Problem-Solving Method in Teaching

The problem-solving method is a highly effective teaching strategy that is designed to help students develop critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities . It involves providing students with real-world problems and challenges that require them to apply their knowledge, skills, and creativity to find solutions. This method encourages active learning, promotes collaboration, and allows students to take ownership of their learning.

Table of Contents

Definition of problem-solving method.

Problem-solving is a process of identifying, analyzing, and resolving problems. The problem-solving method in teaching involves providing students with real-world problems that they must solve through collaboration and critical thinking. This method encourages students to apply their knowledge and creativity to develop solutions that are effective and practical.

Meaning of Problem-Solving Method

The meaning and Definition of problem-solving are given by different Scholars. These are-

Woodworth and Marquis(1948) : Problem-solving behavior occurs in novel or difficult situations in which a solution is not obtainable by the habitual methods of applying concepts and principles derived from past experience in very similar situations.

Skinner (1968): Problem-solving is a process of overcoming difficulties that appear to interfere with the attainment of a goal. It is the procedure of making adjustments in spite of interference

Benefits of Problem-Solving Method

The problem-solving method has several benefits for both students and teachers. These benefits include:

  • Encourages active learning: The problem-solving method encourages students to actively participate in their own learning by engaging them in real-world problems that require critical thinking and collaboration
  • Promotes collaboration: Problem-solving requires students to work together to find solutions. This promotes teamwork, communication, and cooperation.
  • Builds critical thinking skills: The problem-solving method helps students develop critical thinking skills by providing them with opportunities to analyze and evaluate problems
  • Increases motivation: When students are engaged in solving real-world problems, they are more motivated to learn and apply their knowledge.
  • Enhances creativity: The problem-solving method encourages students to be creative in finding solutions to problems.

Steps in Problem-Solving Method

The problem-solving method involves several steps that teachers can use to guide their students. These steps include

  • Identifying the problem: The first step in problem-solving is identifying the problem that needs to be solved. Teachers can present students with a real-world problem or challenge that requires critical thinking and collaboration.
  • Analyzing the problem: Once the problem is identified, students should analyze it to determine its scope and underlying causes.
  • Generating solutions: After analyzing the problem, students should generate possible solutions. This step requires creativity and critical thinking.
  • Evaluating solutions: The next step is to evaluate each solution based on its effectiveness and practicality
  • Selecting the best solution: The final step is to select the best solution and implement it.

Verification of the concluded solution or Hypothesis

The solution arrived at or the conclusion drawn must be further verified by utilizing it in solving various other likewise problems. In case, the derived solution helps in solving these problems, then and only then if one is free to agree with his finding regarding the solution. The verified solution may then become a useful product of his problem-solving behavior that can be utilized in solving further problems. The above steps can be utilized in solving various problems thereby fostering creative thinking ability in an individual.

The problem-solving method is an effective teaching strategy that promotes critical thinking, creativity, and collaboration. It provides students with real-world problems that require them to apply their knowledge and skills to find solutions. By using the problem-solving method, teachers can help their students develop the skills they need to succeed in school and in life.

  • Jonassen, D. (2011). Learning to solve problems: A handbook for designing problem-solving learning environments. Routledge.
  • Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review, 16(3), 235-266.
  • Mergendoller, J. R., Maxwell, N. L., & Bellisimo, Y. (2006). The effectiveness of problem-based instruction: A comparative study of instructional methods and student characteristics. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 1(2), 49-69.
  • Richey, R. C., Klein, J. D., & Tracey, M. W. (2011). The instructional design knowledge base: Theory, research, and practice. Routledge.
  • Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (2001). Problem-based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. CRLT Technical Report No. 16-01, University of Michigan. Wojcikowski, J. (2013). Solving real-world problems through problem-based learning. College Teaching, 61(4), 153-156

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Principles Of Teaching MCQs Quiz With Answers


Are you ready to take the Principles of teaching MCQs quiz with answers? With this quiz about the Principles of teaching, you can test yourself and enhance your knowledge. Do you understand the Principles of teaching enough to pass this test with a score of 80 percent or above? Well, let's see. It is not only a test but also for enlightening you more with the concept. Prepare yourself for this, and do not forget to comment. Let's go!

The class of IV-kalikasan is tasked to analyze the present population of the different cities and municipalities of the National Capital Region for the last five years. How can they best present their analysis?    

By means of tables

By looking for a pattern

By means of a graph

By guessing and checking

Rate this question:

In Math, Teacher G presents various examples of plane figures to her class. Afterward, she asks the students to give the definition of each. What method did she use?

Teaching tinikling to i-maliksi becomes possible through the use of:.

Inductive method

Expository method

Demonstration method

Laboratory method

What is the implication of using a method that focuses on the why rather than how?    

There is the best method.

A typical one will be good for any subject.

These methods should be standardized for different subjects.

Teaching methods should favor inquiry and problem solving.

Which of the following characterizes a well-motivated lesson? 

The class is quit.

The children have something to do.

The teacher can leave the pupils to attend to some activities.

Here are varied procedures and activities undertaken by the pupils.

To ensure that the lesson will go on smoothly, Teacher A listed down the steps she will undertake together with those of her students. This practice relates to.

Teaching style

Teaching method

Teaching strategy

Teaching Technique

The strategy of teaching, which makes use of the old concept of "each-one-teach-one" of the sixty's, is similar.

Peer learning

Independent learning

Partner learning

Cooperative learning

Which of the following is NOT true?

The lesson should be in a constant state of revision.

A good daily lesson plan ensures a better discussion.

Students should never see a teacher using a lesson plan.

All teachers, regardless of their experiences, should have a daily lesson.

The class of Grade 6- Einstein is scheduled to perform an experiment on that day. However, the chemicals are insufficient. What method may be then used?


Pictures, models, and the like arouse students' interest in the day's topic. In what part of the lesson should the given materials be presented?

Initiating activities

Culminating activities

Evaluation activities

Developmental activities

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Problem-Solving Method of Teaching: All You Need to Know

What is Problem-Solving Method of Teaching?

Ever wondered about the problem-solving method of teaching? We’ve got you covered, from its core principles to practical tips, benefits, and real-world examples.

The problem-solving method of teaching is a student-centered approach to learning that focuses on developing students’ problem-solving skills. In this method, students are presented with real-world problems to solve, and they are encouraged to use their own knowledge and skills to come up with solutions. The teacher acts as a facilitator, providing guidance and support as needed, but ultimately the students are responsible for finding their own solutions.

Problem-Solving Method of Teaching Example

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5 Most Important Benefits of Problem-Solving Method of Teaching

The new way of teaching primarily helps students develop critical thinking skills and real-world application abilities. It also promotes independence and self-confidence in problem-solving.

The problem-solving method of teaching has a number of benefits. It helps students to:

1. Enhances critical thinking: By presenting students with real-world problems to solve, the problem-solving method of teaching forces them to think critically about the situation and to come up with their own solutions. This process helps students to develop their critical thinking skills, which are essential for success in school and in life.

2. Fosters creativity: The problem-solving method of teaching encourages students to be creative in their approach to solving problems. There is often no one right answer to a problem, so students are free to come up with their own unique solutions. This process helps students to develop their creativity, which is an important skill in all areas of life.

3. Encourages real-world application: The problem-solving method of teaching helps students learn how to apply their knowledge to real-world situations. By solving real-world problems, students are able to see how their knowledge is relevant to their lives and to the world around them. This helps students to become more motivated and engaged learners.

4. Builds student confidence: When students are able to successfully solve problems, they gain confidence in their abilities. This confidence is essential for success in all areas of life, both academic and personal.

5. Promotes collaborative learning: The problem-solving method of teaching often involves students working together to solve problems. This collaborative learning process helps students to develop their teamwork skills and to learn from each other.

Know 6 Steps in the Problem-Solving Method of Teaching

Know the 6 Steps

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The problem-solving method of teaching typically involves the following steps:

  • Identifying the problem. The first step is to identify the problem that students will be working on. This can be done by presenting students with a real-world problem, or by asking them to come up with their own problems.
  • Understanding the problem. Once students have identified the problem, they need to understand it fully. This may involve breaking the problem down into smaller parts or gathering more information about the problem.
  • Generating solutions. Once students understand the problem, they need to generate possible solutions. This can be done by brainstorming, or by using problem-solving techniques such as root cause analysis or the decision matrix.
  • Evaluating solutions. Students need to evaluate the pros and cons of each solution before choosing one to implement.
  • Implementing the solution. Once students have chosen a solution, they need to implement it. This may involve taking action or developing a plan.
  • Evaluating the results. Once students have implemented the solution, they need to evaluate the results to see if it was successful. If the solution is not successful, students may need to go back to step 3 and generate new solutions.

Find Out Examples of the Problem-Solving Method of Teaching

Here are a few examples of how the problem-solving method of teaching can be used in different subjects:

  • Math: Students could be presented with a real-world problem such as budgeting for a family or designing a new product. Students would then need to use their math skills to solve the problem.
  • Science: Students could be presented with a science experiment, or asked to research a scientific topic and come up with a solution to a problem. Students would then need to use their science knowledge and skills to solve the problem.
  • Social studies: Students could be presented with a historical event or current social issue, and asked to come up with a solution. Students would then need to use their social studies knowledge and skills to solve the problem.

5 How Tos For Using The Problem-Solving Method Of Teaching

Here are a few tips for using the problem-solving method of teaching effectively:

  • Choose problems that are relevant to students’ lives and interests.
  • Make sure that the problems are challenging but achievable.
  • Provide students with the resources they need to solve the problems, such as books, websites, or experts.
  • Encourage students to work collaboratively and to share their ideas.
  • Be patient and supportive. Problem-solving can be a challenging process, but it is also a rewarding one.

