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## Learn X in Y minutes

Where x=prolog.

Get the code: learnprolog.pl

Prolog is a logic programming language first specified in 1972, and refined into multiple modern implementations.

## Ready For More?

Got a suggestion? A correction, perhaps? Open an Issue on the GitHub Repo, or make a pull request yourself!

Originally contributed by hyphz, and updated by 4 contributors .

## Problem solving with Prolog

The findall predicate.

How would we compute all the subsets of a set (represented as a list)?

The fact establishes that the empty set (i.e., the empty list) is a subset. The first rule that a subset contains the first element of the set and possibly some of the other elements. The third rule that ignoring one element of a set (the head of the list), a subset will be contained in the set of the remaining elements.

Thus for example

in which the first unifier is built in a refutation based on two resolutions with the rule subSet([H|T], [H|R]) :- subSet(T, R). and one with the fact subSet([], []). ; the second unifier based on one resolution with the first rule, one with the second rule ( subSet([H|T], [H|R]) :- subSet(T, R). ), and one with the fact; the third unifier based on one resolution with second rule, one with the first rule, and one with the fact; and, finally, the last unifier is based on two resolutions with the second rule and one with the fact.

How would we compute the power set of a set? The power set of a set is the set of all of its subsets. So for this we would need to collect all the unifiers for the second argument of subSet that make it hold. Luckily, Prolog has a useful pre-defined predicate providing this, findall .

The predicate takes three arguments:

The interpretation of findall is such that all the instantiations of T , which would be generated in making P hold, are added to a list and unified with R .

We can thus write a power set predicate as

since for each possible way in which subSet(S, SS) can hold the respective instantiation for SS will be accumulated in a list, which will be unifier with P when all possibilities are exhausted.

## All the permutations of a list

Similarly to the power set, we can compute all the permutations of a list by combining findall with perm :

## The eight-queens problem

The eight-queens problem is a classic puzzle: how to place eight queens in an 8x8 chees board such that no two queens threaten each other? Using Prolog we can solve this problem not bothering how to actually solve them: it suffices to encode in Prolog the restrictions for a possible solution and let its unification + resolution machinery compute the solution for us.

From the chess rules, a solution for the eight-queens problem must be such no two queens share the same row, column or diagonal.

## Representing a configuration of the board (and the column test)

A configuration of the board is where the eight queens are positioned in it. We thus need eight positions to represent a configuration. Since queens cannot share columns, there must be one queen in each column. We can start from that when representing possible legal configurations.

Using a list of integers, from 1 to 8, with each position in a list representing in which row the queen of the respective column is, we can represent a configuration.

For example, [4,2,7,3,6,8,5,1] means that the queen in the first column is in row 4, the queen in the second column in the row 2 and so on.

## The row test

Queens cannot share rows. Since we represent the row a queen is on in a configuration with a number from 1 to 8, it must be the case that there are no repetitions in a configuration and that all from 1 to 8 occur. This is to say that a configuration must be a permutation of of the numbers from 1 to 8.

## The diagonal test

A queen placed at column X and row Y occupies two diagonals: one from bottom-left to top-right and one from top-left to bottom-right. We name these diagonals: the former is the diagonal C = X - Y and the latter is the diagonal D = X + Y .

So we can define the diagonal test predicate as follows:

which is such that given a configuration Q the predicate test(Q, 1, [], []). holds, if, for each queen, its diagonals have not been previously occupied. The predicate \+ is true if and only if its argument cannot be shown to hold.

## Generating all possible configurations

All possible configurations of the board amount to all possible permutations of a list. Thus we can build a solution to the eight queens problem by:

## How many solutions exist for the eight-queens problem?

How do we find all solutions? Or how de we count all solutions? We can rely again on findall :

How would you solve sudoku in Prolog? Check problem 97 here .

A solution is available here using a library in Prolog good for encoding combinatorial problems.

## The original address of this page is: https://prof.ti.bfh.ch/hew1/informatik3/prolog/p-99/

P-99: ninety-nine prolog problems, [email protected] or [email protected], working with prolog lists.

A list is either empty or it is composed of a first element (head) and a tail, which is a list itself. In Prolog we represent the empty list by the atom [] and a non-empty list by a term [H|T] where H denotes the head and T denotes the tail.

