • Ownership information (such as a person, estate, museum, library collection) and source of image;
  • Material, if known, particularly for art works;
  • Dimensions of the work, if known.

The Chicago Manual of Style online can be searched for norms on appropriate ways to caption illustrations, capitalize titles of visual works, or cite print materials that contain images.

Including images/photographs in a bibliography:

Best practice is to not include images within a bibliography of works cited. It is common, instead, to create a separate list of images (or figures) and their source, such as photographer (even if it's you) or collection. It may be useful to also include location, e.g., museum, geographic reference, address, etc.

Examples of Documenting Images

The image below is scanned from a published book. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation, classroom session, or  paper/thesis, as follows:

how to cite a picture from a research paper

[ Figure 1. This photograph from 1990 shows the Monument against Fascism designed by Jochen Gerz and Esther Shalev-Gerz, Hamburg, 1986-1993. Image from James Young, ed.,  Art of Memory: Holocaust Memorials in History (New York: Prestel, 1994), 70]

If you need to use this image in a published work, you will have to seek permission. For example, the book from which this image was scanned should have a section on photo credits which would help you identify the person/archive holding this image.

The image below was found through Google Images and downloaded from the internet. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation,  classroom session, or paper/thesis, as follows:

how to cite a picture from a research paper

[Figure 2. This image shows the interior of Bibliotheca Alexandrina designed by the Norwegian architecture firm Snøhetta in 2001. Image downloaded from https://mgkhs.com/gallery/alexandria in March 2016.]

If you want to use this image in a published work, you will have to do your best to track down its source to request permission to use. The web site or social media site where you found the image may not be an appropriate source, since it is common for people to repost images without attribution. Just because "everyone does it" does not mean that you should be using such materials without attribution or documentation. In this specific example, you may need to write to the photographer or to the architecture firm. If you have done due diligence and were unable to find the source, or have not received a response, you may be able to use an image found on the internet with appropriate documentation in a publication.

The image below was downloaded from a digitized historic collection of photographs held by an institutional archive. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation,  classroom session, or paper/thesis, as follows:

how to cite a picture from a research paper

[Figure 3. In the 1920s the urban landscape of Los Angeles started to change, as various developers began building multi-family apartment houses in sections previously zoned for single family dwellings. Seen in this photograph by Dick Whittington is the Warrington apartment building, which was completed in 1928, surrounded by older single family structures. Downloaded from the USC Digital Library in February 2016]

I f you plan to use this photograph in a publication, seek permission from the library/institution from whose digital archive you downloaded the image. Contact information is usually found in the record for the image.

The image below was taken by the author. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation, classroom session , paper/thesis, or a publication* as follows:

how to cite a picture from a research paper

[Figure 4. Genex Tower, also known as West City Gate, is a residential tower located in New Belgrade. This example of late 20th century brutalist-style architecture was designed in 1977 by Mihajlo Mitrović. Photographed by the author in 2013.]

*Please note, if you re-photographed someone else's photograph or a work of art, or if you re-photographed a published image, you may not be able to publish your photograph without first seeking permission or credit for its content.  If you have done due diligence and were unable to find the source or have not received a response, you may be able to use your image with appropriate documentation.

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / MLA Format / How to Cite a Picture or Image in MLA

How to Cite a Picture or Image in MLA

Photograph – An image produced by a camera.

Citing a photograph or image displayed in a museum or institution (viewed in-person)

The citations below  are based on information from the MLA Style Center .

Works Cited
Structure

Creator’s Last Name, First Name. . Year Created, Museum/Institution, Location.

Example

Cartier-Bresson, Henri. . 1938, Museum of Modern Art, New York City.

View Screenshot | Cite your source

In-text Citations
Structure

(Creator’s Last Name)

Example

(Cartier-Bresson)

Citing a photograph or image from a museum or institution (viewed online)

Many museums have online collections of their work. The citations below  are based on information from the MLA Style Center .