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How to Choose: Let’s Draw a Comparison

The following table compares the different problem-solving methods:

Which Method is the Most Suitable?

The most suitable method of teaching will depend on a number of factors, such as the subject matter, the student’s age and ability level, and the teacher’s own preferences. However, the problem-solving method of teaching is a valuable approach that can be used in any subject area and with students of all ages.

Here are some additional tips for using the problem-solving method of teaching effectively:

  • Differentiate instruction. Not all students learn at the same pace or in the same way. Teachers can differentiate instruction to meet the needs of all learners by providing different levels of support and scaffolding.
  • Use formative assessment. Formative assessment can be used to monitor students’ progress and to identify areas where they need additional support. Teachers can then use this information to provide students with targeted instruction.
  • Create a positive learning environment. Students need to feel safe and supported in order to learn effectively. Teachers can create a positive learning environment by providing students with opportunities for collaboration, celebrating their successes, and creating a classroom culture where mistakes are seen as learning opportunities.

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Some Unique Examples to Refer to Before We Conclude

Here are a few unique examples of how the problem-solving method of teaching can be used in different subjects:

  • English: Students could be presented with a challenging text, such as a poem or a short story, and asked to analyze the text and come up with their own interpretation.
  • Art: Students could be asked to design a new product or to create a piece of art that addresses a social issue.
  • Music: Students could be asked to write a song about a current event or to create a new piece of music that reflects their cultural heritage.

The problem-solving method of teaching is a powerful tool that can be used to help students develop the skills they need to succeed in school and in life. By creating a learning environment where students are encouraged to think critically and solve problems, teachers can help students to become lifelong learners.

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problem solving method of teaching mcqs

Center for Teaching

Teaching problem solving.

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Tips and Techniques

Expert vs. novice problem solvers, communicate.

  • Have students  identify specific problems, difficulties, or confusions . Don’t waste time working through problems that students already understand.
  • If students are unable to articulate their concerns, determine where they are having trouble by  asking them to identify the specific concepts or principles associated with the problem.
  • In a one-on-one tutoring session, ask the student to  work his/her problem out loud . This slows down the thinking process, making it more accurate and allowing you to access understanding.
  • When working with larger groups you can ask students to provide a written “two-column solution.” Have students write up their solution to a problem by putting all their calculations in one column and all of their reasoning (in complete sentences) in the other column. This helps them to think critically about their own problem solving and helps you to more easily identify where they may be having problems. Two-Column Solution (Math) Two-Column Solution (Physics)

Encourage Independence

  • Model the problem solving process rather than just giving students the answer. As you work through the problem, consider how a novice might struggle with the concepts and make your thinking clear
  • Have students work through problems on their own. Ask directing questions or give helpful suggestions, but  provide only minimal assistance and only when needed to overcome obstacles.
  • Don’t fear  group work ! Students can frequently help each other, and talking about a problem helps them think more critically about the steps needed to solve the problem. Additionally, group work helps students realize that problems often have multiple solution strategies, some that might be more effective than others

Be sensitive

  • Frequently, when working problems, students are unsure of themselves. This lack of confidence may hamper their learning. It is important to recognize this when students come to us for help, and to give each student some feeling of mastery. Do this by providing  positive reinforcement to let students know when they have mastered a new concept or skill.

Encourage Thoroughness and Patience

  • Try to communicate that  the process is more important than the answer so that the student learns that it is OK to not have an instant solution. This is learned through your acceptance of his/her pace of doing things, through your refusal to let anxiety pressure you into giving the right answer, and through your example of problem solving through a step-by step process.

Experts (teachers) in a particular field are often so fluent in solving problems from that field that they can find it difficult to articulate the problem solving principles and strategies they use to novices (students) in their field because these principles and strategies are second nature to the expert. To teach students problem solving skills,  a teacher should be aware of principles and strategies of good problem solving in his or her discipline .

The mathematician George Polya captured the problem solving principles and strategies he used in his discipline in the book  How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method (Princeton University Press, 1957). The book includes  a summary of Polya’s problem solving heuristic as well as advice on the teaching of problem solving.

problem solving method of teaching mcqs

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Assessing by Multiple Choice Questions

Multiple choice question (MCQ) tests can be useful for formative assessment and to stimulate students' active and self-managed learning. They improve students' learning performance and their perceptions of the quality of their learning experience ( Velan et al., 2008 ). When using MCQ tests for formative learning, you might still want to assign a small weight to them in the overall assessment plan for the course, to indicate to students that their grasp of the material tested is important.

MCQ tests are strongly associated with assessing lower-order cognition such as the recall of discrete facts. Because of this, assessors have questioned their use in higher education. It is possible to design MCQ tests to assess higher-order cognition (such as synthesis, creative thinking and problem-solving), but questions must be drafted with considerable skill if such tests are to be valid and reliable. This takes time and entails significant subjective judgement.

When determining whether an MCQ test is at the appropriate cognitive level, you may want to compare it with the levels as set out in Krathwohl's (2002) revision to Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. If an MCQ test is, in fact, appropriate to the learning outcomes you want to assess and the level of cognition they involve, the next question is whether it would be best used for formative assessment (to support students' self-management of their learning), or for summative assessment (to determine the extent of students' learning at a particular point). When MCQ tests are being used for summative assessment, it's important to ask whether this is because of the ease of making them or for solid educational reasons. Where MCQ tests are appropriate, ensure that you integrate them effectively into assessment design. MCQ tests should never constitute the only or major form of summative assessment in university-level courses.

When to use

MCQ tests are useful for assessing lower-order cognitive processes, such as the recall of factual information, although this is often at the expense of higher-level critical and creative reasoning processes. Use MCQ tests when, for example, you want to:

  • assess lower-order cognition such as the recall of discrete facts, particularly if they will be essential to higher-order learning later in the course
  • gather information about students' pre-course understanding, knowledge gaps and misconceptions, to help plan learning and teaching approaches.
  • provide students with an accessible way to review course material, check that they understand key concepts and obtain timely feedback to help them manage their own learning
  • test students' broad knowledge of the curriculum and learning outcomes.

It should be noted that the closed-ended nature of MCQ tests makes them particularly inappropriate for assessing originality and creativity in thinking.

MCQ tests are readily automated, with numerous systems available to compile, administer, mark and provide feedback on tests according to a wide range of parameters.  Marking can be done by human markers with little increase in marking load; or automatically, with no additional demands on teachers or tutors.


Although MCQ tests can lack nuance in that the answers are either right or wrong (provided the questions are well-designed), this has the advantage of reducing markers' bias and increasing overall objectivity.  Moreover, because the tests do not require the students to formulate and write their own answers, the students' writing ability (which can vary widely even within a homogeneous cohort) becomes much less of a subjective factor in determining their grasp of the material.  It should be noted, however, that they are highly prone to cultural bias (Bazemore-James et al., 2016).

The development of question banks

MCQ tests can be refined and enhanced over time to incorporate new questions into an ever-growing question pool that can be used in different settings.

While MCQ tests are quick and straighforward to administer and mark, they require a large amount of up-front design effort to ensure that they are valid, relevant, fair and as free as possible from cultural, gender or racial bias.  It's also challenging to write MCQs that resist mere guesswork. This is particularly the case if the questions are intended to test higher-order cognition such as synthesis, creative thinking and problem-solving.

The use of MCQ tests as summative assessments can encourage students to adopt superficial approaches to learning. This superficiality is exacerbated by the lack of in-depth, critical feedback inherent in a highly standardised assessment.

MCQ tests can disadvantage students with reading or English-language difficulties, regardless of how well they understand the content being assessed.

Plan a summative MCQ test

If you decide that an MCQ test is appropriate for summative assessment according to the objectives and outcomes for a course, let students know in the course outline that you'll be using it.

Table 1 sets out a number of factors to consider in the test planning stage.

Table 1: Factors in planning MCQ test design

Construct an MCQ test

Constructing effective MCQ tests and items takes considerable time and requires scrupulous care in the design, review and validation stages. Constructing MCQ tests for high-stakes summative assessment is a specialist task.

For this reason, rather than constructing a test from scratch, it may be more efficient for you to see what other validated tests already exist, and incorporate one into any course for which numerous decisions need to be made.

In some circumstances it may be worth the effort to create a new test. If you can undertake test development collaboratively within your department or discipline group, or as a larger project across institutional boundaries, you will increase the test's potential longevity and sustainability.

By progressively developing a multiple-choice question bank or pool, you can support benchmarking processes and establish assessment standards that have long-term effects on assuring course quality.

Use a design framework to see how individual MCQ questions will assess particular topic areas and types of learning objectives, across a spectrum of cognitive demand, to contribute to the test's overall balance. As an example, the "design blueprint" in Table 2 provides a structural framework for planning.

Table 2: Design blueprint for multiple choice test design (from the Instructional Assessment Resources at the University of Texas at Austin)

Use the most appropriate format for each question posed. Ask yourself, is it best to use:

  • a single correct answer
  • more than one correct answer
  • a true/false choice (with single or multiple correct answers)
  • matching (e.g. a term with the appropriate definition, or a cause with the most likely effect)
  • sentence completion, or
  • questions relating to some given prompt material?

To assess higher-order thinking and reasoning, consider basing a cluster of MCQ items on some prompt material, such as:

  • a brief outline of a problem, case or scenario
  • a visual representation (picture, diagram or table) of the interrelationships among pieces of information or concepts
  • an excerpt from published material.

You can present the associated MCQ items in a sequence from basic understanding through to higher-order reasoning, including:

  • identifying the effect of changing a parameter
  • selecting the solution to a given problem
  • nominating the optimum application of a principle.

You may wish to add some short-answer questions to a substantially MCQ test to minimise the effect of guessing by requiring students to express in their own words their understanding and analysis of problems.

