Journal of Further and Higher Education

journal of further and higher education

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journal of further and higher education

The set of journals have been ranked according to their SJR and divided into four equal groups, four quartiles. Q1 (green) comprises the quarter of the journals with the highest values, Q2 (yellow) the second highest values, Q3 (orange) the third highest values and Q4 (red) the lowest values.

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The Journal of Further and Higher Education

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4 June 2006

Published for UCU by Taylor and Francis, the Journal of Further & Higher Education is an international, peer-reviewed journal containing articles and book reviews representing the whole field of post-16 education and training.

The journal encourages debate on contemporary pedagogic issues and professional and policy concerns within the UK and abroad.

For example there have been recent articles on: barriers to learning for mature students studying HE in an FE college; social and cultural tensions international students experience having studied at British universities; social network sites and student-lecturer communication; further and higher education teachers' responses to diversity; sustainable leadership and the implication for the general further education college sector.

The Journal of Further and Higher Education is committed to:

  • promoting excellence by making a substantial contribution to teaching, management and policy development;
  • providing a forum for discussion on areas of management and administration, teacher education and training, curriculum, staff and institutional development, teaching, learning and assessment strategies and processes, and pedagogic research and the research-teaching interface;
  • an accessible, succinct style and format with contributions from staff across the spectrum of further and higher education and training.

Members with a subscription to the journal can activate online access .

Subscription offer A free online sample copy is available from the Taylor & Francis website . UCU members can benefit from an exclusive offer - £30 for four issues of this prestigious publication, well below half the normal subscription. Download a subscription form below.

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Journal of Further and Higher Education is an international, peer-reviewed journal publishing scholarly work that represents the whole field of post-16 education and training. The journal engages with a diverse range of topics within the field including management and administration, teacher education and training, curriculum, staff and institutional development, and teaching and learning strategies and processes.

Through encouraging engagement with and around policy, contemporary pedagogic issues and professional concerns within different educational systems around the globe, Journal of Further and Higher Education is committed to promoting excellence by providing a forum for scholarly debate and evaluation.

Articles that are accepted for publication probe and offer original insights in an accessible, succinct style, and debate and critique practice, research, theory. They offer informed perspectives on contextual and professional matters and critically examine the relationship between theory and practice across the spectrum of further and higher education.

Peer Review Policy: All research articles in this journal have undergone rigorous peer review, based on initial editor screening and anonymized refereeing by at least two anonymous referees.

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Linking ISSN (ISSN-L): 0309-877X

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Teaching and learning artificial intelligence: Insights from the literature

  • Published: 02 May 2024

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journal of further and higher education

  • Bahar Memarian   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-0671-3127 1 &
  • Tenzin Doleck 1  

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Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been around for nearly a century, yet in recent years the rapid advancement and public access to AI applications and algorithms have led to increased attention to the role of AI in higher education. An equally important but overlooked topic is the study of AI teaching and learning in higher education. We wish to examine the overview of the study, pedagogical outcomes, challenges, and limitations through a systematic review process amidst the COVID-19 pandemic and public access to ChatGPT. Twelve articles from 2020 to 2023 focused on AI pedagogy are explored in this systematic literature review. We find in-depth analysis and comparison of work post-COVID and AI teaching and learning era is needed to have a more focused lens on the current state of AI pedagogy. Findings reveal that the use of self-reported surveys in a pre-and post-design form is most prevalent in the reviewed studies. A diverse set of constructs are used to conceptualize AI literacy and their associated metrics and scales of measure are defined based on the work of specific authors rather than a universally accepted framework. There remains work and consensus on what learning objectives, levels of thinking skills, and associated activities lead to the advanced development of AI literacy. An overview of the studies, pedagogical outcomes, and challenges are provided. Further implications of the studies are also shared. The contribution of this work is to open discussions on the overlooked topic of AI teaching and learning in higher education.

