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How to Reference a Person With a PhD

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As you have probably noticed, many authors of books and articles are learned individuals who have received doctorates. Therefore, you may sometimes find that you need to cite authors who have the suffix "Ph.D." listed after their names. However, if you listed "Ph.D." after the name of every author who had one, your term paper would quickly devolve into alphabet soup. Both American Psychological Association (APA) and Modern Language Association (MLA) styles agree on this point: never include the suffix "Ph.D." after an author's name when you are citing sources.

Omit the suffix "Ph.D." from the author's name when citing sources in your reference list. For example, a book authored by Jordan Jones, Ph.D. would be listed as being authored by Jordan Jones. In MLA style this would appear as: Jones, Jordan. In APA style, this would appear as: Jones, J.

Omit as well any titles such as "Ph.D." from the names of translators, editors, or any other names that might appear in your reference list entries.

Omit titles such as "Ph.D." from your in-text citations as well. Use only the last names of authors, editors and other persons in parenthetical citations. In MLA style, an in-text citation for the work of Jordan Jones, Ph.D. should appear as follows: (Jones 86). In APA, the same citation should appear as follows: (Jones, 2009, p. 86).

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How to cite a PhD thesis in APA

APA PhD thesis citation

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To cite a PhD thesis in a reference entry in APA style 6th edition include the following elements:

  • Author(s) of the thesis: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to seven authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For eight or more authors include the first six names followed by an ellipsis (…) and add the last author's name.
  • Year of publication: Give the year in brackets followed by a full stop.
  • Title of the PhD thesis: Only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns are capitalized.
  • URL: Give the full URL where the document can be retrieved from.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a PhD thesis in APA style 6th edition:

Author(s) of the thesis . ( Year of publication ). Title of the PhD thesis (PhD thesis). Retrieved from URL

If the thesis is available from a database, archive or any online platform use the following template:

  • Author(s) of the thesis: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to 20 authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For 21 or more authors include the first 19 names followed by an ellipsis (…) and add the last author's name.
  • Publication number: Give the identification number of the thesis, if available.
  • Name of the degree awarding institution: Give the name of the institution.
  • Name of Platform: Give the name of the database, archive or any platform that holds the thesis.
  • URL: If the thesis was found on a database, omit this element.

Here is the basic format for a reference list entry of a PhD thesis in APA style 7th edition:

Author(s) of the thesis . ( Year of publication ). Title of the PhD thesis ( Publication number ) [PhD thesis, Name of the degree awarding institution ]. Name of Platform . URL

If the thesis has not been published or is available from a database use the following template:

  • Location: Give the location of the institution. If outside the United States also include the country name.

Author(s) of the thesis . ( Year of publication ). Title of the PhD thesis (Unpublished PhD thesis). Name of the degree awarding institution , Location .

If the thesis is not published, use the following template:

Author(s) of the thesis . ( Year of publication ). Title of the PhD thesis [Unpublished PhD thesis]. Name of the degree awarding institution .

APA reference list examples

Take a look at our reference list examples that demonstrate the APA style guidelines for a PhD thesis citation in action:

A PhD thesis found in an online platform

Confait, M. F . ( 2018 ). Maximising the contributions of PhD graduates to national development: The case of the Seychelles ( PhD thesis ). Retrieved from https://ro.ecu.edu.au/theses/2060
Confait, M. F . ( 2018 ). Maximising the contributions of PHD graduates to national development: The case of the Seychelles [ PhD thesis , Edith Cowan University ]. Edith Cowan Online Repository . Retrieved from https://ro.ecu.edu.au/theses/2060

An unpublished PhD thesis

Bowkett, D . ( 2015 ). Investigating the ligandability of plant homeodomains ( Unpublished PhD thesis ). University of Oxford , London, UK .
Bowkett, D . ( 2015 ). Investigating the ligandability of plant homeodomains [ Unpublished PhD thesis ]. University of Oxford .

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This citation style guide is based on the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association ( 6 th edition).

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How to Cite Doctors in APA

Although you may think explaining that an author of one of your research paper's sources holds a professional degree like Doctor of Medicine, the American Psychological Association, or APA, style does not include indications such as M.D. in either in-text citations or the references list at the end.

Formatting Requirements

In APA style, in-text citations include only the author's last name along with the date. First initials only appear if you have multiple authors with the same last name. Therefore, no professional degree indications appear.

A citation from a doctor would look like this: (Hazu, 2014). You may instead include information within a signal phrase to indicate the source's expertise, such as, "Dr. Hazu, an internist with 30 years' experience at the Mayo Clinic, disagrees."

Likewise, no indication of the doctor's professional degree appears on the references entry. The entry for Dr. Hazu would follow this structure:

Hazu, D. (2014). Pandemics in the 21st century. American Medical Journal, 13 (3), 24-29.

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Kristie Sweet has been writing professionally since 1982, most recently publishing for various websites on topics like health and wellness, and education. She holds a Master of Arts in English from the University of Northern Colorado.

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How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition) | Guide & Generator

APA 7th edition publication manual

This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020). Scribbr also offers free guides for the older APA 6th edition , MLA Style , and Chicago Style .

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Table of contents

Apa in-text citations, apa references, formatting the apa reference page, free lecture slides, frequently asked questions.

In-text citations are brief references in the running text that direct readers to the reference entry at the end of the paper. You include them every time you quote or paraphrase someone else’s ideas or words to avoid plagiarism .

An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). If you’re citing a specific part of a source, you should also include a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example: (Smith, 2020, p. 170) .

Parenthetical vs. narrative citation

The in-text citation can take two forms: parenthetical and narrative. Both types are generated automatically when citing a source with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator.

  • Parenthetical citation: According to new research … (Smith, 2020) .
  • Narrative citation: Smith (2020) notes that …

Multiple authors and corporate authors

The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. Pay attention to punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&) symbol.

Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
One author (Smith, 2020) Smith (2020)
Two authors (Smith & Jones, 2020) Smith and Jones (2020)
Three or more authors (Smith et al., 2020) Smith et al. (2020)
Organization (Scribbr, 2020) Scribbr (2020)

Missing information

When the author, publication date or locator is unknown, take the steps outlined below.

Missing element What to do Parenthetical citation
Author Use the source title.* ( , 2020)
Date Write “n.d.” for “no date”. (Smith, n.d.)
Page number Either use an or
omit the page number.
(Smith, 2020, Chapter 3) or
(Smith, 2020)

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how to cite someone with a phd in apa

APA references generally include information about the author , publication date , title , and source . Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.

Reference examples

Citing a source starts with choosing the correct reference format. Use Scribbr’s Citation Example Generator to learn more about the format for the most common source types. Pay close attention to punctuation, capitalization, and italicization.