Well in advance of an MCQ test, explain to students:

  • the purposes of the test (and whether it is formative or summative)
  • the topics being covered
  • the structure of the test
  • whether aids can be taken into the test (for example, calculators, notes, textbooks, dictionaries)
  • how it will be marked
  • how the mark will contribute to their overall grade.

Compose clear instructions on the test itself, explaining:

  • the components of the test
  • their relative weighting
  • how much time you expect students to spend on each section, so that they can optimise their time.

Quality assurance of MCQ tests

Whether you use MCQ tests to support learning in a formative way or for summative assessment, ensure that the overall test and each of its individual items are well aligned with the course learning objectives. When using MCQ tests for summative assessment, it's all the more critical that you assure their validity.

The following strategies will help you assure quality:

  • Use a basic quality checklist ( such as this one from Knapp & Associates International ) when designing and reviewing the test.
  • Take the test yourself. Calculate student completion time as being four times longer than your completion time.
  • Work collaboratively across your discipline to develop an MCQ item bank as a dynamic (and growing) repository that everyone can use for formative or summative assessments, and that enables peer review, evaluation and validation.

Use peer review to:

  • consider whether MCQ tests are educationally justified in your discipline
  • critically evaluate MCQ test and item design
  • examine the effects of using MCQs in the context of the learning setting
  • record and disseminate the peer review outcomes to students and colleagues.

Engage students in active learning with MCQ tests

Used formatively, MCQ tests can:

  • engage students in actively reviewing their own learning progress, identifying gaps and weaknesses in their understanding, and consolidating their learning through rehearsal
  • provide a trigger for collaborative learning activities, such as discussion and debate about the answers to questions.
  • become collaborative through the use of technologies such as electronic voting systems
  • through peer assessment, help students identify common areas of misconception within the class.

You can also create activities that disrupt the traditional agency of assessment. You might, for example, require students to indicate the learning outcomes with which individual questions are aligned, or to construct their own MCQ questions and prepare explanatory feedback on the right and wrong answers (Fellenz, 2010).

Ensure fairness

Construct MCQ tests according to inclusive-design principles to ensure equal chances of success for all students. Take into account any diversity of ability, cultural background or learning styles and needs.

  • Avoid sexual, racial, cultural or linguistic stereotyping in individual MCQ test items, to ensure that no groups of students are unfairly advantaged or disadvantaged.
  • Provide alternative formats for MCQ-type exams for any students with disabilities. They may, for example, need more time to take a test, or to be provided with assistive technology or readers.
  • Set up contingency plans for timed online MCQ tests, as computers can malfunction or system outages occur at any time. Also address any issues arising from students being in different time zones.
  • Develop processes in advance so that you have time to inform students about the objectives, formats and delivery of MCQ tests and, for a summative test, the marking scheme being used and the test's effect on overall marks.
  • To reduce the opportunity for plagiarism, specify a randomised question presentation for MCQ, so that different students will be presented with the same content in a different order.

Writing Good Multiple Choice Test Questions (Vanderbilt University).

Bazemore-James, C. M., Shinaprayoon, T., & Martin, J. (2016). Understanding and supporting students who experience cultural bias in standardized tests . Trends and Issues in Academic Support: 2016-2017 .

Fellenz, M.R. (2004). Using assessment to support higher level learning: the multiple choice item development assignment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 29 (6), 703-719.

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy: An overview . Theory into Practice , 41 (4), 212-218.

LeJeune, J. (2023). A multiple-choice study: The impact of transparent question design on student performance . Perspectives In Learning , 20 (1), 75-89.

Velan, G.M., Jones, P., McNeil, H.P. and Kumar, R.K. (2008). Integrated online formative assessments in the biomedical sciences for medical students: benefits for learning . BMC Medical Education 8(52).

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Welcome to the Mathematics Teaching Strategies section on Here, you will find a wide range of MCQs designed to enhance your mathematics teaching strategies and approaches, enabling you to engage students, foster conceptual understanding, and promote problem-solving skills in mathematics education.

Teaching mathematics requires a deep understanding of both the subject matter and effective instructional methods. The MCQs provided in this section cover various teaching strategies, including inquiry-based learning, hands-on activities, problem-solving approaches, differentiation techniques, and the use of technology in mathematics instruction.

Whether you are a mathematics teacher, educator, or aspiring educator, the Mathematics Teaching Strategies MCQs offer a platform to enhance your teaching effectiveness and inspire your students' love for mathematics. Explore these MCQs, apply the strategies in your classroom, and witness the positive impact on student learning and achievement.

Join us in exploring the MCQs on Mathematics Teaching Strategies and unlock your potential to become a more effective mathematics educator.

1: The use of symbols, including numeric, algebraic, statistical and geometric is called abstract instruction.

A.   True

B.   False

2: Knowing the number of objects in a set is called _____.

A.   Cardinality

B.   Modality

C.   Ordinaility

D.   Degree

3: Manipulating objects to represent numerals and operations is called learned helplessness.

4: the ability to understand numbers, numeric relationships, and how to use numeric information to solve mathematic problems is called _____..

A.   Number sense

B.   Numeration

C.   Fluency

D.   Operations

5: Use procedural strategies accurately and know how to make sense of numerical and quantitative situations is called _____powerful students.

A.   Numerically

B.   Analytically

C.   Algebraically

D.   Chronologically

6: Teacher uses _____ representations such as tally marks, dots, picture and so forth is called representational instruction.

A.   Visual

B.   Audible

C.   Verbal

D.   None of these

7: Breaking a task into smaller manageable parts or steps, teaching steps as separate objectives, and then combining all steps to complete the entire task is called _____.

A.   Task analysis

B.   Behavior analysis

C.   Education analysis

8: Ability to perceive and understand accurately what you see is called ______ perception.

B.   Audio

C.   Code

D.   Verbal

9: Kita has difficulty remembering the definitions of mathematical terms. A strategy most likely to help her is:

A.   Self-regulation

B.   Peer tutoring

C.   A mnemonic device

D.   An advance organizer

10: Mr. Robinson’s general education classroom is comprised primarily of students who are culturally diverse and some of them have learning disabilities. He does not believe that the problems in the textbook are relevant to their lives. In order to engage his students more effectively, Mr. Robinson should consider:

A.   Focusing solely on the textbook problems to expose them to new ideas

B.   Allowing students to solve problems independently without teacher direction

C.   Writing math problems that are culturally relevant and authentic

D.   Allowing students to create their own problem-solving strategies

11: The first step in developing mathematics instruction is to:

A.   Write the short-term lesson objectives

B.   Sequence the skills

C.   Determine prerequisites

D.   Select a teaching procedure

12: Maria refuses to attempt to solve math problems in class. She cries and says, “I can’t do it.” Maria may be experiencing problems related to:

A.   Memory difficulties

B.   Attention problems

C.   Language

D.   Learned helplessness

13: Researchers have found that the more effective approach for teaching mathematics to students with high-incidence disabilities is:

A.   Implicit instruction

B.   Discovery learning

C.   Social interaction

D.   Explicit instruction

14: Selective attention can affect a student’s math performance.

15: a disadvantage of a scripted lesson plan in mathematics is too much emphasis is placed on devising additional examples., 16: keywords but not pegwords can be used to teach mathematics., 17: graphic representation is not an appropriate strategy to help students solve word problems., 18: the conversion of words into math symbols is an example of how language can affect mathematical performance., list of mathematics teaching s..., related mathematics teaching strategies mcqs:.

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  • Research article
  • Open access
  • Published: 02 February 2016

Case-based learning and multiple choice questioning methods favored by students

  • Magalie Chéron 1 ,
  • Mirlinda Ademi 2 ,
  • Felix Kraft 3 &
  • Henriette Löffler-Stastka 1  

BMC Medical Education volume  16 , Article number:  41 ( 2016 ) Cite this article

13k Accesses

17 Citations

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Investigating and understanding how students learn on their own is essential to effective teaching, but studies are rarely conducted in this context. A major aim within medical education is to foster procedural knowledge. It is known that case-based questioning exercises drive the learning process, but the way students deal with these exercises is explored little.

This study examined how medical students deal with case-based questioning by evaluating 426 case-related questions created by 79 fourth-year medical students. The subjects covered by the questions, the level of the questions (equivalent to United States Medical Licensing Examination Steps 1 and 2), and the proportion of positively and negatively formulated questions were examined, as well as the number of right and wrong answer choices, in correlation to the formulation of the question.

The evaluated case-based questions’ level matched the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 level. The students were more confident with items aiming on diagnosis, did not reject negatively formulated questions and tended to prefer handling with right content, while keeping wrong content to a minimum.

These results should be taken into consideration for the formulation of case-based questioning exercises in the future and encourage the development of bedside teaching in order to foster the acquisition of associative and procedural knowledge, especially clinical reasoning and therapy-oriented thinking.

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Trying to understand how students learn on their own, aside from lectures, is essential to effective teaching. It is known that assessment and case-based questioning drive the learning process. Studies have shown that the way assessment is being conducted influences students’ approach to learning critically [ 1 ]. Several written methods are used for the assessment of medical competence: Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs), Key Feature Questions, Short Answer Questions, Essay Questions and Modified Essay Questions [ 2 ]. Based upon their structure and quality, examination questions can be subdivided into (1) open-ended or multiple choice and (2) context rich or context poor ones [ 3 , 4 ].