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Bahar Memarian & Tenzin Doleck

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Memarian, B., Doleck, T. Teaching and learning artificial intelligence: Insights from the literature. Educ Inf Technol (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-024-12679-y

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Received : 03 August 2023

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Published : 02 May 2024

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-024-12679-y

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The Future of OER in Higher Education

Article Icon

  • Open educational resources can be integrated into college courses to make higher education more engaging, accessible, and affordable for students.
  • The advent of generative artificial intelligence provides instructors with new, more efficient ways to develop and update OER so that these materials stay aligned with evolving trends and course objectives.
  • Many microcredentialing courses now use OER, which allows students to develop in-demand skills without paying the high cost of traditional higher education.

The past few years have brought drastic changes to higher education, in both how students learn and how instructors teach. Whether due to  increases in remote and hybrid learning  during the COVID-19 pandemic or the growing prominence of generative artificial intelligence (GenAI), business educators have had to adapt to change quickly, often without much institutional support.

Even through all this upheaval, textbooks have remained the most popular course material in higher education, according to a  survey conducted  by the research firm Bay View Analytics. However, increasingly instructors are replacing print materials such as hardcopy textbooks and homework handouts with digital options such as online textbooks and homework assistance platforms. Instructors also have embraced open educational resources (OER). Bay View’s data also show that the percentage of educators using OER as required course materials nearly doubled between the 2019–20 and 2022–23 academic years, from 15 percent to 29 percent.

Creative Commons  defines OER  as “teaching, learning, and research materials that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others.” Lacking traditional copyright restrictions, these materials permit instructors to engage more easily in the  5Rs : remixing, retaining, revising, reusing, and redistributing the materials.

These materials offer many benefits for instructors and students, addressing both existing and emerging challenges. But today, the versatility of OER is evolving with the advent of GenAI and the increasing popularity of alternative, skills-based educational paths. The latest developments in OER are allowing instructors and business programs to create and use these resources to make the educational experience more engaging, accessible, and relevant to all learners.

The Challenges of Print

Regardless of institution size or course level, business instructors and students collectively face several common challenges when using traditional print-based course materials:

Cost— Most faculty responding to Bay View’s survey view the cost of educational materials as “a serious problem” for their students. Postsecondary students spend, on average, between  628 USD and 1,200 USD  annually on textbooks and related resources. In some cases, students have reported that they  take fewer classes , withdraw from courses, change their majors, or even drop out of college entirely because they cannot afford required materials. Others have reported that they  skip meals  or take on additional part-time jobs and shifts at work to afford their textbooks.

Print textbooks often contain outdated information and data, but it’s no longer sufficient for students to view graphs using information that is several years old.

Time— It can take several days or weeks for students to purchase the required materials for their classes. Moreover, knowing that many students forgo buying required materials because of cost, instructors often feel that they must derive core course content directly from the textbook. As a result, they must divert class time away from experiential learning, hindering their ability to teach students effectively.

Relevance— Print textbooks often contain  outdated information and data , but it’s no longer sufficient for students to view graphs related to economic productivity or income inequality using information that is several years old. Likewise, it is no longer appropriate for students to read case studies from once-prominent sectors and companies whose significance is sharply declining, as they are supplanted by new and  growing industries . In today’s data-driven age, it’s essential for students to have access to the most recent analytics and quantitative research. 

Customization— The rise of remote learning and GenAI has heightened the need for instructors to personalize classroom resources and experiences to meet individual students’ needs. This is very difficult to do in introductory business courses with hundreds of students—and nearly impossible to do with commercially published print textbooks.

The OER option helps instructors address these issues. Available in the public domain or under an open license, OER can be customized to align with course objectives and amended with updated information and data. For instance, instructors can update an existing chart or graph with newer data or replace an older case study with one involving an industry or company more relevant to today’s students.

Because these resources are free, students do not have to decide how or whether they can afford required textbooks. Likewise, instructors can teach with confidence, knowing that all students have required course materials on the first day of class.

When OER Meets GenAI

The rise of GenAI is reshaping OER just as it is  reshaping higher education . Institutions are experimenting with GenAI to streamline time-consuming tasks involved with planning and teaching a course—and this can include finding, creating, and implementing OER.