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It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online. In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted.

Missing element What to do Reference format
Author Start the reference entry with the source title. Title. (Date). Source.
Date Write “n.d.” for “no date”. Author. (n.d.). Title. Source.
Title Describe the work in square brackets. Author. (Date). [Description]. Source.

APA Reference Page (7th edition)

On the first line of the page, write the section label “References” (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order .

Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page:

  • Double spacing (within and between references)
  • Hanging indent of ½ inch
  • Legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11)
  • Page number in the top right header

Which sources to include

On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text (with an in-text citation ). You should not include references to personal communications that your reader can’t access (e.g. emails, phone conversations or private online material).

Are you a teacher or professor looking to introduce your students to APA Style? Download our free introductory lecture slides, available for Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.

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When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a company’s website—use the organization’s name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations .

When no author at all can be determined—e.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.

When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation . If there are no page numbers (e.g. when citing a website ) but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:

(Caulfield, 2019, Linking section, para. 1).

Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable.

If you are referring to the source as a whole, it’s not necessary to include a page number or other marker.

The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:

Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).

APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources.

However, if you are citing a website or online article that’s designed to change over time, it’s a good idea to include an access date. In this case, write it in the following format at the end of the reference: Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html

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Q. How do I reference a PhD dissertation or MA thesis in APA style?

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Answered By: Theresa Bell (she/her/hers) Last Updated: Nov 04, 2021     Views: 65135

APA Style (7th ed.)

Unpublished print dissertations/theses retrieved from university

Author, A. (year). Title of dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation OR master's thesis]. Name of Institution.

  • In-text citation: (Author, year, p. X)
  • See pages 333-334 in the APA Style manual for information and examples.

Published dissertation/thesis retrieved from online database

Dissertation

Author, A. (year). Title of dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Granting Award]. Database Name.

Myers, S. (2018). In British Columbia's nature programs where hearts are rooted: A multiple case study of nature education in early childhood education [Doctoral dissertation, Royal Roads University]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global.

  • In-text citation: (Myers, 2018, p. 45)

Author, A. (year). Title of thesis [Master's thesis, Name of Institution Granting Award]. Database Name.

Dawson, N. M. (2019). ła w eyasens gayułas: Ancestral teachings to reclaim the roles of Kwakwaka'wakw women in governance and leadership [Master's thesis, Royal Roads University]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global.

  • In-text citation: (Dawson, 2019, p. 60)

Published dissertation/thesis retrieved from university archive or personal website

Author, A. (year). Title of thesis [Master's thesis, Name of Institution Granting Award]. URL of university archive or personal website

M a nuel, R. (2017). Like semaphore in the dark: There must be a better way to communicate [Master's thesis, Royal Roads University]. VIURRSpace. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/17238/Manuel_royalroads_1313O_10623.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

  • In-text citation: (Manuel, 2017, p. 39)

American Psychological Association. (2020).  Publication manual of the American Psychological Association  (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

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Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

In this citation guide, you will learn how to reference and cite an undergraduate thesis, master’s thesis, or doctoral dissertation. This guide will also review the differences between a thesis or dissertation that is published and one that has remained unpublished. The guidelines below come from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020a), pages 333 and 334. Please note that the association is not affiliated with this guide.

Alternatively, you can visit EasyBib.com for helpful citation tools to cite your thesis or dissertation .

Guide Overview

Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation, citing a published dissertation or thesis from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation: reference overview, what you need.

Since unpublished theses can usually only be sourced in print form from a university library, the correct citation structure includes the university name where the publisher element usually goes.

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case [Unpublished degree type thesis or dissertation]. Name of institution.

Ames, J. H., & Doughty, L. H. (1911). The proposed plans for the Iowa State College athletic field including the design of a reinforced concrete grandstand and wall [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. Iowa State University.

In-text citation example:

  • Parenthetical :  (Ames & Doughty, 1911)
  • Narrative :  Ames & Doughty (1911)

If a thesis or dissertation has been published and is found on a database, then follow the structure below. It’s similar to the format for an unpublished dissertation/thesis, but with a few differences:

  • The institution is presented in brackets after the title
  • The archive or database name is included

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case (Publication or Document No.) [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Database name.

Examples 1:

Knight, K. A. (2011). Media epidemics: Viral structures in literature and new media (Accession No. 2013420395) [Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Example dissertation-thesis

Trotman, J.B. (2018). New insights into the biochemistry and cell biology of RNA recapping (Document No. osu1523896565730483) [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center.

In the example given above, the dissertation is presented with a Document Number (Document No.). Sometimes called a database number or publication number, this is the identifier that is used by the database’s indexing system. If the database you are using provides you with such a number, then include it directly after the work’s title in parentheses.

If you are interested in learning more about how to handle works that were accessed via academic research databases, see Section 9.3 of the Publication Manual.

In-text citation examples :

  • Parenthetical citation : (Trotman, 2018)
  • Narrative citation : Trotman (2018)

Author’s last name, F. M. (Year Published). Title in sentence case [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Name of archive or collection. URL

Kim, O. (2019). Soviet tableau: cinema and history under late socialism [Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh]. Institutional Repository at the University of Pittsburgh. https://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/37669/7/Olga%20Kim%20Final%20ETD.pdf

Stiles, T. W. (2001). Doing science: Teachers’ authentic experiences at the Lone Star Dinosaur Field Institute [Master’s thesis, Texas A&M University]. OAKTrust. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2001-THESIS-S745

It is important to note that not every thesis or dissertation published online will be associated with a specific archive or collection. If the work is published on a private website, provide only the URL as the source element.

In-text citation examples:

  • Parenthetical citation : (Kim, 2019)
  • Narrative citation : Kim (2019)
  • Parenthetical citation : (Stiles, 2001)
  • Narrative citation : Stiles (2001)
Unpublished Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year Published). [Unpublished degree type thesis or dissertation]. Name of institution Ames, J.H., & Doughty, L.H (1911). [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. Iowa State University.
Published from a database Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year Published). (Publication or Document No.) [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Database name. Trotman, J.B. (2018). (Document No. osu1523896565730483) [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University]. OhioLINK Electronic Thesis & Dissertations Center
Published online but not from a database Author last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year Published). [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Name of archive or collection. URL Kim, O. (2019). [Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh]. Institutional Repository at the University of Pittsburgh. http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/37669/7/Olga%20Kim%20Final%20ETD.pdf

dissertation and thesis Citations for APA 7

We hope that the information provided here will serve as an effective guide for your research. If you’re looking for even more citation info, visit EasyBib.com for a comprehensive collection of educational materials covering multiple source types.