Well-formulated MCQs assess cognitive, affective and psychomotoric domains and are preferred over other methods because they ensure objective assessment, minimal effect of the examiner’s bias, comparability and cover a wide range of subjects [ 5 ]. Context rich MCQs encourage complex cognitive clinical thinking, while context poor or context free questions mainly test declarative knowledge (facts, “what” information), which involves pure recall of isolated pieces of information such as definitions or terminologies. In contrast, procedural knowledge (“why” and “how” information) requires different skills: Students are encouraged to understand concepts and to gather information from various disciplines in order to apply their knowledge in a clinically-oriented context. Remarkably, prior clinical experience has been suggested to be a strong factor influencing students’ performance in procedural knowledge tasks [ 6 , 7 ]. With the focus of teaching students to think critically, test items must require students to use a high level of cognitive processing [ 3 ]. A successful approach is using Extended Matching Items (EMIs), consisting of clinical vignettes [ 2 ]. This format is characteristic for examination questions in Step 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) [ 8 ]. Step 2 items, test the application of clinical knowledge required by a general physician and encourage examinees to make clinical decision rather than to simply recall isolated facts [ 6 ]. As a well-established examination format introduced by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) USMLE question criteria served for the comparison in our study.

Case-based learning (CBL) has gained in importance within past years. This well-established pedagogical method has been used by the Harvard Business School since 1920 [ 9 ]. Nevertheless, there is no international consensus on its definition. CBL as introduced to students of the Medical University of Vienna (MUV, Austria) in Block 20 is inquiry-based learning demanding students to develop clinical reasoning by solving authentic clinical cases presented as context rich MCQs. Generally, exposing students to complex clinical cases promotes (1) self-directed learning, (2) clinical reasoning, (3) clinical problem-solving and (4) decision making [ 9 ]. In contrast to other testing formats CBL facilitates deeper conceptual understanding. As students see the direct relevance of the information to be learnt, their motivation increases and they are more likely to remember facts. Studies showed that CBL fosters more active and collaborative learners and that students enjoy CBL as a teaching method [ 9 ]. This is in line with the improving results from the students’ evaluation of the course Psychic Functions in Health and Illness and Medical Communication Skills-C ( Block 20/ÄGF-C ) performed in 2013 [ 10 ] and 2014 [ 11 ] at the MUV. A Likert scale ranging from 1 (very bad) to 4 (very good) was used to evaluate the quality of the lectures: The mean grade improved from 1.6 in 2013 to 3 one year later, after the introduction of online case-based exercises related to the lectures. Therefore, based upon the assumption that students tend to prefer practical learning, the development of case-based question driven blended-learning will be further encouraged at the MUV, in order to aim for an effective training for the fostering of procedural knowledge, necessary for clinical reasoning processes and clinical authentic care.

There are no published studies analyzing the way medical students construct MCQs regarding their level of clinical reasoning. To learn more about how students deal with case-based questioning we analyzed student-generated MCQs. The study gives important insights by examining students’ way of reasoning, from formal reasoning using only declarative knowledge to clinical and procedural reasoning based on patients’ cases. Moreover, this study allows to observe to what extent negatively formulated questions, a rarely used format in exams, may not be a problem for students.

This analysis is based on the evaluation of a compensatory exercise for missed seminars completed by students in their fourth year of medical studies at the MUV, after attending their first course on psychic functioning ( Block 20/ÄGF-C ). The 5-week-long Block 20 [ 12 ] focused on the fundamentals of psychic functions, the presentation of the most important psychological schools and on the significance of genetic, biological, gender-related and social factors, as well as on the presentation of psychotherapeutic options and prevention of psychic burden [ 13 ]. Basis of the doctor-patient communication and of psychological exploration techniques were offered [ 12 ]. To pass Block 20 , all students had to take part to the related online CBL [ 14 ] exercise. This exercise presented patients cases including detailed information on diagnosis and therapy, subdivided in psychotherapy and pharmacology. The students had to answer MCQ concerning each diagnostic and therapeutic step.

The current study was approved by the ethics committee of the Medical University of Vienna, students gave informed consent to take part and data is deposited in publicly available repositories (online CBL exercise) after finishing the study. The students were instructed to create MCQs with 4–5 answer possibilities per question, related to cases of patients with psychopathological disorders presented in the online CBL exercise and in the lectures’ textbook of the Block 20 [ 15 ]. The “One-Best Answer” format was recommended. Additionally, the students were required to explain why the answers were right or wrong. MCQ examples were offered to the students in the online CBL exercise.

The authors performed the assessment and classification of the students’ MCQs after group briefings. A final review was done by MC to ensure inter-rater reliability, it was stable at k  = .73 between MC and HLS.

Subjects covered by the questions

The proportions of epidemiology, etiology/pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy oriented items were examined. In order to simplify the classification, etiology and pathogenesis items were gathered into one group. Items asking for symptoms, classifications (e.g. ICD 10 criteria) as well as necessary questions in the anamnesis were gathered as diagnosis items. Among the therapy items, the frequency of items concerning psychotherapy methods and pharmacology was also compared. The proportion of exercises including at least one diagnosis item and one therapy item was observed. These subjects were chosen according to the patient cases of the CBL exercises and the lectures’ textbook.

Level of the questions

The level of the questions was evaluated in comparison to USMLE equivalent Steps 1 and 2, as described by the NBME. While Step 1 questions (called recall items ) test basic science knowledge, “every item on Step 2 provides a patient vignette” and tests higher skills. Step 2 questions are necessarily application of knowledge items and require interpretation from the student [ 6 ].

To assess the level of the items, 2 further groups were created, distinguishing items from the others. Examples of Step 1 and Step 2 Items’ stems offered by the students:

Step 1: “What is the pharmacological first line therapy of borderline patients?” (Item 31) Step 2: “M. Schlüssel presents himself with several medical reports from 5 specialists for neurology, orthopedics, trauma surgery, neuroradiology and anesthesia, as well as from 4 different general practitioners. Diagnostic findings showed no evidence for any pathology. Which therapy options could help the patient?” (Item 86)

Further, “Elaborate Items” were defined by the authors as well thought-out questions with detailed answer possibilities and/or extensive explanations of the answers.

Finally, “One-Step questions” and “n-steps questions” were differentiated. This categorization reflects the number of cognitive processes needed to answer a question and estimates the complexity of association of a MCQ. Recall items are necessarily one-step questions, whereas application of knowledge items may be one-step questions or multiple (n) steps questions. Because the evaluation of the cognitive processes is dependent on the knowledge of the examinee, the NBME does not give priority to this categorization anymore, although it gives information on the level and quality of the questions [ 6 ]. The previous example of a Step 2 question (Item 86) is an application of knowledge (Step 2) item categorized as n-Step item, because answering the question necessitates an association to the diagnosis, which is not explicitly given by the question. An example for a Step 2 question necessitating only one cognitive process would be: “A patient complains about tremor and excessive sweating. Which anamnestic questions are necessary to ask to diagnose an alcohol withdrawal syndrome?” (Item 232)

Formulation of the questions

The proportion of positively and negatively formulated questions created by the students was examined, as well as the number of right and wrong answer choices, in correlation to the formulation of the question.

Descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS 22.0 to analyze the subjects covered by the questions, their level and formulation, and the number of answer possibilities offered. The significance of the differences was performed using the Chi-square Test or Mann–Whitney U Test, depending on the examined variable, after testing for normal distribution. A given p -value < .05 was considered statistically significant in all calculations.

The study included 105 compensation exercises, performed by 79 students, representing 428 MCQs. After reviewing by the examiner (HLS), who is responsible for pass/fail decisions on the completion and graduation concerning the curriculum element Block 20/ÄGF-C, followed by corrections from the students, two questions were excluded, because the answers offered were not corresponding to the MCQ’s stem. Finally, 426 questions remained and were analyzed.

The subjects covered by the 426 questions concerned the diagnosis of psychiatric diseases (49.1 %), their therapies (29.6 %) and their etiology and pathogenesis (21.4 %). 18 questions covered two subjects (Table  1 ).

Significantly more items concerned the diagnosis of psychiatric diseases than their therapies ( p  < .001, Chi-Square Test); 63.3 % of the students offered at least one item regarding diagnosis and one item regarding therapy in their exercise.

Among the therapy items, significantly more pharmacology items were offered than psychotherapy items (59 % versus 41 %; p  = .043, Chi-Square Test).

395 (92.7 %) of the questions were classified as Step 1-questions. Nevertheless, 199 (46.7 %) of the questions were elaborate. 421 (98.8 %) out of the 426 questions were One-Step questions, according to USMLE criteria (Table  1 ). From the 18 questions covering two subjects, 16 were Step 1-questions.

72.5 % of the questions were positively formulated, 27.5 % negatively. A significant difference was observed between the positively and negatively formulated questions regarding the number of right answers: Table  2 shows the distribution of the number of right answers, depending on the questions’ formulation. The students offered significantly more right answer possibilities per positive-formulated question than per negative-formulated questions ( p  < .001, Mann–Whitney U Test).

The positive-formulated questions had more often two or more right answers than the negative-formulated questions ( p  < .001, Chi-square value = 44.2).

The students also offered less answer possibilities per positive-formulated question than per negative-formulated question ( p  < .001, Mann–Whitney U Test). Further, Table  2 presents the distribution of the number of answers offered depending on the questions’ formulation. The proportion of questions with 4 answer possibilities instead of 5 is higher within the group of positive-formulated questions ( p  < .001, Chi-square value = 16.56). Regarding the proportion of elaborate questions depending on their formulation, there was no significant difference.

Twenty-nine (36.7 %) students offered only positively formulated questions. The students who formulated at least one question negatively (63.3 %) formulated 41.1 ± 22.4 % of their questions negatively.

Many more questions aiming on diagnosis

At the end of year 4, students of the MUV had had various lectures but hardly any actual experiences with therapies. This may explain why significantly more items concerned the diagnosis of psychiatric diseases than their therapies.