Works Cited
Structure

Creator’s Last Name, First Name. I . Year Created. , Numbers (if applicable), URL.

Examples

Boudin, Eugene. . 1865. , www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/438551. 

Gilpin, Laura. . 1939. , no. LC-USZ62-102170, www.loc.gov/pictures/item/90716883/.

In-text Citations
Structure

(Creator’s Last Name)

Example

(Boudin)

(Gilpin)

Citing a digital image on a web page or online article

Digital Image – A picture that can be viewed electronically by a computer.

Here’s the standard structure for a digital image citation found on a website. It follows guidance found in the MLA Style Center .  

Works Cited
Structure

Image Creator’s Last Name, First Name. “Image Title.” , Day Month Year Published, URL.

Example

de Jong, Sidsel. Photograph of Munch’s . “The Scream’ is Fading. New Research Reveals Why” by Sophie Haigney, 7 Feb. 2020. , www.nytimes.com/2020/02/07/arts/design/the-scream-edvard-munch-science.html.

 View Screenshot | Cite your source

Image search: Do not cite the search engine (example: Google Images) where the image is found, but the website of the image the search engine indexes.

In-text Citations
Structure

(Web page author’s Last Name)

Example (de Jong)

Citing a photograph from a book

Works Cited
Structure

Image Creator’s Last, First M. . Year Created. by Book Author’s First Last Name, Publisher, year published, p. page(s).

Example

Ikemoto, Luna. . 2017. , by Wendy Prosser, Feline Press, 2020, p. 22.

In-text Citations
Structure

(Creator’s Last Name Page #)

Example

(Ikemoto 22)

Citing a photograph you took

The photo would be considered as part of a “personal collection.” The example below follows guidance found in the MLA Style Center .  

Works Cited
Structure

Your Last Name, First Name. Image description or . Day Month Year taken. Author’s personal collection.

Example

Doe, Jane. . 3 Jan. 2019. Author’s personal collection.

 

Smith, John. Cats being fed. 11 Aug. 2001. Author’s personal collection.

In-text Citations
Structure

(Your Last Name)

Example

(Doe)

(Smith)

Citing a photograph from a database

Works Cited
Structure

Creator’s Last Name, First Name. . Year Created. , Numbers (if applicable), URL.

Example

Freed, Leonard. . 1965.

  View Screenshot | Cite your source

In-text Citations
Structure

(Creator’s Last Name)

Example

(Freed)

MLA Handbook . 9th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2021.

Updated April 26, 2021.

MLA Formatting Guide

MLA Formatting

  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Bibliography
  • Block Quotes
  • et al Usage
  • In-text Citations
  • Paraphrasing
  • Page Numbers
  • Sample Paper
  • Works Cited
  • MLA 8 Updates
  • MLA 9 Updates
  • View MLA Guide

Citation Examples

  • Book Chapter
  • Journal Article
  • Magazine Article
  • Newspaper Article
  • Website (no author)
  • View all MLA Examples

how to cite a picture from a research paper

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To cite an image with no author in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the title or description, museum or website name, date, and URL if applicable. Templates and examples for in-text citations and works cited list entries for an image with no author (viewed online) are provided below:

In-text citation template and example:

For citations in prose and parenthetical citations, use the title of the image.

Citation in prose:

The photograph Robert Frank in Automobile ….

Parenthetical:

….( Robert Frank )

Works-cited-list entry template and example:

Viewed online:

Title of Photograph or Description. Date Published.  Name of Gallery/Museum or Website Name, URL.

Robert Frank in Automobile. 1958. National Gallery of Art, https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.89153.html.

To cite an image with no date in MLA style, you need to have basic information including the artist name, image title, and either the website where the image was viewed online or the museum or gallery name where it was viewed in person. If no date information is provided for an online image, omit the publication date details and instead provide the date you accessed it. Templates and examples for in-text citations and works cited list entries for an image with no date (viewed online and firsthand) are provided below:

For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the artist on the first occurrence. For subsequent citations, use only the surname. In parenthetical citations, always use only the surname of the artist.