If you’re citing a variety of different sources, consider taking the EasyBib citation generator for a spin. It can help you cite easily and offers citation forms for several different kinds of sources.

To start things off, let’s take a look at the different types of literature that are classified under Chapter 10.6 of the Publication Manual :

  • Undergraduate thesis
  • Master’s thesis
  • Doctoral dissertation

You will need to know which type you are citing. You’ll also need to know if it is published or unpublished .

When you decide to cite a dissertation or thesis, you’ll need to look for the following information to use in your citation:

  • Author’s last name, and first and middle initials
  • Year published
  • Title of thesis or dissertation
  • If it is unpublished
  • Publication or document number (if applicable; for published work)
  • Degree type (bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral)
  • Thesis or dissertation
  • Name of institution awarding degree
  • DOI (https://doi.org/xxxxx) or URL (if applicable)

Since theses and dissertations are directly linked to educational degrees, it is necessary to list the name of the associated institution; i.e., the college, university, or school that is awarding the associated degree.

To get an idea of the proper form, take a look at the examples below. There are three outlined scenarios:

  • Unpublished thesis or dissertation
  • Published thesis or dissertation from a database
  • Thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database

American Psychological Association. (2020a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

American Psychological Association. (2020b). Style-Grammar-Guidelines. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/parenthetical-versus-narrative

Published August 10, 2012. Updated March 24, 2020.

Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.

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To cite a published thesis in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, publication year, title of the thesis, institute name, archive name, and URL (uniform resource locator). The templates for an in-text citation and reference list entry of a thesis, along with examples, are given below:

In-text citation template and example:

Use the author surname and the publication year in the in-text citation.

Author Surname (Publication Year)

Cartmel (2007)

Parenthetical:

(Author Surname, Publication Year)

(Cartmel, 2007)

Reference list entry template and example:

The title of the thesis is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose the thesis and the institute awarding the degree inside brackets following the publication year. Then add the name of the database followed by the URL.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the thesis [Master’s thesis, Institute Name]. Name of the Database. URL

Cartmel, J. (2007). Outside school hours care and schools [Master’s thesis, Queensland University of Technology]. EPrints. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/17810/1/Jennifer_Cartmel_Thesis.pdf

To cite an unpublished dissertation in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, year, title of the dissertation, and institute name. The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of an online thesis, along with examples, are given below:

Author Surname (Year)

Averill (2009)

(Author Surname, Year)

(Averill, 2009)

The title of the dissertation is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose “Unpublished doctoral dissertation” inside brackets following the year. Then add the name of the institution awarding the degree.

Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of the Institute.

Averill, R. (2009). Teacher–student relationships in diverse New Zealand year 10 mathematics classrooms: Teacher care [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Victoria University of Wellington.

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Dissertation or thesis available from a database service:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of publication).  Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis).  Retrieved from Name of database.  (Accession or Order No.)

For an unpublished dissertation or thesis:

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of creation).  Title of dissertation or thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis).  Name of Institution, Location.

Thesis, from a commercial database

Nicometo, D. N. (2015). (Order No. 1597712). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1717577238).

Dissertation, from an institutional database

Andrea, H. (2014). (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

Unpublished master’s thesis

Curry, J.  (2016).  (Unpublished master’s thesis).  Pacific Oaks College, Pasadena, CA.

See Ch 7 pp. 207-208 APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules

Formatting:

  • Italicize the title
  • Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title
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About this Page

This page contains information on the style and format of papers according to APA 7th edition using the Concise Guide to APA Style: The Official APA Style for Students .

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  • APA Style and Grammar Guidelines

APA Style papers should have the same style and size of font throughout the text of the paper (title page to reference page). APA considers the following fonts acceptable: 11- point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode, 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or 10-point Computer Modern. It is recommended that you check with your instructor to see if they have a preferred font style.

(See section 1.18 of the Concise Guide to APA Style )

The first line of every paragraph in the text of your paper and every reference on your reference page is indented (hit the tab key once). The remaining lines are left flush with the left-hand margin of the paper (this is known as a "hanging indent").

Other Format Guidelines

Page numbers : Title page through reference pages are numbered using Arabic numerals;  place each number in the top right corner of the page.

Running heads: Are NOT required in student papers, but you should still check with your instructor to see if they wish them to be used.

Dashes: APA uses em dashes (long dash) and en dashes (short dash). See section 4.6 of the Concise Guide to APA Style for more information.

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Lines and Margins

APA Style papers should have double-spaced text throughout the entire paper (including quotations and references). To make your paper double-spaced in Microsoft Word, highlight the text you want double-spaced, and then click Layout . Next, click on the arrow to the right of the word Paragraph (a pop-up appears). From the drop-down menu under Line Spacing , select Double (default choice is Multiple ) and click OK .

APA Style papers use 1 inch margins all around (top to bottom and left to right). Margins in Microsoft Word are set to 1 inch by default. If you are unsure, you can check your margins by clicking Layout, and clicking Margins. Once the drop-down menu appears, make sure Normal is selected to ensure you have 1 inch margins all around your paper.

(See sections 1.20 and 1.21 of the Concise Guide to APA Style )

APA Style recommends ONE space after a period when the period ends a sentence, separates parts of a reference list entry, or follows initials in names (J.B. Jones).

Do NOT put a space after a period when the period is part of an internal abbreviations (U.S. or a.m.)

Do NOT use periods for the abbreviation of state, province, or territory names (AZ; KS; BC); capital letter abbreviations and acronyms (APA, AMA, EPA); for abbreviations of academic degrees (PhD, MD, DO); or for abbreviations of metric and nonmetric measurements (cm, hr, kg,). Note: Use a period when abbreviating "inch" or "inches" (in.) or else it could be misread.

(See sections 4.1 and 4.2 of the Concise Guide to APA Style )

Sentence Case vs. Title Case

Sentence case is where most words in a sentence are going to be lower case.

The EXCEPTIONS are the first word in a title, heading, or sub-title ; proper nouns ; the first word after an em dash, semi-colon, or end punctuation; and any noun followed by a letter or number.

Title case is where major words are capitalized while minor words are lower case.

In APA style, major words are nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, or any word that is four letters or longer.

Minor words are articles, short prepositions, and conjunctions that are three letters or less.

(See section 5.7 of the Concise Guide to APA Style )

Paraphrasing

Refers to restating someone else's ideas or findings into your own words. Paraphrasing allows you to summarize information from one or more sources, compare and contrast information from multiple sources, and focus on the most important information from each source.

It is BEST to paraphrase information whenever possible rather than using direct quotations.

Paraphrased information must be cited in-text with either a parenthetical or narrative citation.