For example, schools such as the  University of Texas at San Antonio  and  West Virginia University  in Morgantown offer grants to faculty who implement existing or create original OER to address time and resource barriers.  Miami University  in Oxford, Ohio, and the  University of Massachusetts Amherst  now consider their faculty’s OER development in tenure and promotion decisions.

GenAI can help instructors take even more of the legwork out of OER creation and adoption. Artificial intelligence can act as a kind of teaching assistant that instructors can use to quickly complete previously time-consuming tasks, such as:

  • Proofreading and receiving feedback on the OER that they create.
  • Generating descriptive alt text and captions for images.
  • Creating discussion prompts, homework questions, practice problems, and assignments.
  • Finding current examples of industries and companies relevant to today’s students (asking an AI tool, for example, to suggest information related to Instagram instead of MySpace).
  • Finding real-world examples of how certain sectors, organizations, and products apply specific business concepts, such as disruptive innovation or product life cycles.
  • Providing updated information on the business legal environment.
  • Creating assessments and rubrics.
  • Translating existing open-license content into other languages.
  • Updating existing OER with examples that allow increasingly  diverse cohorts  of undergraduate students to see themselves in the course material. For instance, GenAI can help instructors more easily integrate cases that involve organizations with  diverse leadership  or entrepreneurs from  historically underrepresented backgrounds .

Created by and for the educational community, OER can offer instructors a great deal of flexibility and versatility in designing their courses in ways that align with learning objectives and meet student needs. That said, GenAI cannot replace the critical role instructors play in OER creation. Given the  murky legality  surrounding AI and copyright, business instructors should be transparent about their use of AI and provide appropriate attributions.

Additionally, instructors should fact-check AI outputs such as case studies, examples, and statistics to ensure the information that AI tools provide is correct. There already have been many incidents in which ChatGPT has provided users with false statistics, made-up examples , and  other glaring errors —known as  hallucinations . Such errors underscore the importance of responsible GenAI use when creating course materials.

Nonetheless, by using GenAI tools responsibly, instructors can significantly streamline OER creation and customization in ways that improve their students’ learning experiences.

OER’s Role in Microcredentials

Employers increasingly  rely on microcredentials  to fill skills gaps in their workforces and consider microcredentials in place of traditional college degrees. Meanwhile, students are turning to microcredentials to  gain in-demand career skills  without attending—and paying tuition to—four-year universities. OER adoption is evolving to address the growing interest in these alternative, skills-based educational paths.

One initiative using open materials in microcredentials is  OERu , an international network of more than 40 partner universities, including Penn State in State College and  BCcampus , a platform that supports postsecondary education in British Columbia, Canada. With funding from UNESCO, the platform offers accredited, online  microcredentialing courses  based on OER. Each full course consists of a set of micro Open Online Courses (mOOCs), which students worldwide can take for free.

Many universities now have dedicated OER librarians and coordinators to aid instructors in adopting open resources in their classrooms, and others offer courses that train educators to use OER effectively.

After students complete a set of mOOCs that corresponds to a full course, they can obtain academic credit from one of the partner universities by taking a formal assessment. The assessment fees are significantly lower than the cost of full-time study, which means that students can develop in-demand skills without the burden of high tuition costs.

OERu offers a  certificate  that introduces students to the fundamentals of business and management while providing an overview of business careers across various sectors. This certificate includes 26 mOOCs, whose topics range from an  introduction to microeconomics  to the  foundations of marketing  to the  skills required to plan and manage organizations .

Institutions such as the  University of Pittsburgh  in Pennsylvania offer microcredentials in subjects such as accounting, marketing analytics, and technology management to help MBA students fully prepare for postgraduation employment. For many schools, offering OER-supported microcredentials is a viable, cost-efficient way to attract more prospective students and ensure existing students develop in-demand skills.

Open-Ended Opportunities

Educators who want to introduce OER materials into their classrooms will find that various platforms offer high-quality, timely resources. One option is OpenStax, based out of Rice University in Houston. At OpenStax, we are committed to helping educators find, create, and use OER materials. Our textbook library  now includes 16 open business textbooks . Another option is the Open Education Network (OEN), a consortium based at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. Comprising more than 330 educational institutions, the OEN offers an  Open Textbook Library  with 1,459 open textbooks, including  more than 130 business titles .