Among questions aiming on therapy, significantly more concerned pharmacotherapy than psychotherapy

Before Block 20 , the seminars concerning therapies in the MUV Curriculum were almost exclusively pharmacological. After successful attendance of Block 20 most students who did not have any personal experience of psychotherapy only had little insight into how psychotherapy is developing on the long-term and what psychotherapy can really provide to the patient. Psychotherapy associations were still loaded with old stereotypes [ 13 , 16 ]. This could explain why significantly more therapy questions addressed pharmacology than psychotherapy.

A huge majority of Step 1 questions

The students mainly offered Step 1 questions. It can be questioned, whether the lack of case-oriented questions was an indication for insufficient clinical thinking by the students. An essential explanation could be that students lacked adequate patient contact until the end of year four. Indeed, MUV students were allowed to begin their practical experience after year two and eight compulsory clerkship weeks were scheduled before the beginning of year five [ 17 ]. Thus, Austrian medical students gained consistent clinical experience only after year four, with rotations in year five and the newly introduced Clinical Practical Year in year six. A European comparison of medical universities’ curricula showed that students of other countries spent earlier more time with patients: Dutch, French and German medical students began with a nursing training in year one and had 40, 10 and 4 months, respectively, more clerkship experience than Austrian students before entering year five [ 18 – 21 ]. French and Dutch universities are extremely centered on clinical thinking, with a total of 36 clerkship months in France and the weekly presence of patients from the first lectures on in Groningen [ 22 ]. Thus, it would be interesting to repeat a similar case-based exercise in these countries to explore if medical students at the same educational stage but with more practical experience are more likely to offer patient vignette items.

Students preferred to work with right facts and did not reject negatively worded questions

As negatively worded questions were usually banished from MCQ exams, it was interesting to observe that medical students did not reject them. In fact, negatively formulated questions are more likely to be misunderstood. Their understanding correlates to reading ability [ 23 ] and concentration. Although many guidelines [ 6 , 24 ] clearly advised to avoid negative items, the students generated 27.5 % of negatively formulated questions. Also Pick N format -questions with several right answers were offered by the students, despite the recommendations for this exercise: They offered significantly less total answer possibilities but significantly more right answers to positively worded questions than to negatively worded questions. Those results supported the hypothesis that the students preferred handling right content while keeping wrong content to a minimum.

Several possible reasons can be contemplated. When students lack confidence with a theme and try to avoid unsuitable answer possibilities, it can be more difficult to find four wrong answers to a positively worded question instead of several right answers, which may be listed in a book. Furthermore, some students may fear to think up wrong facts to avoid learning wrong content. Indeed, among positively worded items, 26.6 % were offered with 3 or more right answers, which never happened for negatively worded items (Table  2 ).

Notably, “right answer possibilities” of negatively worded items’ stems as well as “wrong answer possibilities” of positively worded items’ stems are actually “wrong facts”. For example, the right answer of the item “Which of the following symptoms does NOT belong to ICD-10 criteria of depression?” (Item 177) is the only “wrong fact” of the 5 answer possibilities. Writing the 4 “wrong answers” of this question, which are actually the ICD-10 criteria for depression, can help the students learn these diagnostic criteria. On the contrary, the “right answers” to a positively worded item such as “Which vegetative symptoms are related to panic attacks?” (Item 121) are the true facts.

Finally, the students’ interest for right facts supports the theory that a positive approach, positive emotions and curiosity are favorable to learning processes. Indeed, asking for right content is a natural way of learning, already used by children from the very early age. The inborn curiosity — urge to explain the unexpected [ 25 ], need to resolve uncertainty [ 26 ] or urge to know more [ 27 ]— is shown by the amount of questions asked by children [ 28 , 29 ]. The students’ way to ask for right contents appears very close to this original learning process.

The inputs of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology as well as of neurosciences underline this hypothesis. Bower presented influences of affect on cognitive processes: He showed a powerful effect of people’s mood on their free associations to neutral words and better learning abilities regarding incidents congruent with their mood [ 30 ]. Growing neurophysiological knowledge confirmed the close relation between concentration, learning and emotions — basic psychic functions necessitating the same brain structures. The amygdala, connected to major limbic structures (e.g. pre-frontal cortex, hippocampus, ventral striatum), plays a major role in affect regulation as well as in learning processes [ 15 ], and the hippocampus, essential to explicit learning, is highly influenced by stress, presenting one of the highest concentrations of glucocorticoid receptors in the brain [ 31 ]. Stress diminishes the synaptic plasticity within the hippocampus [ 32 ], plasticity which is necessary to long-term memory.

Neuroscientific research also underlined the interdependence of cognitive ability and affect regulation. Salas showed on a patient after an ischemic stroke event with prefrontal cortex damage that, due to executive impairment and increased emotional reactivity, cognitive resources could not allow self-modulation and reappraising of negative affects anymore [ 33 ].

Considering this interdependence, right contents might be related to a positive attitude and positive affects among the students. It could be interesting to further research on this relation as well as on the students’ motivations concerning the formulation of the questions.

The combination of those reasons probably explains why the students offered significantly more wrong answers to negatively worded items and more right answers to positively worded items, both resulting in the use of more right facts. All the students’ assessment questions and associated feedback were used to create a new database at the MUV trying to integrate more right facts in case-based learning exercises in the future.

The main limitation concerns the small sample size and the focus on only one curriculum element. Further studies with convenient sampling should include other medical fields and bridge the gap to learning outcome research.

The evaluation of the questions offered by medical students in their fourth year at the MUV showed that the students were much more confident with items aiming on diagnosis. Among items aiming on therapy, they proved to be more confident with pharmacotherapy than with psychotherapy. These results, together with the improving evaluation of the Block 20 after introducing CBL exercises and the international awareness that case-based questioning have a positive steering effect on the learning process and foster the acquisition of associative and procedural knowledge, should encourage the further development of affective positively involving case-based exercises, especially with a focus on clinical reasoning and therapy-oriented thinking.

The development of bedside teaching and the implementation of clerkships from the first year of studies (e.g. a 4-week practical nursing training) could also be considered in order to stimulate earlier patient-centered thinking of the students of the MUV. A comparison with the level of clinical reasoning of medical students from countries where more practical experience is scheduled during the first year of study would be interesting.

Concerning assessment methods and particularly the formulation of case-based questions, the students did not reject negatively formulated questions, but showed a tendency to prefer working with right contents, while keeping wrong content to a minimum. This preference could be further explored and considered in the future for the formulation of MCQs in case-based exercises.

Availability of supporting data

Data of the patients’ cases, on which the MCQs created by the students were based on, can be found in the textbook of the curriculum element and lectures [ 15 ] and via the Moodle website of the Medical University of Vienna [ 34 ]. The Moodle website is available for students and teachers of the Medical University of Vienna with their username and password. The analyzed and anonymous datasets including the MCQs [ 34 ] are accessible on request directly from the authors.


Case-based learning

Extended Matching Items

  • Multiple Choice Question

Medical University of Vienna

National Board of Medical Examiners

United States Medical Licensing Examination

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Magalie Chéron & Henriette Löffler-Stastka

Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria

Mirlinda Ademi

Department of Anaesthesia, General Intensive Care and Pain Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria

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MC carried out the study, performed the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript. MA performed the statistical analysis and helped to draft the manuscript. FK participated in the design of the study and statistical analysis. HLS conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Chéron, M., Ademi, M., Kraft, F. et al. Case-based learning and multiple choice questioning methods favored by students. BMC Med Educ 16 , 41 (2016).

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Does developing multiple-choice Questions Improve Medical Students’ Learning? A Systematic Review

Youness touissi.

a Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Rabat, Mohammed V University, Souissi, Rabat, Morocco

Ghita Hjiej

b Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Oujda, Mohammed Premier University, Oujda, Morocco

Abderrazak Hajjioui

c Laboratory of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy of Fes, Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdallah University, Fez, Morocco

Azeddine Ibrahimi

d Laboratory of Biotechnology, Mohammed V University, Souissi, Rabat, Morocco

Maryam Fourtassi

e Faculty of Medicine of Tangier, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Morocco

Practicing Multiple-choice questions is a popular learning method among medical students. While MCQs are commonly used in exams, creating them might provide another opportunity for students to boost their learning. Yet, the effectiveness of student-generated multiple-choice questions in medical education has been questioned. This study aims to verify the effects of student-generated MCQs on medical learning either in terms of students’ perceptions or their performance and behavior, as well as define the circumstances that would make this activity more useful to the students. Articles were identified by searching four databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and ERIC, as well as scanning references. The titles and abstracts were selected based on a pre-established eligibility criterion, and the methodological quality of articles included was assessed using the MERSQI scoring system. Eight hundred and eighty-four papers were identified. Eleven papers were retained after abstract and title screening, and 6 articles were recovered from cross-referencing, making it 17 articles in the end. The mean MERSQI score was 10.42. Most studies showed a positive impact of developing MCQs on medical students’ learning in terms of both perception and performance. Few articles in the literature examined the influence of student-generated MCQs on medical students learning. Amid some concerns about time and needed effort, writing multiple-choice questions as a learning method appears to be a useful process for improving medical students’ learning.


Active learning, where students are motivated to construct their understanding of things, and make connections between the information they grasp is proven to be more effective than passively absorb mere facts [ 1 ]. However, medical students, are still largely exposed to passive learning methods, such as lectures, with no active involvement in the learning process. In order to assimilate the vast amount of information they are supposed to learn, students adopt a variety of strategies, which are mostly oriented by the assessment methods used in examinations [ 2 ].

Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) represent the most common assessment tool in medical education worldwide [ 3 ]. Therefore, it is expected that students would favor practicing MCQs, either from old exams or commercial question banks, over other learning methods to get ready for their assessments [ 4 ]. Although this approach might seem practical for students as it strengthens their knowledge and gives them a prior exam experience, it might incite surface learning instead of constructing more elaborate learning skills, such as application and analysis [ 5 ].