(See sections 8.23 and 8.24 of the Concise Guide to APA Style)

Reproduce words EXACTLY as written from another work (including your own). Quotations are best used in papers for when you want to reproduce an exact definition, when an author of a work has said something memorable, or when you want to respond to the exact wording (something someone said) from an author in your paper.

When not using a quotation for one of the above reasons, it is best to paraphrase information. Additionally, you should check with your instructor to see if they limit the number of quotations you are allowed to use.

Quotations must be cited in-text with either a parenthetical or narrative citation.

Short quotations consist of 40 words or less and should be incorporated into the text of your paper with quotation marks.

Long quotations consists of 40 words or more and do not use quotations marks. Instead, they should be incorporated into your paper as a block quotation. Block quotations begin on a new line, are double-spaced, and are indented 0.5 inches from the left hand margin of your paper.

(See sections 8.25 - 8.33 of the Concise Guide to APA Style)

Heading Levels

Heading Levels or "headings" are a way to organize information in APA papers and convey it clearly ( think of headings as "sections" and "subsections"). There are five levels of headings in APA Style, although for undergraduates it is rare to need to go past a Level 2 headings. If you are unsure if you need to use headings, check with your instructor.

Level Headings
Levels Format Text
1 Text begins as a new paragraph.
2 Text begins as a new paragraph.
3 Text begins as a new paragraph.
4 Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph.
5 Text begins on the same line and continues as a regular paragraph.

Note: Do NOT label an introduction as "Introduction" in APA papers. The title of your paper acts as a de facto Level 1 Heading.

(See section 1.26 of the Concise Guide to APA Style)

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how to cite someone with a phd in apa

Are titles such as doctor included in author's name on the References page?

Author titles such as MD and PhD are not included on the References page or in-text citations in APA Style.

From the APA Blog:

If mentioning an author’s academic credentials or professional title in the text because it is relevant to the discussion, use the format without periods (for example PhD, not Ph.D.)

  • Titles may be used in the body of the paper, according to some Instructors at Baker College.
  • If the professor at your college says otherwise, follow their advice.

For more examples of APA style, visit the   APA Help guide.

Thank you for using ASK US. For further assistance, please contact your Baker librarians .

  • Last Updated May 09, 2023
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Comments (4)

  • The answer given about the use of titles in text has been difficult to find. A professor at a different college told me to never use authors titles such as "PhD" or "Dr." However, this site states otherwise. Is information about the use of titles in text on an APA website so that I can check for verification? Thanks! by Mary-Ann on Apr 17, 2017
  • You are correct that titles are not used in APA for in-text citations or on the References page. A faculty person in the English department at Baker College said that titles may be used in the body of the paper if you wish, but if your professor says otherwise, follow his or her advice. by ASK US on Apr 18, 2017
  • What about situations in evaluations when you are noting how a patient was seen by a physician? Example: Which is correct: A: "JohnnyBoy is seen regularly by his pediatrician, Jane Doe, MD., who referred him to optometrist, Isee More, OD." B: "JohnnyBoy is seen regularly by his pediatrician, Dr. Jane Doe, who referred him to optometrist, Dr. Isee More." C: "JohnnyBoy is seen regularly by his pediatrician, Jane Doe, who referred him to optometrist, Isee More." by fosgate3 on Sep 03, 2019
  • I found this on the APA Blog: Note that if you do want to mention an author’s academic credentials or professional title in the text because it is relevant to the discussion, you should use the format without periods (e.g., PhD, not Ph.D.) So, your answer of A above is correct, except there would not be period after the MD. by ASK US Librarian on Sep 18, 2019

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APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide

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Theses and dissertations

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A thesis is an unpublished document produced by student as part of the requirements for the degree. They come at various levels (e.g. Honours, Masters, PhD, etc). Check with your lecturer before using a thesis for your assignment.

Format

Author, A. A. (Date). [Type of thesis, name of institution awarding degree]. Name of archive or site. URL

Author, A. A. (Date). [Type of thesis, name of institution awarding degree]. Database Name.

:

Author, A. A. (Date). [Type of thesis]. Name of institution awarding the degree. 

Author, A. A. (Date). [Unpublished type of thesis]. Name of institution awarding the degree. 

Examples [Doctoral thesis, James Cook University]. ResearchOnline@JCU. https://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/47533/

Hawkins, E. J. (1999). [Unpublished master's thesis]. James Cook University.

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Thesis/Dissertation – APA Reference List

Capitalization.

  • The document title is in sentence case – Only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. Always capitalize the first word, the first word after a colon or a dash.
  • The title of the thesis or dissertation is in title case – Each word in the name is capitalized, except for articles (a, an, the), prepositions (against, between, in, of, to), conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet), and the infinitive 'to'.

Thesis/Dissertation – Unpublished/Print version

For papers written in United States list City and State. For countries outside United States list City and Country.

Author , A . A . ( Year ). Title of dissertation/thesis  (Unpublished doctoral dissertation [OR] Unpublished master's thesis). Academic Institution , City , State [OR] Country .

  • Considine, M. (1986). Australian insurance politics in the 1970s: Two case studies . (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Kassover,A. (1987). Treatment of abusive males: Voluntary vs. court-mandated referrals (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Nova University, Fort Lauderdale, FL. 

Thesis/Dissertation – From a commercial database (e.g., ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database)

Author , A ( Year ). Title of dissertation/thesis (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Name of database . ( Accession or Order Number )

Cooley, T. (2009).  Design, development, and implementation of a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN): The Hartford Job Corps Academy case study (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3344745)

Thesis/Dissertation – Institutional Database (i.e. University website)

For U.S. thesis do not include university or locations. Include the university and location (City and Country) for a non-U.S. online thesis.

Author , A . A . ( Year ). Title of dissertation/thesis (Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis). Retrieved from http:// url.com

  • Adams, R. J. (1973). Building a foundation for evaluation of instruction in higher education and continuing education (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/
  • Barua, S. (2010). Drought assessment and forecasting using a nonlinear aggregated drought index  (Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia). Retrieved from http://vuir.vu.edu.au/1598

Thesis/Dissertation – Web

For U.S. thesis do not include locations. Include the location (City and Country) for a non-U.S. online thesis.

Author , A . A . ( Year ). Title of dissertation/thesis (Doctoral dissertation/Master's thesis, Institution issuing degree). Retrieved from http:// www.url.com

  • Bruckman, A. (1997). MOOSE Crossing: Construction, community, and learning in a networked virtual world for kids (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Retrieved from http://www-static.cc.gatech.edu/~asb/thesis

how to cite someone with a phd in apa

Psy'D in Clinical Psychology: APA Style Guide

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What is APA?

APA style was created by the American Psychological Association. It is a set of rules for publications, including research papers.