Educators also can find relevant OER on other platforms—often within their own institutions. Many universities now have dedicated OER librarians and coordinators to aid instructors in adopting open resources in their classrooms. For example, the University of Nebraska at Lincoln provides a guide on OER  directed to campus librarians, and the OEN even offers a  certificate in open education librarianship . Unite!, an alliance of European universities, has developed  its own course  to train educators on using OER effectively.

Open educational resources offer a range of opportunities for educators not only to enhance students’ educational experiences, but also to reach broader audiences. Fortunately, learning how to adopt, create, and improve OER has never been easier. Educators can simply conduct a quick Internet search, meet with their institutions’ OER librarians or program coordinators, chat with a colleague—or even ask ChatGPT—to point themselves in the right direction.

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journal of further and higher education

My Kingdom for an Adult

Amid the depressing dominance of childish and thuggish behavior on campuses, some public officials have emerged to show real leadership.

Now that the tents have been cleared from Columbia University’s campus, now that the NYPD has liberated Hamilton Hall , now that arrests have been made and outside agitators named, it’s time to begin making sense of the Tentifada. Mysteries abound: Who paid for all that matching, high-end camping gear? How did the same violent playbook spread from one campus to the next overnight? And what must we do now that the young collegians have made it clear that there’s more mayhem coming?

Let’s hope that our more astute observers get answers to these questions. But we have a more pressing duty: that of observing how various men and women in positions of power and authority acted when the barbarians stormed the gates.

First up: Columbia president Minouche Shafik. If you knew nothing about Shafik, or Columbia, or modern universities, and wanted to ascertain how the president might meet the troubling moment, you wouldn’t have needed to look past one number: $13.64 billion. That’s the value of Columbia’s endowment as of last June; it’s also, more or less, the Gross Domestic Product of Moldova, Rwanda, and a host of other smallish nations. With so much money at stake, it’s likely that anyone in Shafik’s position would have reacted as she did, with a symphony of bluster, obfuscations, and half-truths designed to make sure that business proceeds as usual.

Testifying before Congress in April, for example, Shafik delivered sweeping, emotive statements, such as saying that “for me, personally, any discrimination against people for their Jewish faith is anti-Semitism.” But when asked whether she intended to discipline Professor Joseph Massad, who celebrated the massacre of more than a thousand Israelis on October 7 as “awesome,” Shafik merely said that the errant teacher was “spoken to.” When pressed further about Massad’s employment status, the president replied that she just wasn’t sure.

It was a predictable performance. Even a passing glance at academic life these days makes clear that the men and women rewarded with top jobs on campus aren’t selected for their brilliance, skills, or character. These mutually accrediting mediocrities excel precisely at the corporate art form of being simultaneously in power and not in power, enjoying their authority and prestige but claiming ignorance, impotence, or both when difficulties arise.

If that sounds too harsh, consider that Columbia’s thirteenth president, Dwight D. Eisenhower, stepped into his office in Low Library just after defeating the Nazis and shortly before entering the Oval Office. Columbia’s twentieth president, Shafik, distinguished herself by rising through the ranks of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and other institutions keen to reward those who meet the right identity requirements. As president of the London School of Economics, she led that school into recording the highest permanent staff-to-student ratio of any major British university; she relaxed academic criteria and did little to prove herself as either a bold thinker or a competent administrator. It was enough for her to be, as one publication dutifully announced when she took the Columbia job, “the first woman” in office.

And yet, even with such a record of mediocrity, nothing about Shafik’s past conduct could have predicted her statement on May 1. “Over the last few months,” it read, “we have been patient in tolerating unauthorized demonstrations, including the encampment. Our academic leaders spent eight days engaging over long hours in serious dialogue in good faith with protest representatives. I thank them for their tireless effort. The University offered to consider new proposals on divestment and shareholder activism, to review access to our dual degree programs and global centers, to reaffirm our commitment to free speech, and to launch educational and health programs in Gaza and the West Bank.”