Involving students in creating MCQs appears to be a potential learning strategy that combines students’ pragmatic approach and actual active learning. Developing good questions, in general, implies a deep understanding and a firm knowledge of the material that is evaluated [ 6 ]. Writing a good MCQ requires, in addition to a meticulously drafted stem, the ability to suggest erroneous but possible distractors [ 7 , 8 ]. It has been suggested that creating distractors may reveal misconceptions and mistakes and underlines when students have a defective understanding of the course material [ 6 , 9 ]. In other words, creating a well-constructed MCQ requires more cognitive abilities than answering one [ 10 ]. Several studies have shown that the process of producing questions is an efficient way to motivate students and enhance their performance, and linked MCQs generation to improve test performance [ 11–15 ]. Therefore, generating MCQs might develop desirable problem-solving skills and involve students in an activity that is immediately and clearly relevant to their final examinations.

In contrast, other studies indicated there was no considerable impact of this time-consuming MCQs development activity on students’ learning [ 10 ] or that question-generation might benefit only some categories of students [ 16 ].

Because of the conflicting conclusions about this approach in different studies, we conducted a systematic review to define and document evidence of the effect of writing MCQs activity on students learning, and understand how and under what circumstances it could benefit medical students, as to our knowledge, there is no prior systematic review addressing the effect of student-generated multiple-choice questions on medical students’ learning.

Study design

This systematic review was conducted following the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta‐Analyses (PRISMA) [ 17 ]. Ethical approval was not required because this is a systematic review of previously published research, and does not include any individual participant information.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Table 1 summarizes the publications’ inclusion and exclusion criteria. The target population was undergraduate and graduate medical students. The intervention was generating MCQs of all types. The learning outcomes of the intervention had to be reported using validated or non-validated instruments. We excluded studies involving students from other health-related domains, those in which the intervention was writing questions other than MCQs, and also completely descriptive studies without an evaluation section of the learning outcome. Comparison to other educational interventions was not regarded as an exclusive criterion because much educational research in the literature is case-based.

Inclusion & exclusion criteria

Search strategy

On May 16 th, 2020, two reviewers separately conducted a systematic search on 4 databases, ‘Medline’ (via PubMed), ‘Scopus’, ‘Web of Science’ and ‘Eric’ using keywords as (Medical students, Multiple-choice questions, Learning, Creating) and their possible synonyms and abbreviations which were all combined by Boolean logic terms (AND, OR, NOT) with convenient search syntax for each database (Appendix 1). Then, all the references generated from the search were imported to a bibliographic tool (Zotero®) [ 18 ] used for the management of references. The reviewers also checked manually the references list of selected publications for more relevant papers. Sections as ‘Similar Articles’ below articles (e.g., PubMed) were also checked for possible additional articles. No restrictions regarding the publication date, language, or origin country were applied.

Study selection

The selection process was directed by two reviewers independently. It started with the screening of all papers generated with the databases search, followed by removal of all duplicates. All papers whose titles had a potential relation to the research subject were kept for an abstract screening, while those with obviously irrelevant titles were eliminated. The reviewers then conducted an abstract screening; all selected studies were retrieved for a final full-text screening. Any disagreement among the reviewers concerning papers inclusion was settled through consensus or arbitrated by a third reviewer if necessary.

Data collection

Two reviewers worked separately to create a provisional data extraction sheet, using a small sample made of 4 articles. Then, they met to finalize the coding sheet by adding, editing, and deleting sections, leading to a final template, implemented using Microsoft Excel® to ensure the consistency of collected data. Each reviewer then, extracted data independently using the created framework. Finally, the two reviewers compared their work to ensure the accuracy of the collected data. The items listed in the sheet were article authorship and year of publication, country, study design, participants, subject, intervention and co-interventions, MCQ type and quality, assessment instruments, and findings.

Assessment of study methodological quality

There are few scales to assess the methodological rigor and trustworthiness of quantitative research in medical education, to mention the Best Medical Education Evaluation global scale [ 19 ], Newcastle–Ottawa Scale [ 20 ], and Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) [ 21 ]. We chose the latter to assess quantitative studies because it provides a detailed list of items with specified definition, solid validity evidence, and its scores are correlated with the citation rate in the succeeding 3 years of publication, and with the journal impact factor [ 22 , 23 ]. MERSQI evaluates study quality based on 10 items: study design, number of institutions studied, response rate, data type, internal structure, content validity, relationship to other variables, appropriateness of data analysis, the complexity of analysis, and the learning outcome. The 10 items are organized into six domains, each with a maximum score of 3 and a minimum score of 1, not reported items are not scored, resulting in a maximum MERSQI score of 18 [ 21 ].

Each article was assessed independently by two reviewers; any disagreement between the reviewers about MERSQI scoring was resolved by consensus and arbitrated by a third reviewer if necessary. If a study reported more than one outcome, the one with the highest score was taken into account.

Study design and population characteristics

Eight hundred eighty-four papers were identified after the initial databases search, of which 18 papers were retained after title and abstract screening (see Figure 1 ). Seven of them didn’t fit in the inclusion criteria for reasons as the absence of learning outcome or the targeted population being other than medical students. Finally, only 11 articles were retained, added to another 6 articles retrieved by cross-referencing. For the 17 articles included, the two reviewers agreed about 16 articles, and only one paper was discussed and decided to be included.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is ZMEO_A_2005505_F0001_OC.jpg

Flow-chart of the study selection.

The 17 included papers reported 18 studies, as one paper included two distinct studies. Thirteen out of the eighteen studies were single group studies representing the most used study design (See Table 2 ). Eleven of these single group studies were cross-sectional while two were pre-post-test studies. The second most frequent study design encountered was cohorts, which were adopted in three studies. The remaining two were randomized controlled trials (RCT). The studies have been conducted between 1996 and 2019 with 13 studies (79%) from 2012 to 2019.

Demographics, interventions, and outcome of the included studies

MCQs : Multiple-choice questions; N : Number; NR : Not reported; RCT : Randomized controlled trial

Regarding research methodology, 10 were quantitative studies, four were qualitative and four studies had mixed methods with a quantitative part and a qualitative one (students’ feedback).

Altogether, 2122 students participated in the 17 included papers. All participants were undergraduate medical students enrolled in the first five years of medical school. The preclinical stage was the most represented, with 13 out of the 17 papers including students enrolled in the first two years of medical studies.

Most studies used more than one data source, surveys were present as a main or a parallel instrument to collect data in eight studies. Other data sources were qualitative feedback (n = 8), qualitative feedback turned to quantitative data (n = 1), pre-post-test (n = 4), and post-test (n = 5).

Quality assessment

Overall, the MERSQI scores used to evaluate the quality of the 14 quantitative studies were relatively above average which is 10.7, with a mean MERSQI score of 10.75, ranging from 7 to 14 (see details of MERSQI score for each study in Table 3 ). Studies lost points on MERSQI for using single group design, limiting participants to a single institution, the lack of validity evidence for instrument (only two studies used valid instrument) in addition to measuring the learning outcome only in terms of students’ satisfaction and perceptions.

Methodological quality of included studies according to MERSQI

Details of MERSQI Scoring :

a. Study design: Single group cross-sectional/post-test only (1); single group pre- and post-test (1.5); nonrandomized 2 groups (2); randomized controlled experiment (3).

b. Sampling: Institutions studied: Single institution (0.5); 2 institutions (1); More than 2 institutions (1.5).

c. Sampling: Response rate: Not applicable (0); Response rate < 50% or not reported (0.5); Response rate 50–74% (1); Response rate > 75% (1.5).

d. Type of data: evaluation by study participants (1); Objective measurement (3).

e. Validity evidence for evaluation instrument scores: Content: Not reported/ Not applicable (0); Reported (1).

f. Validity evidence for evaluation instrument scores: Internal structure: Not reported/ Not applicable (0); Reported (1).

g. Validity evidence for evaluation instrument scores: Relationships to other variables: Not reported/ Not applicable (0); Reported (1).

h. Appropriateness of analysis: Inappropriate (0); appropriate (1)

i. Complexity of analysis: Descriptive analysis only (1); Beyond descriptive analysis (2).

j. Outcome: Satisfaction, attitudes, perceptions (1); Knowledge, skills (1.5); Behaviors (2); Patient/health care outcome (3)

The evaluation of the educational effect of MCQs writing was carried out using objective measures in 9 out of the 18 studies included, based on pre-post-tests or post-tests only. Subjective assessments as surveys and qualitative feedbacks were present as second data sources in 7 of these 9 studies, whereas they were the main measures in the remaining nine studies. Hence, 16 studies assessed the learning outcome in terms of students’ satisfaction and perceptions towards the activity representing the first learning level of the Kirkpatrick model which is a four-level model for analyzing and evaluating the results of training and educational programs [ 24 ]. Out of these 16 studies, 3 studies wherein students expressed dissatisfaction with the process and found it disadvantageous compared to other learning methods, whereas 4 studies found mixed results as students admitted the process value though they doubted its efficiency. On the other hand, nine studies provided favorable results of the exercise which was considered of immense importance and helped students consolidate their understanding and knowledge, although students showed reservations about the time expense of the exercise in three studies.

Regarding the nine studies that used objective measures to assess students’ skills and knowledge, which represent the second level of the Kirkpatrick model, six studies reported a significant improvement in students’ grades doing this activity, whereas two studies showed no noticeable difference in grades, and one showed a slight drop in grades.

One study suggested that students performed better when writing MCQs on certain modules compared to others. Two studies found the activity beneficial to all students’ categories while another two suggested the process was more beneficial for low performers.