In APA, you must "cite" sources that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places:

  • In the body of your paper where you add a brief in-text citation.
  • In the Reference list at the end of your paper where you give more complete information for the source.

Two copies of the print edition of APA 7 are available at the Help Desk for onsite use only.

Digital resources designed to assist remote researchers are listed below. Hover over links for resource descriptions.

  • American Psychological Association's Style Guide Homepage
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What's New in the Seventh Edition?

Here's a summary of major changes in the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual.

Essay Format:

  • Font  - While you still can use Times New Roman 12, you are free to use other fonts. Calibri 11, Arial 11, Lucida Sans 10, and Georgia 11 are all acceptable.
  • Headers  - No running headers are required for student papers.
  • Tables and Figures  - There is a standardized format for both tables and figures.

Style, Grammar, Usage:

  • Singular "they" required in two situations: when used by a known person as their personal pronoun or when the gender of a singular person is not known.
  • Use only one space after a sentence-ending period.

Citation Style:

  • New "Four Elements of a Reference" (Author, Date, Title, Source) to help writers create references for source types not explicitly examined in the APA Manual.
  • Three or more authors can be abbreviated to First author, et al. on the first citation.
  • Up to 20 authors are named in the References List.
  • Publisher location is not required for books.
  • Ebook platform, format, or device is not required for eBooks.  
  • Library database names are generally not required.
  • No "doi:" prefix, simply include the doi.
  • All hyperlinks retain the https://
  • Links can be "live" in blue with underline or black without underlining

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This guide is used/adapted with the permission of Seneca College Libraries.

For information please contact  [email protected] .

Note: When copying this guide, please retain this box.

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American Psychological Association

Quotations From Research Participants

Because quotations from research participants are part of your original research, do not include a reference list entry for them in the reference list and do not treat them as personal communications.

For the formatting, follow the same guidelines as for other quotations :

  • Present a quotation of fewer than 40 words in quotation marks within the text.
  • Present a quotation of 40 words or more in a block quotation indented below the text.

State in the text that the quotations are from participants, as in this example:

In focus group discussions, participants described their postretirement experiences, including the emotions associated with leaving work and its affective and practical implications. “Rafael” (64 years old, retired pilot) mentioned several difficulties associated with retirement, including feeling like he was “in a void without purpose . . . it took several months to develop new interests that motivated [him] each day.” Several other participants agreed, describing the entrance into retirement as “confusing,” “lonely,” “purposeless,” and “boring.” In contrast, others described the sense of “balance” and “relaxation” retirement brought to their lives.

Quotations from research participants are covered in the seventh edition APA Style Publication Manual Section 8.36

how to cite someone with a phd in apa

Ethical considerations when quoting participants

When quoting research participants, abide by any ethical agreements regarding confidentiality and/or anonymity agreed to between you and your participants during the consent or assent process. Take care to obtain and respect participants’ consent to have their information included in your report. To disguise participant information, you may need to

  • assign pseudonyms to participants,
  • obscure identifying information, and/or
  • present aggregate information.

Agreements regarding confidentiality and/or anonymity may also extend to other sources related to your methodology (e.g., quoting a school policy document when conducting a case study at a school). In that case, you might need to employ similar strategies (e.g., rather than referring to a school by name, refer to “an elementary school in Atlanta, Georgia”).

For detailed discussion of ethical considerations for sharing data and protecting confidentiality in your research, see Sections 1.14, 1.15, and 1.19 of the Publication Manual .

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How do I include "Jr." in an author's name when creating an APA reference?

In the APA Style, suffixes such as "Jr." and "Sr." are included in the Author segment of a reference.  However, academic titles such as Ph.D., M.D., R.N., etc. are  not  included in the author segment of a reference.

If you have an author's name that ends with Jr., Sr., I, II, etc. follow this format for the reference:

how to cite someone with a phd in apa

Do not include the suffix (Jr., Sr., etc.) in the in-text citation.  For the example above, the in-text citations would be:

                     (King & Carson, 2001).

                                 OR

                    In the chapter discussing his early life, King and Carson (2001)...

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Fostering school safety and valuing intersectional identities

June 25, 2024

The researchers examined the experiences of 389 students who attended majority-Black high schools in the broader Chicagoland area. Students self-reported their senses of safety and belonging and the degree to which they believed their identities were valued at school. Moderated mediation analyses revealed significant indirect effects of both sense of school safety and perceived identity valuation by staff on LGBQ+ and non-LGBQ+ students’ sense of school belonging, and these effects significantly depended on race. Non-Black LGBQ+ students reported higher levels of sense of school safety than Black straight students did. This suggests that the combination of a student’s privileged and nonprivileged identities, as well as their school context, are key to understanding students’ sense of safety in school.

Additionally, compared with straight Black students, Black LGBQ+ students felt like their identities were less valued, and they felt less safe at school. Among Black LGBQ+ students, these reduced feelings of safety and identity valuation explained their lower ratings of school belonging. The results of this study suggest that in addition to bolstering students’ sense of school safety, efforts to value each aspect of students’ intersectional identities promote belonging.

This work is one of the pieces necessary for understanding school belonging among multiply marginalized students. The researchers recommend investing more effort in including the perspectives and expertise of Black LGBQ+ students in future research and programming. One way to include Black LGBQ+ students in the research process is through critical or participatory research. Within these paradigms, youths and researchers cocreate research that explores issues students directly experience in schools, allowing them to discover and implement sustainable solutions to the issues they face. Additionally, developing programs that affirm students’ sexual identity within racial affinity spaces or increasing the number of gender and sexuality alliances within majority-Black schools could help Black LGBQ+ students feel like more aspects of their identities are valued within their school. Black LGBQ+ students, like all students, deserve to attend a school where they feel safe, valued, and a sense of belonging.

This article is in the Social Psychology and Social Processes topic area.

Lloyd, A., Granot, Y., Rovegno, E., Bazin, A., Bryant, A., & Richards, M. (2024). How schools can bolster belonging among Black lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer youth. Translational Issues in Psychological Science , 10 (1), 82–93. https://doi.org/10.1037/tps0000391

About the authors

Allison Lloyd , MA, is a fourth-year doctoral candidate in community psychology at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Her research focuses on trans and gender-expansive adolescents’ perceptions of and experiences with law enforcement, as well as LGBTQIA+ youths’ experiences within the education system more broadly.

Yael Granot , PhD, is an assistant professor of psychology at Smith College. Her research focuses on people’s attitudes about justice and how people perceive and interact with legal actors and evidence.