First mention: Janet Cameron ….

Subsequent occurrences: Cameron ….

….(Cameron).

Viewed firsthand :

Artist Surname, First Name. Title of the Image. Name of the Museum or Gallery, Physical Location (Major City or City, State).

Muybridge, Eadweard. Attitudes of Animals in Motion . Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.

Viewed online :

Artist Surname, First Name. Title of the Image. Name of the Website , URL. Accessed Date.

Cameron, Janet. Who Was Cleopatra? Decoded Past , www.decodedpast.com/philosophy-2/ . Accessed 20 Sept. 2021.

MLA Citation Examples

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  • How to Cite an Image in Chicago Style | Format & Examples

How to Cite an Image in Chicago Style | Format & Examples

Published on May 25, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on April 9, 2024.

Chicago Citation Generator

In Chicago notes and bibliography style , it’s recommended to just cite images in notes, omitting them from the bibliography. List an image in your bibliography only if you cite it frequently,  if it’s essential to your argument, or if your university requires you to.

Follow the format shown below to create a note and—if necessary—a bibliography entry for an image viewed online. Make sure to cite the page where the image is hosted, not, for example, the Google search results where you found it.

Author last name, First name. Format description. Website Name. Month Day, Year. URL.

Cheng, Minder. . Photograph. Flickr. March 21, 2021. https://flic.kr/p/2kQcKZ3.

Author first name Last name, , Format description, Website Name, Month Day, Year, URL.

1. Minder Cheng,  , photograph, Flickr, March 21, 2021, https://flic.kr/p/2kQcKZ3.

Author last name .

2. Cheng, .

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Table of contents

Citing an artwork from a museum, citing an image from a book, image citations in chicago author-date style, frequently asked questions about chicago style citations.

When you viewed an artwork in person at a museum, gallery, or other location, provide information about the institution housing it. Include a URL if the museum website has a page dedicated to the artwork.

Author last name, First name. . Year. Format description. Institution Name, City. URL.

Goya, Francisco. . 1820–23. Mixed method on mural transferred to canvas. Museo Del Prado, Madrid. https://www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-drowning-dog/4ea6a3d1-00ee-49ee-b423-ab1c6969bca6.

Author first name Last name , Year, Format description, Institution Name, City, URL.

1. Francisco Goya,  , 1820–23, mixed method on mural transferred to canvas, Museo Del Prado, Madrid, https://www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-drowning-dog/4ea6a3d1-00ee-49ee-b423-ab1c6969bca6.

Author last name, .

2. Goya, .

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how to cite a picture from a research paper

An image you encountered in a book , journal article , or other print source should be cited by first listing information about the image itself, then listing information about the source it was contained in, including the page number where the image can be found.

Use italics for the title an image originally created outside the context of the book or article (e.g., an artwork) and quotation marks for the title of an image original to the book or article (e.g., an infographic). Use plain text to describe an untitled image.

An example citation of an artwork from a book is shown below.

Author last name, First name. . Year. In Author first name Last name, , Page number. City: Publisher, Year.

Bruegel, Pieter, the Elder. . 1564. In Rose-Marie Hagen and Rainer Hagen,  , 24. Cologne: Taschen, 2019.

Author first name Last name , Year, in Author first name last name (City: Publisher, Year), Page number.

1. Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  , 1564, in Rose-Marie Hagen and Rainer Hagen,  (Cologne: Taschen, 2019), 24.

Author last name, , Page number.

2. Bruegel,  , 24.

In Chicago author-date style , an in-text citation for an image consists of the author’s last name and the year the image was created.

These citations correspond to entries in your reference list. Reference list entries are similar to bibliography entries, except that the year comes immediately after the author’s name.