You can check your predicates using these example trees. They are given as test cases in p54.pl .

- x(v) is equal to the position of the node v in the inorder sequence
- y(v) is equal to the depth of the node v in the tree

## CSE 130 - Programming Assignment #2

(330 points + 70 points extra credit), must be turned in no later than 11:59:59 pm on 5/27 (see submission instructions below ).

(click your browser's refresh button to ensure that you have the most recent version)

## Integrity of Scholarship

University rules on integrity of scholarship will be strictly enforced. By completing this assignment, you implicitly agree to abide by the UCSD Policy on Integrity of Scholarship described beginning on page 62 of the Academic Regulations section ( PDF ) of the 2002-2003 General Catalog, in particular, "all academic work will be done by the student to whom it is assigned, without unauthorized aid of any kind."

You are expected to do your own work on this assignment; there are no group projects in this course. You may (and are encouraged to) engage in general discussions with your classmates regarding the assignment, but specific details of a solution, including the solution itself, must always be your own work. Incidents which violate the University's rules on integrity of scholarship will be taken seriously.

In addition to receiving a zero (0) on the assignment, students may also face other penalties, up to and including, expulsion from the University. Should you have any doubt about the moral and/or ethical implications of an activity associated with the completion of this assignment, please see the instructors.

## Code Documentation and General Requirements

Code for all programming assignments should be well documented . A working program with no comments will receive only partial credit . Documentation entails writing a description of each predicate as well as comments throughout the code to explain the program logic. Comments in Prolog begin with a percent sign (%) and are terminated by a newline/carriage return. It is understood that some of the exercises in this programming assignment require extremely little code and will not require extensive comments. Nevertheless, comments describing recursions and helper predicates are required.

While few programming assignments pretend to mimic the "real" world, they may, nevertheless, contain some of the ambiguity that exists outside the classroom. If, for example, an assignment is amenable to differing interpretations, such that more than one algorithm may implement a correct solution to the assignment, it is incumbent upon the programmer to document not only the functionality of the algorithm (and more broadly his/her interpretation of the program requirements), but to articulate clearly the reasoning behind a particular choice of solution.

## Assignment Overview

The overall objective of this assignment is for you to gain some hands-on experience with problem solving using Prolog, using simple facts and rules, recursion, and database handling capabilities of the language.

The instructions for submission of your assignment may be found at the bottom of this page of this document. It is a good idea to start this assignment early; Prolog programming, while not inherently difficult, often seem somewhat foreign at first, particularly when it comes to recursion and list manipulation.

So as not to make the code overly long, it is not required that you deal with user errors: you can assume that the user always types valid commands (e.g., if a predicate is supposed to take an atom as argument, you do not have to check whether the argument is instead a list and throw an error). Note that the Prolog interpreter catches a good number of user errors anyway.

## Problem #1 - Uncles and Half-Sisters (40 points)

parent(john,ann). parent(jim,john). parent(jim,keith). parent(mary,ann). parent(mary,sylvia). parent(brian,sylvia). male(keith). male(jim). female(sylvia). female(ann). male(brian).

- Question #1: Uncle (20 points)

Write a Prolog predicate uncle(X,Y) that is true if X is Y 's uncle. Note that we are not considering uncles "by marriage", meaning that for X to be Y 's uncle the two must be related by blood. For instance (user input is in red ):

?- uncle(keith,ann). Yes ?- uncle(ann,mary). No ?- uncle(keith,X). X = ann ; No ?- uncle(john,ann). No ?- uncle(X,Y). X = keith Y = ann ; No

- Question #2: Half-Sister (20 points)

Write a Prolog predicate halfsister(X,Y) that is true if X is Y 's half-sister. For instance (user input is in red ):

?- halfsister(ann,sylvia). Yes ?- halfsister(X,sylvia). X=ann ; No ?- halfsister(X,Y). X=ann X=sylvia ; X=sylvia X=ann ; No

## Problem #2 - Lists (160 points)

- Question #1: Sublist (20 points)

Write a Prolog predicate sublist(X,Y) that is true if list X is a sublist of list Y . A sublist is defined as the original list, in the same order , but in which some elements may have been removed. For instance (user input is in red ):