Elizabeth Rovegno , BS, is a research associate for NORC at the University of Chicago and a research assistant for the Loyola University Chicago Risk and Resilience Lab. Their research interests include the well-being and experiences of LGBTQIA+ individuals, police in schools, and students’ school climate perceptions.

Ashley Bazin , EdM, is a research associate at Smith College’s Risk and Resilience Lab. Their research interests include the intersectional experiences of disabled people and the development of accessible interventions.

Alba Bryant , BA, recently graduated from Smith College with a BA in psychology and sociology. Her research interests include the educational experiences of students of color, especially in predominantly White institutions, as well as the different ways in which people with various identities are able or unable to navigate social systems in the United States.

Maryse Richards , PhD, is a professor emerita, clinical and developmental psychology, at Loyola University Chicago. Her current research interests include the developmental stage of adolescence with a focus on school discipline practices, exposure to community violence, cross-age peer mentoring, poverty, and resilience and how these relate to psychosocial well-being.

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  • CAREER FEATURE
  • 25 June 2024

How researchers navigate a PhD later in life

  • Elizabeth Landau 0

Elizabeth Landau is a science writer based in Washington DC.

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Krista Bresock sitting on top of a skate ramp wearing roller skates, graduation cap and gown

On a roll: Krista Bresock celebrates in her local skate park after graduating with a PhD in mathematics from West Virgina University, Morgantown, aged 41. Credit: Michael Germana

Krista Bresock sat crying in her professor’s office. She had to discuss one of five questions with her professor, in person. It was the concluding step of her final exam in functional analysis, the last course that she needed to complete for her PhD in mathematics. He’d shuffled a set of five cards, and she’d picked Card Number Two — corresponding to the one problem that she had not fully studied.

Unlike her fellow students studying intractable maths problems, Bresock was in her late thirties redoing coursework that she had failed years earlier. As a full-time maths teacher at West Virginia University (WVU) in Morgantown, she could find time to study only during nights and weekends.

“Problem Number Two was just collateral damage to being able to maintain this life of work full-time and be in grad school full-time,” Bresock remembers. She “fell to her knees” in relief when, a week later, she learnt she’d still got an A- in the course.

Many think of doctoral degrees as the domain of people in their twenties. Yet according to the US National Science Foundation, 17% of people who gained a PhD in science or engineering in the United States in 2022, the most recent year for which figures are available, were aged 36 or older . In some countries, including Colombia, Mexico, Portugal, South Korea, Iceland, Greece and Israel, the median age for entering a doctoral programme is 32 or higher, according to 2017 data from the OECD in Paris 1 .

how to cite someone with a phd in apa

Resources for mid-career scientists

A PhD requires a vast commitment of time and energy, often lasting five or more years. Stipends, when available, are often lower than salaries for other full-time jobs or professions. What’s more, students might have to move to another city, or even a different country, to attend their chosen course. Although difficult for any age group, those constraints can create different challenges for prospective students in their thirties, forties and beyond than for their younger colleagues.

At the same time, age often brings wisdom and self-confidence, qualities that can help older students to cope with a strenuous academic life. “The extra ten years that I was out doing other things gave me a lot of perspective and maturity to the way in which I think and live, and I think that was a big reason why I’ve succeeded,” says Peter Swanton, a 36-year-old graduate student working towards a doctoral degree in astrophysics at the Australian National University in Canberra.

Motivation is key

For Bresock, a doctoral degree represented “unfinished business”. She had struggled with alcohol and drug addiction from the age of 16, but hit a dangerous low point in early 2013, when she was a graduate student at WVU the first time round. She dropped out and checked herself into an in-patient programme, but still drank heavily afterwards. With the support of friends, family and Alcoholics Anonymous, she became sober in July 2013.

Bresock then taught maths at WVU, first as an adjunct and then as a full-time instructor, but she didn’t forget her incomplete doctorate. Finally, at the age of 37, she re-enrolled. “This little voice was like, ‘You have more to say. You have more to do. You have this thing sitting on the back burner that is kind of eating away at you,’” she says.

Despite her drive to finish the degree, motivating herself was “really hard sometimes”, she says, “because if I didn’t finish, no one would care: I would just not finish and still have this job and be fine.” One of her top tips for others looking to pursue a doctorate in mid-life is to fully understand and reflect on their motivations. If the goal is “more money”, that might not be enough, she says.

Before returning to his studies, Swanton held a variety of jobs, including hauling sugar cane, working in nightclub security and tutoring in secondary schools. He has this advice for anyone who’s considering a doctorate: make sure you’re “doing it because you love it”. For him, that has meant finding ways to combine telescopic investigations of cosmic objects, such as active galactic nuclei, with preserving folklore about the cosmos from the Gamilaraay, the people of his Aboriginal culture.

Peter Swanton preparing a telescope in an observatory dome at dusk

Peter Swanton, a 36-year-old graduate student in cultural astronomy at the Australian National University in Canberra, says that his previous work experience has given him the maturity to cope with the strains of academic life. Credit: Lannon Harley/ANU

Swanton’s heritage influences both his academic interests and the way in which he wants to communicate them. For example, the Gamilaraay language was originally a purely oral one. So, rather than just writing “a big block of text” for his dissertation, Swanton says that he would like to include elders and community members telling their own stories, and to bridge their knowledge with the Western understanding of the universe.

“My success has come down to finding something I am passionate about, and not concerning myself with future employability, which was the focus of my earlier attempts at academia and ultimately the reason why I didn’t succeed” at the time, he says.

Finding mentors

María Teresa Martínez Trujillo arrived at the Paris Institute of Political Studies to embark on a graduate programme in political science at the age of 32. Having spent her whole life up to that point in Mexico, she felt isolated from her classmates because of linguistic and cultural barriers, in addition to being the oldest student in her cohort. Martínez Trujillo had already had a career in the Mexican government, including working as an adviser to the secretary of the interior, yet she felt “less brave” than younger students, and had many more questions about reading materials.

She also felt ashamed about her lack of fluency in French. Over time, with the help of a therapist, she learnt to be less judgemental of herself and to overcome her impostor syndrome. Classmates helped her to proofread some of her assignments and she focused on improving her language skills.

María Teresa Martínez Trujillo looking at a map whilst sat next to a fence near a church in Paris

Cultural and linguistic barriers left María Teresa Martínez Trujillo feeling isolated from her peers when she arrived from Mexico, aged 32, to embark on a graduate programme at the Paris Institute of Political Studies. Credit: Hiram Romero

Martínez Trujillo’s advisers — Hélène Combes and Gilles Favarel-Garrigues — were key for her as she dived into reading and fieldwork on the relationship between drug trafficking and the business world in Morelia, Mexico, for her master’s project. “They let me go to the ‘forest’ and spend time and lose myself,” she says, adding that when she felt lost or stuck, her advisers helped her to find her way.