  • Online image
  • Museum artwork
  • Image from a book
Chicago author-date format Author last name, First name. Year. . Month Day, Year. Format description. Website Name. URL.
Cheng, Minder. 2021. . Photograph. Flickr. March 21, 2021. https://flic.kr/p/2kQcKZ3.
(Cheng 2021)
Chicago author-date format Author last name, First name. Year. . Format description. Institution Name, City.
Goya, Francisco. 1820–23. . Mixed method on mural transferred to canvas. Museo Del Prado, Madrid.
(Goya 1820–23)
Chicago author-date format Author last name, First name. Year.  . City: Publisher.
Hagen, Rose-Marie, and Rainer Hagen. 2019 . Cologne: Taschen.
(Pieter Bruegel the Elder,  , 1564, in Hagen and Hagen, 2019, 24)

In Chicago style , when you don’t just refer to an image but actually include it in your (research) paper , the image should be formatted as a figure. Place the figure before or after the first paragraph where it is mentioned. Refer to figures by their numbers in the text (e.g., “see fig. 1”).

Below the figure, place a caption providing the figure number followed by a period (e.g., “Figure 1.”), a reference to the source (if you didn’t create the image yourself), and any relevant information to help the reader understand the image (if needed).

The caption is single-spaced and left-aligned, and followed by a blank line before the continuation of the main text.

To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago reference generator .

In a Chicago footnote citation , when the author of a source is unknown (as is often the case with websites ), start the citation with the title in a full note. In short notes and bibliography entries, list the organization that published it as the author.

Type Example
Full note 1. “An Introduction to Research Methods,” Scribbr, accessed June 11, 2020, https://www.scribbr.com/category/methodology/.
Short note 2. Scribbr, “Research Methods.”
Bibliography Scribbr. “An Introduction to Research Methods.” Accessed June 11, 2020. https://www.scribbr.com/category/methodology/.

In Chicago author-date style , treat the organization as author in your in-text citations and reference list.

When an online source does not list a publication date, replace it with an access date in your Chicago footnotes and your bibliography :

If you are using author-date in-text citations , or if the source was not accessed online, replace the date with “n.d.”

In Chicago notes and bibliography style , the usual standard is to use a full note for the first citation of each source, and short notes for any subsequent citations of the same source.

However, your institution’s guidelines may differ from the standard rule. In some fields, you’re required to use a full note every time, whereas in some other fields you can use short notes every time, as long as all sources are listed in your bibliography . If you’re not sure, check with your instructor.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2024, April 09). How to Cite an Image in Chicago Style | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved July 5, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/chicago-style/image-citations/

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Can I copy an image from another paper (that I am citing)?

I am in the process of writing a paper on the results I have obtained recently. One of the steps where I have innovated is extracted from a paper published some years ago.

My idea for the paper was to compare the original method with my modifications and thus present the different results.

Is it generally accepted practice to simply copy the "results" image from the original paper (that I am extensively citing and discussing in mine)? Or should I somehow recreate it? (this last option is presenting some difficulties, as some implementation details* are not explicitely stated in the original paper and thus I cannot be 100% sure that my reproduction would be actually representative of what the authors originally did)

*: yes, we are speaking (also) about code

  • publications

ff524's user avatar

  • There are no rules for scientific writing that prevent you from copying the image (in fact, as a reader I would appreciate it), but you need to work out the possible copyright issues (which can be difficult even if you consult a lawyer) or get permission (which often is also not easy). That's why it's not common. –  user9482 Commented Mar 31, 2016 at 7:59
  • 1 Read from here as an example. –  Nikey Mike Commented May 13, 2016 at 11:47

You have two different questions: one in your title, regarding coping an image, and another regarding the results.

Copying a figure:

It depends on the license of the paper. If it is appropriately licensed (as with a Creative Commons Attribution license), you generally can, as long as you indicate it. If it is copyrighted, you are in the grey area of possible fair use. In these cases, the safest option is to contact the copyright holders (usually the publisher) and ask for permission.

Another option is to contact the authors and ask them for the raw data itself, so you can plot it yourself (so you keep a constant style across the paper), or ask them to regenerate it for you.