?- sublist([a,b],[a,e,b,d,s,e]). Yes ?- sublist([a,b],[a,e,e,f]). No ?- sublist([a,b],[b,a]). No ?- sublist([],[a,e,e,f]). Yes ?- sublist([a],[]). No ?- sublist(X,[a,b,c]). X = [] ; X = [a] ; X = [a, b] ; X = [a, b, c] ; X = [a, c] ; X = [b] ; X = [b, c] ; X = [c] ; No

- Question #2: Detecting Duplicates (30 points)

Write a Prolog predicate has_duplicates(X) that is true if list X contains duplicated elements (that is at least 2 copies of an element). For instance (user input is in red ):

?- has_duplicates([a,e,b,d,s,e]). Yes ?- has_duplicates([a,b,d,s,e]). No ?- has_duplicates([]). No

- Question #3: Detecting Triplicates (40 points)

Write a Prolog predicate has_triplicate(X) that is true if list X contains triplicated elements (that is at least 3 copies of an element). For instance (user input is in red ):

?- has_triplicates([a,e,e,d,s,e]). Yes ?- has_triplicates([a,a,b,e,b,s,s,e]). No ?- has_triplicates([]). No

- Question #4: Remove the third element (10 points)

Write a Prolog predicate remove_third(X,Y) that is true if list Y is just list X with its third element removed. If X has no third element, then the predicate should fail. For instance (user input is in red ):

?- remove_third([a,e,e,d,s,e],L). L = [a,e,d,s,e] ; No ?- remove_third([a,b],L). No

- Question #5: Remove the nth element (30 points)

Write a Prolog predicate remove_nth(N,X,Y) that is true if list Y is just list X with its Nth element removed. If X does not have an Nth element then the predicate should fail. You can assume that N is strictly greater than 0. For instance (user input is in red ):

?- remove_nth(4,[a,e,e,d,s,e],L). L = [a,e,e,s,e] ; No ?- remove_nth(6,[a,b],L). No

- Question #6: Remove every other element (30 points)

Write a Prolog predicate remove_every_other(X,Y) that is true if list Y is just list X with every other element removed (the two lists should have the same first element). For instance (user input is in red ):

?- remove_every_other([a,e,e,d,s,e],L). L = [a,e,s] ; No ?- remove_every_other([a,e,e,d,s],L). L = [a,e,s] ; No ?- remove_every_other([],L). L = [] ; No

## Problem #3 - A Prolog Database (130 points)

store(best_smoothies, [alan,john,mary], [ smoothie(berry, [orange, blueberry, strawberry], 2), smoothie(tropical, [orange, banana, mango, guava], 3), smoothie(blue, [banana, blueberry], 3) ]). store(all_smoothies, [keith,mary], [ smoothie(pinacolada, [orange, pineapple, coconut], 2), smoothie(green, [orange, banana, kiwi], 5), smoothie(purple, [orange, blueberry, strawberry], 2), smoothie(smooth, [orange, banana, mango],1) ]). store(smoothies_galore, [heath,john,michelle], [ smoothie(combo1, [strawberry, orange, banana], 2), smoothie(combo2, [banana, orange], 5), smoothie(combo3, [orange, peach, banana], 2), smoothie(combo4, [guava, mango, papaya, orange],1), smoothie(combo5, [grapefruit, banana, pear],1) ]).

The first store has three employees and sells three different smoothies, the second store has two employees and sells four different smoothies, and the third store has three employees and sells five different smoothies. You can assume that there are no duplicates ( pineapple is not listed twice in any ingredient list, mary is not listed twice in any employee list, the same smoothie specification is not listed twice in any store menu, etc.). Given a database of smoothie store facts, the questions below have you write predicates that implement queries to the database.

- Question #1: Sells More than Four Smoothies (10 points)

?- more_than_four(best_smoothies). No ?- more_than_four(X). X = all_smoothies ; X = smoothies_galore ; No

- Question #2: exists (20 points)

?- exists(combo1). Yes ?- exists(slimy). No ?- exists(X). X = berry ; X = tropical <enter> Yes

- Question #3: Employee to Smoothie Ratio (20 points)

?- ratio(all_smoothies,R). R = 0.5 ; No ?- ratio(Store,R). Store = best_smoothies R = 1 ; Store = all_smoothies R = 0.5 ; Store = smoothies_galore R = 0.6 ; No

- Question #4: Average Smoothie Price (25 points)