Time and money

Finances often pose a problem for graduate students who don’t already have savings and support, including those who have worked previously. Even with tuition covered, and a stipend to help towards living expenses, making ends meet can be challenging, especially for students who have other financial responsibilities, such as providing for family members or maintaining a home.

Martínez Trujillo received a stipend, but she spent almost all of it on rent and didn’t want to ask her family for money. She worked as a nanny, consulted for a Mexican think tank and spent summers working in Mexico on friends’ projects. “I’d never have free days,” she says.

Bresock wishes she could have spent more time away from both work and studies. “I did a terrible job of that. Make sure you make time for yourself. That dissertation will still be there, if you go take a walk, or if you go swim or whatever, for an hour out of your life.”

how to cite someone with a phd in apa

Training: Data Analysis: Planning and Preparing

Like Bresock, Marc Gentile kept a full-time job while doing his PhD in astrophysics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne in his mid-to-late-fortiess. He needed to earn enough to support both himself and his wife, and to address other financial responsibilities.

“The top advice would be establishing effective work and study habits right from the start,” he says. “In my case, time was the most precious resource, and I had to be very well organized to make the most of it.”

Gentile would work on his doctoral assignments from 5 a.m. to 6 a.m. each weekday, before leaving for his day job. He would then read articles while commuting by train, and tackle more PhD tasks or further reading in the evenings. “I was told that I was, on average, more productive and better organized than most other, younger students, because you develop such skills when you work professionally,” he said.

Family matters

When Wendy Bohon walked across the stage to receive her doctorate in geology, she was nearly 38 years old and pregnant with twins. She wound up at Arizona State University in Tempe after beginning her career as an actor, and then becoming fascinated with earthquakes after one shook her apartment in 1999.

For her dissertation, Bohon conducted fieldwork in India on two large fault systems, focusing on how fast they had been moving, their intersections and their frequency of earthquakes — as well as the growth of mountains around them — over the past 34 million years. Today, she heads the Seismic Hazards and Earthquake Engineering branch of the California Geological Survey in Sacramento.

Wendy Bohon wearing a graduation cap and gown whilst visibly pregnant

Wendy Bohon was nearly 38, and pregnant with twins, when she graduated from Arizona State University in Tempe with a PhD in geology. Credit: Linda Bohon

As a student, her desire to expand her family had put her in a different life stage from younger peers. She had met her husband, who already had a young daughter, while in her graduate programme. And whereas her classmates had wanted to avoid pregnancy, she had struggled to conceive. “That emotional disconnect and the difference in their reality and my reality — it was really tough,” she says. Ultimately, she and her husband chose to try the intensive process of in vitro fertilization, which Bohon mostly kept secret. At the same time, she was helping to co-parent her husband’s daughter, and the couple were given full custody of the girl when she was seven.

Bohon coped with parenting and finishing graduate school with the help of “a built-in village of people around who could step in to help us”. Other graduate students would play the card game UNO with the girl, or colour pictures with her. And Bohon’s mentor, along with the mentor’s husband, became the child’s godparents.

“In a lot of ways, it was easier to parent during my PhD, because my schedule was relatively flexible, so I could stay home with her when she was sick, or attend school functions,” Bohon says. What’s more, she adds, “having a kiddo that needed me helped me to set and keep healthier boundaries than I think I would have otherwise”.

Charlotte Olsen, a postdoctoral researcher in astrophysics at the New York City College of Technology, earned a PhD at the age of 42 and now investigates the factors that influence star formation and galaxy evolution. Olsen says that working on her doctorate presented challenges for her marriage. “I’m not gonna lie: grad school is really rough on a relationship,” she says — adding that, especially at the beginning, “it’s an incredibly stressful time”.

Among the responsibilities that older students might have is taking care of ageing parents. Olsen recalls that during her qualifying exams, she hadn’t heard from her mother, who was 76 years old at the time, for a while. She assumed that her mother wanted to give her space during that stressful time. Later, she found out that her mother’s appendix had ruptured, necessitating surgery and a stay in a hospital’s intensive-care unit.

Through it all, Olsen’s spouse was an invaluable source of emotional support. “Having somebody who is there with you along the way” helps a lot, she says.

What happens next?

Not everyone who gets a PhD stays in their field. Gentile, now 60, works as a data scientist for a Swiss television station. He had a postdoctoral research position for five years after graduation — but for several reasons, including financial ones, he could not find an academic job afterwards. “If I had really wanted to continue in astrophysics, then I would have had to move abroad; it’s difficult now,” he says.

Still, Gentile found the PhD experience rewarding and worthwhile. As well as acquiring problem-solving techniques, he learnt coding and data-science skills, such as machine learning and statistical methods. And he has used all of these in subsequent jobs, including his current one.

His graduate work also remains relevant. Some of the algorithms and software that he worked on during his PhD helped to inform the tools that scientists will use to analyse data from the European Space Agency’s Euclid observatory, which aims to explore dark energy and dark matter.

Bresock received a promotion at West Virginia University after earning her PhD in maths in December 2022, aged 41. Her dissertation examined how students understand the definite integral, a fundamental concept in calculus, when solving different kinds of problem.

Today, she has greater empathy for her own students because of her own struggles as a graduate student. Finishing her doctorate remains one of her most satisfying accomplishments, she says. “When people ask me what’s the biggest thing I’ve ever done in my life, it’s: get sober, and then, finish my PhD. That’s a close second.”

doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-024-02109-x

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Education at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators (OECD, 2019).

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  1. How to Reference a Person With a PhD

    In MLA style this would appear as: Jones, Jordan. In APA style, this would appear as: Jones, J. Omit as well any titles such as "Ph.D." from the names of translators, editors, or any other names that might appear in your reference list entries. Omit titles such as "Ph.D." from your in-text citations as well.

  2. APA Style 6th Edition Blog: What's in a Name? Names With Titles in Them

    Typically APA Style reference list entries and in-text citations do not include the authors' academic credentials or professional titles. For example, if a book is written by Samantha T. Smith, PhD, then the reference entry refers to Smith, S. T., and the in-text citation to Smith. Professional titles are also omitted from reference list ...

  3. How to Cite a Ph.D. Title at the End of a Name

    In Chicago and MLA style, a Ph.D. title is not included in the references, but it can be included in the text. In that case, the doctoral degree title at the end of a name appears after a comma but with no punctuation within the letters in the degree and both the "P" and the "D" should be capitalized. For example: Steven Hammersmith, PhD.