Using results:

The results are not copyrightable, so you can freely use them. If Smith et al, 2007 report an accuracy of 91%, and you get a 97%, you can freely put the numbers next to each other.

D.Salo's user avatar

  • maybe is not clear from my question, but the image in question contains the results (stated otherwise, it is a graphical representation of the results) –  Federico Commented Mar 31, 2016 at 7:58
  • 2 There are many countries which don't have a "fair use" concept. I'm not sure if an international publisher would accept fair use. –  user9482 Commented Mar 31, 2016 at 8:03
  • @Roland hence the grey area. –  Davidmh Commented Mar 31, 2016 at 9:32
  • 1 @ScottSeidman it can be argued that that would be a small quote or a criticism, so falling within fair use. But IANAL, and the publisher will likely want a safer standard. –  Davidmh Commented Mar 31, 2016 at 14:54
  • 1 @Diaa it will be somewhere pretty visible. But unless you see otherwise, you have to assume is copyrighted. You'd have to ask the journal you are going to publish. –  Davidmh Commented Aug 8, 2018 at 14:45

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how to cite a picture from a research paper

  • DOI: 10.36312/jolls.v4i1.1795
  • Corpus ID: 270816729

The Use of Picture-Based English Materials to Improve Students’ Vocabulary Mastery for States Elementary Schools

  • Muhsinin , Arif Rahaman , +2 authors Manu
  • Published in Journal of Language and… 20 March 2024

One Citation

Is traditional media still relevant in english language teaching: perceptions and challenges, 30 references, using flash card as instructional media to enrich the students' vocabulary mastery in learning english.

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Needs Analysis on Developing Mobile-Phone Based Learning Materials to Accelerate Students’ Mastery of English Vocabulary

Vocabulary learning strategies vis-a- vis vocabulary teaching strategies, digital storytelling as an alternative teaching technique to develop vocabulary knowledge of efl learners, developing comic strips in teaching vocabulary for efl students, developing the prototype of picture-based learning materials in the teaching of speaking skills, pictures as a learning media in teaching vocabulary, fun english to increase vocabulary and motivation for kindergarten children of santa rita cassia, kefamenanu-ttu, the use of squid game simulation for challenging students' vocabulary mastery, efl students’ perceptions of the effective english teacher characteristics, related papers.

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Neural Representations of Sensory Uncertainty and Confidence are Associated with Perceptual Curiosity

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Humans are immensely curious and motivated to reduce uncertainty, but little is known about the neural mechanisms that generate curiosity. Curiosity is inversely associated with confidence, suggesting that it is triggered by states of low confidence (subjective uncertainty). The neural mechanisms of this process, however, have been little investigated. What are the mechanisms through which uncertainty about an event gives rise to curiosity about that event? Inspired by studies of sensory uncertainty, we hypothesized that visual areas provide multivariate representations of uncertainty, which are then read out by higher-order structures to generate signals of confidence and, ultimately, trigger curiosity. During fMRI, participants (17 female, 15 male) performed a new task in which they rated their confidence in identifying distorted images of animals and objects and their curiosity to see the clear image. To link sensory certainty and curiosity, we measured the activity evoked by each image in occipitotemporal cortex (OTC) and devised a new metric of “OTC Certainty” indicating the strength of evidence this activity conveys about the animal vs. object categories. We show that, consistent with findings using trivia questions, perceptual curiosity peaked at low confidence. Moreover, OTC Certainty negatively correlated with curiosity, establishing a link between curiosity and a multivariate representation of sensory uncertainty. Finally, univariate (average) activity in two frontal areas – vmPFC and ACC – correlated positively with confidence and negatively with curiosity, and the vmPFC mediated the relationship between OTC Certainty and curiosity. The results suggest that multiple mechanisms link curiosity with representations of confidence and uncertainty.