?- average(best_smoothies,A). A = 2.66667 ; No

- Question #5: Smoothies in Store (30 points)

?- smoothies_in_store(all_smoothies,L). L = [pinacolada, green, purple, smooth] ; No ?- smoothies_in_store(Store,L). Store = best_smoothies L = [berry, tropical, blue] ; Store = all_smoothies L = [pinacolada, green, purple, smooth] ; Store = smoothies_galore L = [combo1, combo2, combo3, combo4, combo5] ; No

- Question #6: Fruit in All Smoothies (25 points)

?- fruit_in_all_smoothies(Store,orange). Store = all_smoothies ; No

## Problem #4 - A More Complex query (70 points) [EXTRA CREDIT]

?- find_smoothies(L,[banana,orange],[blueberry,mango]). L = [all_smoothies, green, smoothies_galore, combo1, smoothies_galore, combo2, smoothies_galore, combo3] ; No

The smoothie "green" sold in the "all_smoothies" store, and the smoothies "combo1" and "combo2" sold in the "smoothies_galore" store, are the only smoothies with both banana and orange and without any blueberries or mango, hence the result to the above query.

?- find_smoothies(L,[orange,banana],[mango,blueberry]). L = [all_smoothies, green, smoothies_galore, combo1, smoothies_galore, combo2, smoothies_galore, combo3] ; No

?- find_smoothies(L,[mango],[]). L = [best_smoothies, tropical, all_smoothies, smooth, smoothies_galore, combo4] ; No

?- find_smoothies(L,[],[banana]). L = [best_smoothies, berry, all_smoothies, pinacolada, all_smoothies, purple, smoothies_galore, combo4] ; No

## Submission Guidelines/Instructions

Your functions/programs must compile and/or run on a UNIX ACS machine, as this is where the verification of your solutions will occur. While you may develop your code on any system, ensure that your code runs as expected on an ACS machine prior to submission. Code which does not compile and/or produce the desired results on the testing machine will receive little or no credit. You should test your code in the directories from which the tar file (see below) will be created, as this will approximate the environment used for grading the assignment.

## Creating the tar file for submission

Your answers to this assignment will be stored in separate files under a directory called <username>_cse130_pa2/ . For instance, I would create a directory caller casanova_cse130_pa2 . The directory hierarchy should appear as follows: <username>_cse130_pa2/ problem1.prolog problem2.prolog problem3.prolog problem4.prolog For example, as indicated above, in the <username>_cse130_pa2 directory, you should have a file named problem1.prolog , which will contain the documented Prolog source code to implement the functions specified in Problem #1 of this assignment, a file named problem2.prolog , which will contain the documented Prolog source code to implement the functions specified in Problem #2, and so on. Assuming the directory hierarchy above, populated with the problem solutions as described, you should create a tar file called <username>_cse130_pa2.tar by running the tar command in the directory where the <username>_cse130_pa2 directory resides. If you don't know anything about tar , I strongly suggest you learn about it as it is very useful (the man page is rather lengthy, but you can find a more gentle introduction there ). For example, in the directory containing the above directory, I would run the command tar -cvf casanova_cse130_pa2.tar casanova_cse130_pa2

which would create the desired tar file (in this case, named casanova_cse130_pa2.tar ) from the directory named casanova_cse130_pa2 .

## Submitting the program via the turnin program

Once you've created the tar file containing all of your answers to the assignment questions, you will use the turnin program to submit this file for grading. Using the turnin program is straightforward. Assuming I am in the directory where I've created the casanova_cse130_pa2.tar file, I would simply run the turnin command as follows: turnin -c cs130s -p pa2 casanova_cse130_pa2.tar

The turnin program will provide you with a confirmation of the submission process; make sure that the size of the file indicated by turnin matches the size of your tar file. See the ACS web page on turnin for more information on the operation of the program.

## Logic Programming

A courseware, prolog examples, sample program & query window figure with notations.

## prolog examples with explanations

Prolog always performs depth-first-search, Matches facts & rules (i.e. knowledge base) in top-down manner and resolves the goals or subgoals in left-to-right manner. Most important thing to keep in mind while writing prolog program - "order of writing facts & rules always matters".

Example 1 : Below food table shows the facts, rules, goals and their english meanings.