  4. APA: how to cite a PhD thesis [Update 2023]

    How to cite a PhD thesis in APA. If the thesis is available from a database, archive or any online platform use the following template: Author (s) of the thesis: Give the last name and initials (e. g. Watson, J. D.) of up to 20 authors with the last name preceded by an ampersand (&). For 21 or more authors include the first 19 names followed by ...

  5. How to Cite Doctors in APA

    Formatting Requirements. In APA style, in-text citations include only the author's last name along with the date. First initials only appear if you have multiple authors with the same last name. Therefore, no professional degree indications appear. A citation from a doctor would look like this: (Hazu, 2014).

  6. How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style

    To cite an unpublished dissertation (one you got directly from the author or university in print form), add "Unpublished" to the bracketed description, and list the university at the end of the reference, outside the square brackets. APA format. Author last name, Initials. ( Year ).

  7. Published Dissertation or Thesis References

    A dissertation or thesis is considered published when it is available from a database such as ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global or PDQT Open, an institutional repository, or an archive. If the database assigns publication numbers to dissertations and theses, include the publication number in parentheses after the title of the ...

  8. How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition)

    APA in-text citations The basics. In-text citations are brief references in the running text that direct readers to the reference entry at the end of the paper. You include them every time you quote or paraphrase someone else's ideas or words to avoid plagiarism.. An APA in-text citation consists of the author's last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system).

  9. APA Citations for a Thesis or Dissertation

    How to Cite a Published Dissertation or Thesis in APA. To cite a published dissertation in APA 7th edition, you need to include: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Publication number, if available) [Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, Institution]. Publisher.

  10. How do I reference a PhD dissertation or MA thesis in APA style

    APA Style (7th ed.) Unpublished print dissertations/theses retrieved from university. Author, A. (year). Title of dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation OR master's thesis]. Name of Institution. In-text citation: (Author, year, p. X) See pages 333-334 in the APA Style manual for information and examples.

  11. Unpublished dissertation or thesis references

    Narrative citation: Harris (2014) When a dissertation or thesis is unpublished, include the description " [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]" or " [Unpublished master's thesis]" in square brackets after the dissertation or thesis title. In the source element of the reference, provide the name of the institution that awarded the degree.

  12. How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA

    Citing a published dissertation or thesis from a database. If a thesis or dissertation has been published and is found on a database, then follow the structure below. It's similar to the format for an unpublished dissertation/thesis, but with a few differences: Structure: Author's last name, F. M. (Year published).

  13. APA Style 6th Edition Blog: Jr., Sr., and Other Suffixes in APA Style

    Jr., Sr., and Other Suffixes in APA Style. by Timothy McAdoo. Henry W. "Indiana" Jones Jr.: "I like Indiana ." Henry W. Jones Sr.: "We named the dog Indiana .". Much like the intrepid Dr. Jones, when writing a paper, you never know what riddles you'll have to solve. (Unlike Indiana, you can always ask the APA Style team for help!)

  14. APA Style 6th Edition: Citing Your Sources

    Dissertation or thesis available from a database service: Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (year of publication). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Retrieved from Name of database.

  15. LibGuides: APA Citation Guidelines (7th Edition): Style & Format

    APA Style papers should have double-spaced text throughout the entire paper (including quotations and references). To make your paper double-spaced in Microsoft Word, highlight the text you want double-spaced, and then click Layout.Next, click on the arrow to the right of the word Paragraph (a pop-up appears).From the drop-down menu under Line Spacing, select Double (default choice is Multiple ...

  16. APA Style 6th Edition Blog: May 2017

    The APA Style format for author names in reference list entries is to provide the author's surname (s) followed by the initials of their given name (s). Example: Lee, C. L. (2017). In the in-text citation, provide only the surname (s) along with the year.

  17. Are titles such as doctor included in author's name on the References

    Answer. Author titles such as MD and PhD are not included on the References page or in-text citations in APA Style. From the APA Blog: If mentioning an author's academic credentials or professional title in the text because it is relevant to the discussion, use the format without periods (for example PhD, not Ph.D.) Titles may be used in the ...

  18. APA (7th Edition) Referencing Guide

    Guide to APA citation style using the 7th Edition of the APA Style Manual. APA 7th Home Toggle Dropdown. Information for EndNote Users ; Authors - Numbers, Rules and Formatting ... Masters, PhD, etc). Check with your lecturer before using a thesis for your assignment. Format. Online: Author, A. A. (Date). Title of thesis: Subtitle [Type of ...

  19. How to Cite Sources in APA Citation Format

    In this situation the original author and date should be stated first followed by 'as cited in' followed by the author and date of the secondary source. For example: Lorde (1980) as cited in Mitchell (2017) Or (Lorde, 1980, as cited in Mitchell, 2017) Back to top. 3. How to Cite Different Source Types.

  20. Dissertation/Thesis

    Thesis/Dissertation - APA Reference List Capitalization. The document title is in sentence case - Only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. Always capitalize the first word, the first word after a colon or a dash. The title of the thesis or dissertation is in title case - Each word in the name is capitalized, except for articles (a, an, the), prepositions ...

  21. PDF APA Citation Basics

    APA Citation Fundamentals Kessman, J. Kessman, R. Chan, D. Gover, E. Kalita, R. Parekh, R. Selleck, A. C. Arrange citation entries in a reference list alphabetically by author's last name. Multiple works by different authors with the same last name should be alphabetized by the author's first initial:

  22. Library Guides: Psy'D in Clinical Psychology: APA Style Guide

    APA style was created by the American Psychological Association. It is a set of rules for publications, including research papers. In APA, you must "cite" sources that you have paraphrased, quoted or otherwise used to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places: In the body of your paper where you add a brief in-text citation.

  23. Quotations from research participants

    Ethical considerations when quoting participants. When quoting research participants, abide by any ethical agreements regarding confidentiality and/or anonymity agreed to between you and your participants during the consent or assent process. Take care to obtain and respect participants' consent to have their information included in your report.

  24. How do I include "Jr." in an author's name when creating an APA

    Answer. In the APA Style, suffixes such as "Jr." and "Sr." are included in the Author segment of a reference. However, academic titles such as Ph.D., M.D., R.N., etc. are not included in the author segment of a reference. If you have an author's name that ends with Jr., Sr.,

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  26. PDF Multi-Article Dissertation Technical Manual

    Chapters should never begin with a level two heading. APA Heading Level Twos are bolded, capitalized, and aligned left. Some students are unsure of how to format tables, or how to introduce them within text. An example of an APA table is available for students to review (see Table 3.1). In a multi-article dissertation, number your tables with the

  27. How researchers navigate a PhD later in life

    Yet according to the US National Science Foundation, 17% of people who gained a PhD in science or engineering in the United States in 2022, the most recent year for which figures are available ...