Significance Statement Curiosity motivates us to explore and learn about the world around us. Traditional perspectives hypothesize that curiosity arises from variability in confidence, but the neural mechanisms by which this occurs have been difficult to evaluate. Here, we harness the human visual system to uncover a neural mechanism of curiosity. We show that a multivariate representation of certainty in occitotemporal cortex is transformed into a univariate representation of confidence in prefrontal cortex to facilitate curiosity. Together, these results illuminate how perceptual input is transformed by successive neural representations to ultimately evoke a feeling of curiosity - elucidating how and why we become curious to learn and delve into diverse domains of knowledge.

The research described in this paper was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health as part of the National Research Service Award (Grant #:1F31MH125589), and the Zuckerman Institute MR Seed Grant Award (Grant #: CU-ZI-MR-S-0017) both awarded to Michael Cohanpour. We thank the Alyssano Group, Gottlieb Lab, Kriegeskorte Lab, Christopher Baldassano, Janet Metcalfe, and Yasmine El-Shamayleh for their valuable insight on this project; Ray Lee and Noreen Violante for their technical support with the MRI scanner; and Serra Favila, Heiko Schütt, and Javier Domínguez Zamora for their crucial revisions to the manuscript.

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Computer Science > Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition

Title: benerf: neural radiance fields from a single blurry image and event stream.

Abstract: Neural implicit representation of visual scenes has attracted a lot of attention in recent research of computer vision and graphics. Most prior methods focus on how to reconstruct 3D scene representation from a set of images. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility to recover the neural radiance fields (NeRF) from a single blurry image and its corresponding event stream. We model the camera motion with a cubic B-Spline in SE(3) space. Both the blurry image and the brightness change within a time interval, can then be synthesized from the 3D scene representation given the 6-DoF poses interpolated from the cubic B-Spline. Our method can jointly learn both the implicit neural scene representation and recover the camera motion by minimizing the differences between the synthesized data and the real measurements without pre-computed camera poses from COLMAP. We evaluate the proposed method with both synthetic and real datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that we are able to render view-consistent latent sharp images from the learned NeRF and bring a blurry image alive in high quality. Code and data are available at this https URL .
Comments: Accepted to ECCV 2024
Subjects: Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (cs.CV)
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VALNet: Vision-Based Autonomous Landing with Airport Runway Instance Segmentation

  • Wang, Qiang
  • Feng, Wenquan
  • Zhao, Hongbo
  • Liu, Binghao
  • Lyu, Shuchang

Visual navigation, characterized by its autonomous capabilities, cost effectiveness, and robust resistance to interference, serves as the foundation for vision-based autonomous landing systems. These systems rely heavily on runway instance segmentation, which accurately divides runway areas and provides precise information for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) navigation. However, current research primarily focuses on runway detection but lacks relevant runway instance segmentation datasets. To address this research gap, we created the Runway Landing Dataset (RLD), a benchmark dataset that focuses on runway instance segmentation mainly based on X-Plane. To overcome the challenges of large-scale changes and input image angle differences in runway instance segmentation tasks, we propose a vision-based autonomous landing segmentation network (VALNet) that uses band-pass filters, where a Context Enhancement Module (CEM) guides the model to learn adaptive "band" information through heatmaps, while an Orientation Adaptation Module (OAM) of a triple-channel architecture to fully utilize rotation information enhances the model's ability to capture input image rotation transformations. Extensive experiments on RLD demonstrate that the new method has significantly improved performance. The visualization results further confirm the effectiveness and interpretability of VALNet in the face of large-scale changes and angle differences. This research not only advances the development of runway instance segmentation but also highlights the potential application value of VALNet in vision-based autonomous landing systems. Additionally, RLD is publicly available.