EXAMPLE - 1 EXPLANATION & MORE

Example 2 : Below student-professor relation table shows the facts, rules, goals and their english meanings.

EXAMPLE - 2 EXPLANATION & MORE

Try it yourself in SWI-prolog : Use above Example 1 & Example 2 and try below queries by yourself and find out why did you get those answers.

From Example 1 : (1) ?- meal(X), dinner(X). (2) ?- meal(What). (3) ?- meal(X), dinner(Y).

From Example 2 : (1) ?- studies(Who, csc135). ( hint : after getting first solution type ' ; ' to find all the possible solutions)

Fun Bonus : Using Example-2 just copy paste below query and see the result - ?- studies(charlie, Which), teaches(Who,Which), write('charlie studies '), write(Which), write(' and professor '), write(Who), write(' teaches '), write(Which).

## More Prolog Programming Examples

Example - 3 Arithmetic Example - 4 Car & Owner Example - 5 List in Prolog Example - 6 Own pet & Love

Try SWI-Prolog online More Prolog Examples

Quiz Prolog Exercises

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Aqui, estudei a lógica computacional de uma forma divertida e informal através de Prolog. Este é o lugar onde você pode explorar, experimentar e aprender sobre Prolog de uma maneira descontraída.

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## megaVE / prolog-tasks

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## MariaEduardaPires / prolog

Genealogical Tree in PROLOG exemplifying three family years in the family (great-grandparents, grandparents, parents and children). It also includes rules for uncle, cousin, and grandson relationships.

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- Mastering Prolog for Engineering Problem-Solving: A Comprehensive Guide

## Solving Complex Engineering Problems with Prolog: A Student's Guide

In the dynamic landscape of engineering, the ability to efficiently address complex problems is a hallmark of success for professionals. Imagine a scenario where engineers are tasked with designing a state-of-the-art system, navigating a labyrinth of intricacies and interdependencies. It is precisely in these challenging situations that Prolog, a declarative programming language celebrated for its prowess in handling complex logic, emerges as an indispensable tool for students. This comprehensive guide takes you on a journey, exploring the multifaceted ways in which students can harness the capabilities of Prolog to dissect and conquer the intricate challenges inherent in engineering problems. As we delve into its applications, Prolog becomes more than just a programming language; it transforms into a strategic companion, empowering students to unravel the complexities of real-world engineering scenarios and gain a profound understanding of their applications. Whether modeling logic-based systems, optimizing solutions for maximum efficiency, or navigating constraint satisfaction problems, Prolog proves to be a versatile and indispensable asset. This guide not only equips students with the technical skills needed to leverage Prolog effectively but also fosters a mindset that embraces the power of logical reasoning and declarative problem-solving – essential attributes for success in the ever-evolving field of engineering. If you need help with your Prolog assignment , this guide is here to provide the support and insights necessary for mastering this powerful tool.

## Understanding Prolog Basics

Embarking on the journey of utilizing Prolog for engineering problem-solving necessitates a foundational comprehension of its fundamental principles. Prolog, derived from "Programming in Logic," stands as a high-level programming language meticulously crafted for symbolic reasoning and manipulation. Its strength lies in its unique ability to adeptly represent and solve problems entwined with intricate relationships and logic. Before unraveling the intricacies of Prolog's applications in engineering, establishing a robust understanding of its basics becomes the crucial first step. This section serves as a gateway to the logic-driven realm of Prolog, laying the groundwork for students to grasp the language's syntax, rules, and core components. As we delve into the nuances of Prolog's fundamental principles, the stage is set for a comprehensive exploration of its applications in tackling the multifaceted challenges posed by complex engineering problems.

## Prolog Syntax and Fundamentals

Navigating the landscape of Prolog demands a deep dive into its distinctive syntax and fundamental principles. Setting itself apart from conventional imperative programming languages, Prolog operates on a unique set of rules and facts. The intricacies of Prolog's syntax form the bedrock of its strength, providing a nuanced framework for logical problem-solving. A thorough understanding of fundamental components like predicates, facts, and rules emerges as a pivotal requirement for effective utilization. This section serves as a gateway to deciphering the language's syntax intricacies, offering insights into the rules that govern Prolog's logical structure. As students delve into the syntax and fundamentals, they unlock the key to harnessing Prolog's full potential in tackling complex engineering problems. The mastery of Prolog's unique syntax becomes a cornerstone for students seeking to leverage its declarative power in building robust and efficient solutions within the realm of engineering problem-solving.