The president of Columbia University wasn’t defending academic freedom, free speech, unfettered inquiry, or any of the other principles that are the bedrock of all intellectual and moral pursuits. She was admitting that she was fully ready to scrap collaborations with Israeli academic institutions, consider financial and academic boycotts of the Jewish state, and direct her resources to Hamas-controlled Gaza, just to appease the marauders on her campus.

Shafik’s statement should have shocked her Board of Trustees into an immediate recall. It ought to have sent scores of faculty members out of their offices and into the quad, protesting this violation of everything that academia purportedly stands for. It should have led thousands of outraged parents to demand their money back and announce that they will no longer send their children to such a spineless institution. It should have inspired the Department of Education to heed the calls by several Republican lawmakers and suspend all federal funds to the university. Nothing of the kind happened.

I’ve received several advanced degrees, including my Ph.D., from Columbia University. I taught at Barnard, its sister college, and spent more than a decade reporting on the goings-on in Morningside Heights. Ever since the Tentifada began, I contacted deans and administrators and professors and asked them all what they intended to do now that violence was afoot and cheers for a terrorist group were heard everywhere on their campus. These women and men will not, thanks to their tenure, suffer consequences for speaking the truth—and that is precisely why we have tenure. And yet, to a person, they just mumbled about “working behind the scenes” and “monitoring the situation closely.”

And that, alas, is the real grim news out of Columbia or most any universities these days. You can fire one bumbling president for mishandling a crisis, but the only available successors seem similarly small-minded and weak-willed. By design, the universities are stacked with bureaucratic mediocrities all the way down: if you imagine the modern university as a battleground in an effort to produce a new generation of conformists ready to march in lockstep for whatever cause is deemed to serve “social justice,” you need overseers ready, willing, and able to abandon critical thinking and courage. There could be no more fitting testament to this state of being than Columbia’s decision to cancel its commencement, an admission that it is not really a university anymore.

Let us not, however, abandon all hope. Some elected officials showed solid common sense. As she continues her efforts to leave no ivy-covered stone unturned, New York representative Elise Stefanik shows what serious lawmakers ought to do. So do North Carolina representative Virginia Foxx, House Speaker Mike Johnson, and Democrat Ritchie Torres, who, despite a misguided proposal for a Department of Education task force—a move likely to yield unintended consequences, as the very people it was supposed to keep in check get their hands on political power—stood up for freedom and against anti-Semitism, not a popular move in his party these days.

But if you’re looking for a man of the hour, the distinction probably belongs to New York City’s embattled mayor. In a recent interview on the podcast I co-host, Tablet Magazine’s Unorthodox , Eric Adams responded to a question about what advice he would give to other elected officials on managing the sort of chaos that the NYPD handled so effectively last week on Columbia’s campus. Hizzoner needed only two words: “zero tolerance.” The tents, he responded with blunt candor, shouldn’t have been allowed on the lawn to begin with. Rules should have been observed, and laws respected.

It wasn’t just empty talk. When rioters took over the university’s Hamilton Hall, Adams told the thugs to stand down immediately. “We cannot and will not allow what should be a peaceful gathering to turn into a violent spectacle that serves no purpose,” the mayor said. “We cannot wait until this situation becomes even more serious. This must end now.”

When Shafik finally admitted her own uselessness and turned to the mayor for help, Adams, a former cop, sent in New York’s finest for an operation that ended swiftly and professionally, resulting in dozens of arrests and unearthing helmets, ropes, knives, and terrorism manifestos calling for death to America. The mayor shared this intelligence with the public, again coming off as the responsible adult we badly need right now.

A modest proposal, then, for any parent who wants to raise responsible and morally upright children: forget the poisoned Ivies. Have them join the police instead.

Liel Leibovitz is editor at large for Tablet .

Photo by Indy Scholtens/Getty Images

City Journal is a publication of the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research (MI), a leading free-market think tank. Are you interested in supporting the magazine? As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, donations in support of MI and City Journal are fully tax-deductible as provided by law (EIN #13-2912529).

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