  • vision-based autonomous landing;
  • instance segmentation;
  • band-pass filtering;
  • heatmap guided

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IMAGES

  1. How to Cite a Research Paper in APA (with Pictures)

    how to cite a picture from a research paper

  2. How to Cite a Picture in MLA

    how to cite a picture from a research paper

  3. How To Cite A Picture In Mla

    how to cite a picture from a research paper

  4. Research Paper Citing Help

    how to cite a picture from a research paper

  5. How to Cite a Photograph in MLA 7

    how to cite a picture from a research paper

  6. How To Cite a Research Paper: Citation Styles Guide

    how to cite a picture from a research paper

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COMMENTS

  1. How to Cite an Image

    Citing an image in APA Style. In an APA Style reference entry for an image found on a website, write the image title in italics, followed by a description of its format in square brackets. Include the name of the site and the URL. The APA in-text citation just includes the photographer's name and the year. APA format. Author last name, Initials.

  2. How to Cite an Image in APA Style

    An APA image citation includes the creator's name, the year, the image title and format (e.g. painting, photograph, map), and the location where you accessed or viewed the image. Last name, Initials. ( Year ). Image title [ Format ]. Site Name. or Museum, Location. URL.

  3. How to Cite Images

    1. Some sites, such as Creative Commons and Wikimedia, include the citation information with the image. Use that citation when available. Copy the citation and add under the image. For example, an image of a lake from Creative Commons has this citation next to it: "lake" by barnyz is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. 2.

  4. How to Cite a Picture or Image in APA

    Citing vs. 'reproducing' This guide provides information on how to cite images and photographs. However, reproducing the image inside of your essay or research paper might require additional permissions and/or attributions. Section 12.15 of the Publication Manual provides more information on reproducing images and graphics.

  5. How to Cite an Image in MLA

    If you include an image directly in your paper, it should be labeled "Fig." (short for "Figure"), given a number, and presented in the MLA figure format. Directly below the image, place a centered caption starting with the figure label and number (e.g. "Fig. 2"), then a period. For the rest of the caption, you have two options:

  6. APA Citation Guide (7th edition) : Images, Charts, Graphs, Maps & Tables

    Citing Information From an Image, Chart, Table or Graph. If you refer to information from an image, chart, table or graph, but do not reproduce it in your paper, create a citation both in-text and on your Reference list. If the information is part of another format, for example a book, magazine article, encyclopedia, etc., cite the work it came ...

  7. APA 7th: Images, tables and figures

    In-Text Citation. Reference List & Notes. Copied Image (reproduced within the document) For Figure 2 Pilotus Flowers (Family Amaranthaceae) Example: Species such as the Pilotus flower (Figure 2) are ideal for weed control due to their spreading habit. Note: No need to cite the author of an image when you refer to an image figure within your text.

  8. Research Guides: APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Figures/Images

    In-Text Citation (Quotation) - entry that appears in the body of your paper after a direct quote. References - entry that appears at the end of your paper. Information on citing and several of the examples were drawn from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

  9. Research Guides: APA Citation Style Guide (7th Edition): Images

    Citing an image in-text: To cite an image you found online, use the image title or a general description in your text, and then cite it using the first element in the works cited entry and date. Examples: The Dream (Rousseau, 1910) baffled art critics when it debuted, mere months before the artist's death in September of that year.

  10. How to Cite Images, Tables and Diagrams

    The pages outlines examples of how to cite images, tables and diagrams using the Harvard Referencing method. An image found online. In-text citations. Mention the image in the text and cite the author and date: The cartoon by Frith (1968) describes ... If the image has no named author, cite the full name and date of the image:

  11. APA 7th Ed. Image & Artwork Citation

    Image Use & Citation If you use an image in your work, you must cite it. This includes papers, presentations, theses/dissertations, publications, blogs, etc. Learn to use and cite images correctly.

  12. How to Cite Images, Graphs & Tables in a Research Paper

    You can cite images in your research paper either at the end, in between the topics, or in a separate section for all the non-textual elements used in the paper. You can choose to insert images in between texts, but you need to provide the in-text citations for every image that has been used. Additionally, you need to attach the name ...

  13. How to Cite an Image

    How to Cite an Image. To create a basic works-cited-list entry for an image, list the creator of the image, the title of the image, the date of composition, and the location of the image, which would be a physical location if you viewed the image in person. If you viewed the image online, provide the name of the website containing the image and ...