## Solving Engineering Problems with Prolog

Embarking on the realm of solving engineering problems with Prolog unveils a transformative journey of logical prowess and declarative efficiency. This section delves into the practical application of Prolog, exploring its capabilities in dissecting and resolving intricate challenges within the engineering domain. As students immerse themselves in the art of problem-solving, Prolog emerges as a powerful ally, adept at modeling and navigating complex logic-based systems. Whether unraveling the intricacies of circuit analysis, optimizing solutions for maximum efficiency, or navigating the constraints of real-world engineering scenarios, Prolog's versatile applications take center stage. This section serves as a guide through practical case studies and examples, providing students with a hands-on understanding of how Prolog can be harnessed as a strategic tool in the arsenal of an aspiring engineer. The journey of solving engineering problems with Prolog is not just about mastering a programming language; it's about acquiring a mindset that thrives on logical reasoning and efficient problem-solving—a skill set poised to make a lasting impact in the dynamic and ever-evolving field of engineering.

## Applying Prolog to Logic-Based Systems

Prolog's prowess in handling intricate logic-based systems opens up a realm of possibilities for students grappling with complex engineering challenges. The application of Prolog in logic-based systems is not just a theoretical exercise but a practical approach to problem-solving. As students delve into the world of Prolog, they discover a tool uniquely tailored for modeling and solving engineering problems that demand rigorous logical reasoning. The language's inherent ability to represent relationships, combined with its rule-based system, makes it an invaluable asset in tackling multifaceted issues within the engineering domain. In this section, we will embark on a journey to explore various examples showcasing how Prolog can be effectively applied to diverse problem domains such as circuit analysis, optimization, and constraint satisfaction.

## Case Study: Circuit Analysis

Delving deeper into Prolog's application, let's consider a scenario involving the analysis of a complex electronic circuit—a common challenge in the field of electrical engineering. Electronic circuits often consist of multiple components intricately connected through pathways, presenting a daunting challenge for analysis. In this case study, we'll witness how Prolog's rule-based system becomes a beacon of clarity in navigating the complexities of such circuits. Students will be guided through the process of formulating Prolog rules to represent and analyze the intricate relationships between various circuit elements. Through this hands-on exploration, the practical application of Prolog in real-world engineering scenarios comes to life, showcasing its effectiveness in problem-solving. This case study serves not only as an illustration of Prolog's capabilities but also as a valuable learning experience for students seeking to apply their knowledge to tangible, engineering challenges.

## Utilizing Prolog for Optimization Problems

In the intricate landscape of engineering, many challenges revolve around optimization—finding the most effective solution from a myriad of possibilities. Prolog, with its inherently declarative nature, emerges as a powerful ally in expressing and efficiently solving optimization problems. This section unravels the symbiotic relationship between Prolog and optimization, demonstrating how students can leverage its capabilities across various domains. From resource allocation scenarios, where efficiency is paramount, to the intricate intricacies of project scheduling, Prolog's flexibility in articulating and solving optimization challenges becomes evident. By exploring real-world examples, students gain insights into the versatility of Prolog, establishing it not only as a programming language but as a strategic tool for optimizing engineering solutions.

## Prolog in Constraint Satisfaction Problems

The engineering landscape is rife with constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), presenting complex scenarios where solutions must adhere to a set of constraints. Prolog's innate ability to express and solve CSPs positions it as an invaluable asset for students navigating problems laden with multiple constraints. This section plunges into the principles of CSPs, unraveling the intricacies of constraint-based problem-solving. Through relevant examples, Prolog's application in designing efficient networks, orchestrating seamless logistics planning, and conquering multifaceted engineering challenges comes to the forefront. Students are guided through the strategic implementation of Prolog in deciphering and resolving constraint satisfaction problems, fostering a deep understanding of its applicability across a spectrum of real-world engineering scenarios. As students grapple with these examples, they not only enhance their Prolog proficiency but also cultivate a problem-solving mindset tailored for the intricate constraints prevalent in the dynamic field of engineering.