Four Studies also found that writing and peer review combinations were more beneficial than solely writing MCQs. On the other hand, two studies revealed that peer-reviewing groups didn’t promote learning and one study found mixed results.

Concerning the quality of the generated multiple-choice questions, most studies reported that the MCQs were of good or even high quality when compared to faculty-written MCQs, except for two studies where students created MCQs of poor quality. However, only a few studies (n = 2) reported whether students wrote MCQs that tested higher-order skills such as application and analysis or simply tested recalling facts and concepts.

The majority of interventions required students to write single best answer MCQs (n = 6), three of which were vignettes MCQs. Assertion reason MCQs were present in two studies, and in one study, students were required to write only the stem of the MCQ, while in another study, students were asked to write distractors and the answer, while the rest of studies did not report the MCQs Type.

Data and methodology

This paper methodically reviewed 17 articles investigating the impact of writing multiple-choice questions by medical students on their learning. Several studies pointedly examined the effect of the activity inquired on the learning process, whereas it only represented a small section of the article, which was used for the review. This is due to the fact that many papers focused on other concepts like assessing the quality of students generated MCQs or the efficiency of online question platforms, reflecting the scarce research on the impact of a promising learning strategy (creating MCQs) in medical education.

The mean MERSQI score of quantitative studies was 10.75 which is slightly above the level suggestive of a solid methodology set to 10.7 or higher [ 21 ]. This indicates an acceptable methodology used by most of the studies included. Yet, only two studies [ 30 , 31 ] used a valid instrument in terms of internal structure, content, and relation to other variables, making the lack of the instrument validity, in addition to the use of a single institution and single group design, as the main identified methodological issues.

Furthermore, the studies assessing the outcome in terms of knowledge and skills scored higher than the ones appraising the learning outcome regarding perception and satisfaction. Hence, we recommend that future research should provide more details on the validity parameters of the assessment instruments, and also focus on higher learning outcome levels; precisely skills and knowledge as they are typically more linked with the nature of the studied activity.

Relation with existing literature

Apart from medical education, the impact of students’ generated questions has been a relevant research question in a variety of educational environments. Fu-Yun & Chun-Ping demonstrated through hundreds of papers that student-generated questions promoted learning and led to personal growth [ 32 ]. For example, in Ecology, students who were asked to construct multiple-choice questions significantly improved their grades [ 33 ]. Also, in an undergraduate taxation module, students who were asked to create multiple-choice questions significantly improved their academic achievement [ 34 ].

A previous review explored the impact of student-generated questions on learning and concluded that the process of constructing questions raised students’ abilities of recall and promoted understanding of essential subjects as well as problem-solving skills [ 35 ]. Yet, this review gave a general scope on the activity of generating questions, taking into consideration all questions formats. Thus, its conclusions will not necessarily concord with our review because medical students define a special students’ profile [ 36 ], along with the particularity of multiple-choice questions. As far as we know, this is the first systematic review made to appraise the pedagogical interest of the described process of creating MCQs in medical education.

Students’ satisfaction and perceptions

Students’ viewpoints and attitudes toward the MCQ generation process were evaluated in multiple studies, and the results were generally encouraging, despite a few exceptions where students expressed negative impressions of the process and favored other learning methods over it [ 4 , 10 ]. The most pronouncing remarks were essentially on the time-consumption limiting the process efficiency. This was mainly related to the complexity of the task given to students who were required to write MCQs in addition to other demanding assignments.

Since the most preferred learning method for students is learning by doing, they presumably benefit more when instructions are conveyed in shorter segments, and when introduced in an engaging format [ 37 ]. Thus, some researchers tried more flexible strategies as providing the MCQs distractors and asking students for the stem or better providing the stem and requesting distractors as these were considered to be the most challenging parts of the process [ 38 ].

Some authors used online platforms to create and share questions making the MCQs generation smoother. Another approach to motivate students was including some generated MCQs in examinations, to boost students’ confidence and enhance their reflective learning [ 39 ]. These measures, supposed to facilitate the task, were perceived positively by students.

Students’ performance

Regarding students’ performance, MCQs-generation exercise broadly improved students’ grades. However, not all studies have reported positive results. Some noted no significant effect of writing MCQs on students’ exam scores [ 10 , 31 ]. This was explained by the small number of participants, and the lack of instructors’ supervision. Moreover, students were tested on a broader material than the one they were instructed to write MCQs on, meaning that students might have effectively benefited from the process if they created a larger number of MCQs covering a wider range of material or if the process was aligned with the whole curriculum content. Besides, some studies reported that low performers benefited more from the process of writing MCQs, concordantly with the findings of other studies which indicate that activities promoting active learning advantage lower-performing students more than higher-performing ones [ 40 , 41 ]. Another suggested explanation was the fact that low achievers tried to memorize student-generated MCQs when these made part of their examinations, reversely favoring surface learning instead of the deep learning anticipated from this activity. This created a dilemma between enticing students to participate in this activity and the disadvantage of memorizing MCQs. Therefore, including modified student-generated MCQs after instructors’ input, rather than the original student-generated version in the examinations’ material, might be a reasonable option along with awarding extra points when students are more involved in the process of writing MCQs.

Determinant factors

Students’ performance tends to be related to their ability to generate high-quality questions. As suggested in preceding reviews [ 35 , 42 ], assisting students in constructing questions may enhance the quality of these students’ generated questions, encourage learning, and improve students’ achievement. Also, guiding students to write MCQs makes it possible to test higher-order skills as application and analysis besides recall and comprehension. Accordingly, in several studies, students were provided with instructions on how to write high-quality multiple-choice questions, resulting in high-quality student-generated MCQs [ 10 , 43–45 ]. Even so, such guidelines must take into account not making students’ job more challenging to maintain the process as pleasant.

Several papers discussed various factors that influence the learning outcome of the activity, as working in groups and peer checking MCQs, which were found to be associated with higher performance [ 30 , 38 , 43 , 44 , 46–49 ]. These factors were also viewed favorably by students because of their potential to broaden and deepen one’s knowledge, as well as to notice any misunderstandings or problems, according to many studies, that highlighted a variety of beneficial outcomes of peer learning approaches in the education community [ 42 , 50 , 51 ]. However, in other studies, students preferred to work alone and demanded that time devoted to peer-reviewing MCQs be reduced [ 38 , 45 ]. This was mostly due to students’ lack of trust in the quality of MCQs created by peers; thus, evaluating students’ MCQs by instructors was also a component of an effective intervention.

Strengths and limitations

The main limitation of the present review is the scarcity of studies in the literature. We used a narrowed inclusion criterion leading to the omission of articles published in non-indexed journals and papers from other health-care fields that may have been instructive. However, the choice of limiting the review scope to medical students only was motivated by the specificity of the medical education curricula and teaching methods compared to other health professions categories in most settings. Another limitation is the weak methodology of a non-negligible portion of studies included in this review which makes drawing and generalizing conclusions a delicate exercise. On the other hand, this is the first review to summarize data on the learning benefits of creating MCQs in medical education and to shed light on this interesting learning tool.

Writing multiple-choice questions as a learning method might be a valuable process to enhance medical students learning despite doubts raised on its real efficiency and pitfalls in terms of time and effort.

There is presently a dearth of research that examines the influence of student-generated MCQs on learning. Future research on the subject must use a strong study design, valid instruments, simple and flexible interventions, as well as measure learning based on performance and behavior, and explore the effect of the process on different students’ categories (eg. performance, gender, level), in order to reach the most appropriate circumstances for the activity to get the best out of it.

Appendix: Search strategy. 

  • Query: ((((Medical student) OR (Medical students)) AND (((Create) OR (Design)) OR (Generate))) AND ((((multiple-choice question) OR (Multiple-choice questions)) OR (MCQ)) OR (MCQs))) AND (Learning)
  • Results: 300
  • Query: ALL (medical PRE/0 students) AND ALL (multiple PRE/0 choice PRE/0 questions) AND ALL (learning) AND ALL (create OR generate OR design)
  • Results: 468
  • Query: (ALL = ‘Multiple Choice Questions’ OR ALL = ‘Multiple Choice Question’ OR ALL = MCQ OR ALL = MCQs) AND (ALL = ‘Medical Students’ OR ALL = ‘Medical Student’) AND (ALL = Learning OR ALL = Learn) AND (ALL = Create OR ALL = Generate OR ALL = Design)
  • Results: 109
  • Query: ‘Medical student’ AND ‘Multiple choice questions’ AND Learning AND (Create OR Generate OR Design)

Total = 884

After deleting double references : Number: 697

Funding Statement

The author(s) reported there is no funding associated with the work featured in this article.

Disclosure statement

No potential conflict of interest was reported by the author(s).