  14. Citing tables, figures & images: APA (7th ed.) citation guide

    Introduction. Tables and figures (includes images) follow similar set up and formatting. The guidelines below focus on common examples used by students for academic papers.For details on creating tables or figures for submission to journals or graduate theses, see APA's Tables and figures or consult the guide directly (Section 7, pp. 195-250). ...

  15. How to Cite an Image: Referencing a Picture From a Website

    Yes, there is a difference in citing images from websites and books. When citing an image from a website, you typically need to include the author's name, the date the image was published or accessed, the title of the image, the format (e.g., photograph, digital image), the website name, and the URL. For images in books, the citation should ...

  16. I'd like to use a figure from a paper; what's the best way to do this?

    You must cite and acknowledge any published materials that you make re-use of . Examples: Diagrams/figures from an existing paper . Extracted and re-used => must get permission from author/publisher (copyright owner) and cite and acknowledge . Redrawn with modifications => should cite and indicated "adapted from" or "based on"

  17. Documenting and Citing Images

    The image below was found through Google Images and downloaded from the internet. It can be used in a critical context within a presentation, classroom session, or paper/thesis, as follows: [Figure 2. This image shows the interior of Bibliotheca Alexandrina designed by the Norwegian architecture firm Snøhetta in 2001. Image downloaded from ...

  18. How to Cite a Picture or Image in MLA

    Here's the standard structure for a digital image citation found on a website. It follows guidance found in the MLA Style Center. Works Cited. Structure. Image Creator's Last Name, First Name. "Image Title.". Website Name, Day Month Year Published, URL. Example. de Jong, Sidsel.

  19. How to cite self-created images or pictures in thesis

    Cite your own work just like you'd cite someone else's. Without citation you're suggesting originality. A reader knows when an author cites their own work. The author of both works are the same (or overlapping). There's no need to be explicit (by stating, for instance, in my earlier work), unless it is useful.

  20. How to Cite an Image in Chicago Style

    Citing an image from a book. An image you encountered in a book, journal article, or other print source should be cited by first listing information about the image itself, then listing information about the source it was contained in, including the page number where the image can be found.. Use italics for the title an image originally created outside the context of the book or article (e.g ...

  21. Can I copy an image from another paper (that I am citing)?

    7. You have two different questions: one in your title, regarding coping an image, and another regarding the results. Copying a figure: It depends on the license of the paper. If it is appropriately licensed (as with a Creative Commons Attribution license), you generally can, as long as you indicate it. If it is copyrighted, you are in the grey ...

  22. The Use of Picture-Based English Materials to Improve Students

    The research aimed to find out improving students' vocabulary mastery by using pictures. This research was conducted by using Classroom Action Research (CAR). The subject of this research was grade III of MIN 2 Mataram 2023/2024 academic year which consisted of 35 students consisting of 20 female and 15 male. The object of this research was to improve the students' vocabulary mastery ...

  23. Neural Representations of Sensory Uncertainty and Confidence are

    Footnotes. The research described in this paper was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health as part of the National Research Service Award (Grant #:1F31MH125589), and the Zuckerman Institute MR Seed Grant Award (Grant #: CU-ZI-MR-S-0017) both awarded to Michael Cohanpour.

  24. [2407.02174] BeNeRF: Neural Radiance Fields from a Single Blurry Image

    Neural implicit representation of visual scenes has attracted a lot of attention in recent research of computer vision and graphics. Most prior methods focus on how to reconstruct 3D scene representation from a set of images. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility to recover the neural radiance fields (NeRF) from a single blurry image and its corresponding event stream. We model the ...

  25. VALNet: Vision-Based Autonomous Landing with Airport Runway Instance

    Visual navigation, characterized by its autonomous capabilities, cost effectiveness, and robust resistance to interference, serves as the foundation for vision-based autonomous landing systems. These systems rely heavily on runway instance segmentation, which accurately divides runway areas and provides precise information for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) navigation. However, current research ...