## Challenges and Tips for Mastering Prolog

Navigating the intricacies of Prolog comes with its unique set of challenges, requiring students to unravel complexities in logic and overcome hurdles inherent in its declarative nature. This section delves into the potential stumbling blocks that learners may encounter on their journey to mastering Prolog. From understanding the nuances of backtracking to effectively handling negation and optimizing code for performance, each challenge presents an opportunity for growth. Alongside these challenges, invaluable tips and strategies are shared to guide students through the learning curve, providing insights into best practices for efficient Prolog programming. The goal is not just proficiency but a mastery that empowers students to apply Prolog confidently and strategically in real-world scenarios. As learners grapple with challenges and implement recommended strategies, they embark on a transformative path toward mastering Prolog—an essential skill for success in the dynamic landscape of programming and problem-solving.

## Overcoming Common Challenges

While Prolog stands as a potent tool for problem-solving, mastering its unique paradigm may present students with specific challenges. This section is dedicated to addressing these common hurdles head-on, ensuring that students can navigate the intricacies of Prolog with confidence. Understanding backtracking, a fundamental aspect of Prolog's logic-based approach, can be initially perplexing for learners. Likewise, grappling with the intricacies of handling negation and optimizing code for performance requires a nuanced understanding of Prolog's inner workings. This section aims to demystify these challenges by offering in-depth explanations and practical strategies. Through insights and expert guidance, students will not only overcome these obstacles but also gain a deeper appreciation for Prolog's distinctive features, transforming potential stumbling blocks into valuable learning experiences that contribute to their overall mastery of the language.

## Best Practices for Efficient Prolog Programming

To harness the full potential of Prolog in engineering problem-solving, adhering to best practices is indispensable. This section delves into a comprehensive exploration of techniques that elevate Prolog programming to a level of clarity, efficiency, and effectiveness. From the fundamental aspects of code organization to advanced debugging strategies and optimization tips, students receive a wealth of knowledge to enhance their Prolog proficiency. By incorporating these best practices, students not only produce code that is clear, maintainable, and robust but also develop a strategic mindset for approaching complex challenges. Empowered with the ability to write efficient Prolog code, students gain a competitive edge in the dynamic field of engineering, equipped to tackle intricate problems with precision and innovation. Through the integration of these best practices, Prolog becomes more than a language; it transforms into a strategic tool, empowering students to navigate the complexities of real-world engineering scenarios with confidence and proficiency.

In conclusion, Prolog emerges as a indispensable asset for engineering students, serving as a beacon for those in search of effective solutions to intricate problems. The language's distinctive logic-based approach, complemented by its rule-based systems, positions it as a powerful tool for modeling and solving complex engineering scenarios. This comprehensive exploration of Prolog's applications, spanning logic-based systems, optimization problems, and constraint satisfaction, provides students with a profound understanding of its versatile capabilities. Engaging with Prolog becomes more than a mere educational pursuit; it becomes a transformative journey. As students navigate through the challenges presented by complex problems and implement best practices in Prolog programming, they embark on a path toward mastery. This journey not only hones their technical skills but instills in them a strategic mindset for logical problem-solving. In the ever-evolving landscape of engineering, where adaptability and innovation are paramount, mastering Prolog equips students with a skill set that transcends the confines of traditional programming languages. Armed with the ability to navigate intricate scenarios and the insights gained from overcoming challenges, students emerge from this transformative Prolog journey well-prepared for success in the dynamic and demanding field of engineering.

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Mastering prolog for engineering problem-solving: a comprehensive guide submit your homework, attached files.

## COMMENTS

1 - Learning outcomes assessed. This assignment covers some of the algorithms we covered onuninformed search. In particular, the outcomes assessed are: knowledge and understanding of uninformed search strategies such as breadth-first, depth-firstanditerative-deepening; application of uninformed search strategies to search both trees and graphs;

member(X,L) :- append(_,[X|_],L). This definition saysX is a member ofL if I can take some list (whose value I don't care about) and append it to a list that begins with. X (and which ends with values I don't care about) and get a list equal toL. Said more clearly,X is a member ofL ifX is anywhere in the "middle" ofL.

First Prolog Programming Assignment Solution 1.2... Tasks 1.3 Task 1: Map Coloring * Task 1: Map Coloring ting Shapes World * Task 2: The Floating Shapes World * Task 3: Pokemon KB Interaction and Programming ... Microsoft Word - Prolog Assignment 1 copy.pdf Created Date:

Second Prolog Programming Assignment Solution This assignment served as an exercise in state space problem solving. We wrote predicates for a program that solves the Tower of Hanoi problem with three, four, or five disks. The program recursively iterates every possible move until a solution is found. Task 3: One Move Predicate and a Unit Test ...

If you find yourself in need of Prolog assignment help, fear not! We've got a challenging yet enlightening question for you, along with a detailed solution to guide you through the process.

Pressing ; again forces it to try % the last one, 42, after which it no longer accepts input because this % is the last solution. You can accept an earlier solution by pressing . % instead of ;. % This is Prolog's central operation: unification. Unification is % essentially a combination of assignment and equality!

First Prolog Programming Assignment Solution This prolog assignment was my first introduction to writing prolog. I wrote a program to solve the map coloring problem, wrote queries and functions to return information on the Pokemon knowledge base, and performed Head/Tail list processing to manipulate lists.

The eight-queens problem. The eight-queens problem is a classic puzzle: how to place eight queens in an 8x8 chees board such that no two queens threaten each other? Using Prolog we can solve this problem not bothering how to actually solve them: it suffices to encode in Prolog the restrictions for a possible solution and let its unification + resolution machinery compute the solution for us.

P-99: Ninety-Nine Prolog Problems [email protected] or [email protected] The purpose of this problem collection is to give you the opportunity to practice your skills in logic programming. Your goal should be to find the most elegant solution of the given problems. Efficiency is important, but logical clarity is even more crucial.

The overall objective of this assignment is for you to gain some hands-on experience with problem solving using Prolog, using simple facts and rules, recursion, and database handling capabilities of the language. The instructions for submission of your assignment may be found at the bottom of this page of this document.

As demonstrated in the solutions above, the beauty of Prolog lies in its simplicity and expressiveness. With the guidance of our Prolog assignment helper, you too can unravel the mysteries of ...

uses Prolog to color in a map such that regions with shared borders have different colors. Task 2 illustrates building a knowledge base containing facts and rules about a floating shapes world. Task 3 involves querying a Pokemon knowledge base then extending the database. Finally, task 4 demonstrates list processing in Prolog. Task 1: Map Coloring

Most important thing to keep in mind while writing prolog program - "order of writing facts & rules always matters". Example 1 : Below food table shows the facts, rules, goals and their english meanings. Facts. English meanings. food (burger). // burger is a food. food (sandwich). // sandwich is a food. food (pizza).

So, if you find yourself saying, "do my Prolog assignment," read on to enhance your skills and conquer complex Prolog challenges. Exercise 1: Family Tree Relations Consider the following ...

Description. You've just stumbled upon the most complete, in-depth Prolog programming course online. Whether you want to: - build the skills you need to get your first Prolog programming job. - move to a more senior software developer position. - become a computer scientist mastering in computation. - or just learn prolog to be able to create ...

Logic Programming homework assignments using Prolog from my NKUA course. prolog educational coursework logic-programming assignments prolog ... Code Issues Pull requests My solution for the tasks from the Logic Programming discipline, during the 3th period of the course | Resoluções minhas dos trabalhos propostos durante a disciplina de ...

Generate a solution template document that is consistent with the accompanying solution template. Then, please do each of the Prolog tasks, adding source code, demos, and other materials (maps) to your template in the appropriate manner. * 1.3 Task 1: Colors KB Task 1: Colors KB

In conclusion, Prolog emerges as a indispensable asset for engineering students, serving as a beacon for those in search of effective solutions to intricate problems. The language's distinctive logic-based approach, complemented by its rule-based systems, positions it as a powerful tool for modeling and solving complex engineering scenarios.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an interdisciplinary field that involves the development of intelligent machines and systems that can perform tasks that typically require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision making, and natural language processing. Prolog is a programming language that is particularly well ...

Then, working carefully within a nice text editor, and with a good Prolog interpreter, do the remaining eight tasks. 2. Craft a nicely structured solution document that contains representations of each of the seven tasks for which you are actually asked to post something, by which I mean incorporate something into your solution document

Are you feeling overwhelmed with your Prolog assignment? Whether it's the complexity of the language or the intricacies of the problem-solving process, tackling Prolog assignments can be daunting…