Teaching Techniques and Methodology Past Paper MCQS for FPSC, PPSC, KPPSC, SPSC and NTS etc

problem solving method of teaching mcqs

1. In teaching experienced members guide the immature one’s for (a) Spending time (b) Qualification (c) Quality of life (d) Adjustment of life

2. Which is not the focal point of triangular process of teaching (a) Teaching method (b) Teacher (c) Pupil (d) contents

3. The goal of teaching is (a) to give information (b) To involve pupils in activities (c) To impart knowledge (d) Desirable change in behavior

4. The rules of presenting the contents to make them easy are called (a) Method of teaching (b) Maxims of teaching (c) Techniques of teaching (d) Teaching strategies

5. SOLO stands for (a) System of the observed learning outcome (b) structure of the observed learingn output (c) Structure of the observed learning outcome (d) System of the observed learning output

6. SOLO taxonomy consists of levels (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5

7. With reference to solo taxonomy one aspect of a task is understood in (a) Unistructural level (b) Multistructural level (c)Rational level (d) Extended abstract level

8. Two or more aspects are understood in (a) Unistructural lever (b) Multistructural level (c)Rational level (d) Extended abstract level

9. Integration is developed between two or more Aspects in (a) Unistructural level (b) Multistructural level (c)Rational level (d) Extended abstract level

10. To go beyond the given in formation is (a) Unistructural level (b) Multistructural level (c)Rational level (d) Extended abstract level

11. SOLO taxonomy was presented by (a) Bloom (b) Krath whol (c)Simpson (d) Biggs & collis

12. Students are passive in (a) Project method (b) Discovery method (c)Lecture method (d) Inquiry method

13. Symposium is a type of (a) Discovery method (b) Discussion method (c)Lecture method (d) Demonstration method

14. Heuristic means (a) To investigate (b) To show (c)To do (d) To act

15. Arm strong was the exponent of (a) Problem solving method (b) Project method (c)Discussion method (d) Heuristic method

16. According to Kilpatrick, the types of projects are (a) 2 (b) 3 (c)5 (d) 5 For more Visit now

17. Activity involves (a) Physical action (b) Mental action (c)Mental action (d) Physical and mental action

18. We move from specific to general in (a) Inductive method (b) Deductive method (c)Drill method (d) Discussion method

19. Practice is made in (a) Inductive method (b) Deductive method (c)Drill method (d) Discussion method

20. The Socratic method is known as (a) Lecture demonstration method (b) Discussion method (c)Inquiry method (d) Question- Answer method

21. Which is not true about projects (a) It is a purposeful activity (b) It is proceeded in social environment (c)It is accomplished in real life (d) It is teacher centred activity

22. Duration of lessons in macro- lesson plans is (a) 5-10 min (b) 10-20 min (c)20-30 min (d) 35-45 min

23. In British approach of lesson planning, more emphasis is on (a) Activity (b) Teacher (c)Content presentation (d) Teacher and content presentation

24. American approach emphasizes (a) Teacher (b) Content presentation (c)Learning objectives (d) Methods

25. Which one is not the type of lesson plans on the basis of objectives (a) Micro lesson plan (b) Cognitive lesson plan (c)Affective lesson plan (d) Psychomotor lesson paln

26. Which is not true about lesson plan (a) It is develops confidence (b) It helps in orderly delivery of contents (c)It is developed by students (d) It saves from haphazard teaching

27. A good drama does not include (a) Interesting story (b) Alive dialogues (c)Very long play (d) Subject full of feelings

28. Which is not the objective of Drama/ role play (a) Recreation and enjoyment (b) Development of social skills (c)Development of skills of conversation (d) Do make rehearsals

29. Drama or role play is useful for teaching (a) History (b) Science (c)Malts (d) Language

30. The main types of teleconferencing identified are (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5

31. Which is not the types of teleconferencing

(a) Audio teleconferencing (b) Video teleconferencing (c)T.V teleconferencing (d) Computer teleconferencing

32. Which one is accountable in cooperative learning (a) Individual (b)Group (c) Both a & b (d) None of a & b

33. Cooperative learning is an alternative to (a) competitive models (b) Teaching models (c)lesson plans (d)Micro teaching

34. The number of students in cooperative learning groups are (a) 3-4 (b) 5-6 (c) 8-10 (d) 10-15

35. The essential characteristic of cooperative learning is (a) Effective learning (b)Positive interdependence (c)Cooperation (d) Division of labour

36. The students like to spend the most of the time with (a) Teachers (b) parents (c) Relatives (d) Peers

37. Peer culture constitutes (a) Socialization (b) Individualization (c) Both a & b (d) None of a & b

38. Which is not the advantage of team teaching (a) Better utilization of resources (b) Better planning (c) Better use of teaching techniques (d) Better financial benefits of teachers

39. The hypothesis underlying team teaching is (a) Teachers feel bore while working alone (b) Teachers are not competent (c) The best teachers in schools are shared by more students (d) The single teacher cannot control the class   40. CAI stands for (a) Computer analyzed instruction (b) Computer assisted instruction (c) Computer assisted interview (d) Computer analyzed interview

41. Which is not the mode of CAI (a) Tutorial mode (b) Drill mode (c) Simulation mode (d) Question mode

42. Example of psychomotor domain is that student (a) Demonstrates awareness to environmental pollution (b) Performs an experiment (c) Can computer results of two experiments (d) Can narrate a story

43. Ability to develop a life style based upon the preferred value system is (a) Responding (b) Valuing (c) Organizing (d) Characterizing

44. Example of cognitive domain is (a)Describe a topic (b) Develop an X-ray film (c) Type a letter (d) Take responsibility for tools

45. At the highest level of hierarchy is (a) Understanding (b) Application (c) Evaluation (d) Analysis For more Visit now

46. Student can design a laboratory according to certain specification in which category of objective? (a) Analysis (b) Synthesis (c) Evaluation (d) Knowledge

47. The number of domains in taxonomies of educational objective is (a) Tow (b) Three (c) Five (d) Six

48. The highest level of cognitive domain is (a) Synthesis (b) Analysis (c) Comprehension (d) Evaluation

49. The process of determining the value or worth of anything is (a) Test (b) Measurement (c) Assessment (d) Evaluation

50. Educational objectives have been divide into (a) Two domains (b) Three domains (c) Four domains (d) Five domains

51. Taxonomy of educational objectives was presented in (a) 1946 (b) 1956 (c) 1966 (d) 1976

52. The classification of cognitive domain was presented by (a) Benjamin S. Bloom (b) Skinner (c) Krathwhol (d) Simpson

53. Cognitive domain have (a) Three subgroups (b) Four subgroups (c) Five subgroups (d) Six subgroups

54. The lowest level of learning in cognitive domain is (a) Comprehension (b) Application (c) Knowledge (d) Synthesis

55. The highest level of learning in cognitive domain is (a) Evaluation (b) Synthesis (c) analysis (d) Application

56. The right sequence of subgroups cognitive domain is (a) Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Synthesis, analysis, Evaluation (b) Knowledge, Comprehension, application, Evaluation, analysis, Synthesis (c) Knowledge, Comprehension, Evaluation, application, Analysis, Syntesis (d) Knowledge, Comprehension, application, analysis, Synthesis Evaluation

57. Knowing/ memorizing and recalling is concerned with (a) Cpmprehension (b) Application (c) Knowledge (d) Evaluation

58. To grasp the meaning of the material is (a) Comprehension (b) Applicatin (c) Knowledge (d) Synthysis

59. To use previous learned material in new situation is (a) Comprehension (b) Application (c) Knowledge (d) analysis

60. To break down material into component parts to know its organizational structure is (a) Comprehension (b) application (c) Analysis (d) Synthesis

61. To put ideas together to form a new whole is (a) Evaluation (b) Synthesis (c) Analysis (d) Application

62. To know the worth or value of material is (a) Analysis (b) Application (c) Knowledge (d) Evaluation

63. The intellectual skills are reflected by (a) Cognitive Domain (b) affective domain (c) Psychomotor (d) None of above

64. Attitudes, values and interests are reflected by (a) Cognitive Domain (b) Affective Domain (c) Psychomotor Domain (d) None of above

65. Which domain is concerned with physical and motor skills? (a) Cognitive Domain (b) Affective Domain (c) Psychomotor domain (d) None of above

66. The focus of cognitive domain is (a) Physical and Motor skills (b) Intellectual Skills (c) Attitudes and Interests (d) None of above

67. The affective domain was classified by (a) Benjamin S. Bloom (b) Simpson (c) Krathwohl (d) Burner Answer is =c

68. Affective domain is divided into (a) four subgroups (b) Five subgroups (c) Six subgroups (d) seven subgroups

69. The lowest level of learning in affective domain is (a) Responding (b) Valuing (c) Attending (d) Organization

70. Which is placed at the highest level of learning in affective domain (a) Attending (b) Responding (c) Organization (d) Characterization

71. Right order of sub- groups of affective domain is (a) Attending, Responding, Valuing, characterization, Organization (b) attending, Responding, Characterization, Valuing, Organization (c) Attending, Valuing, Responding, Organization, Characterization (d) Attending, Responding, Valuing, Organization, Characterization

72. Willingness to attend to particular phenomenon is (a) Attending/ Receiving (b) Responding (c) Valuing (d) Organization

73. Which sub- group of affective domain focuses on active participation in (a)Attending/ Receiving (b) Responding (c) Valuing (d) Organization

74. Bringing together different values into a consistent value system is (a) Attending/ Receiving (b) Responding (c) Valuing (d) Organization

75. Affective domain focuses on adoption of a value system as a part of life style in (a) Responding (b) Valuing (c) Organization (d) Characterization

76. Psychomotor domain was classified by Simpson in (a) 1962 (b) 1972 (c) 1982 (d) 1992

77. Affective domain was divided into subgroups by Krathwohl in (a) 1954 (b) 1964 (c) 1974 (d) 1984

78. Psychomotor domain was divided by Simpson in (a) Four subgroups (b) Five subgroups (c) Six subgroups (d) Seven subgroups

79. The Characteristic of behavioral objective is (a) Observable and Immeasurable (b) Non- observable (c) Observable and measurable (d) None of above

80. The right sequence of sub-groups of psychomotor domain is (a) Perception, Set, Guided response, Mechanism, Complex overt response, adaptation, Origination (b) Perception, Complex over response, Set, Guided, response, Mechanism, adaptation, Organization (c) Set, Origination, Guided response, Mechanism Complex overt response, Adaptation, perception (d) Guided response, Mechanism, perception, Set, Adaptation, Organization, Complex overt response

81. Objective related to affective domain is (a) Student can paint a picture (b) Student can draw a graph (c) Student values honesty (d) Student can write a letter

82. Bring together scientific ideas to form a unique idea is (a) Application (b) analysis (c) Synthesis (d) Evaluation

83. Which is vast in scope (a) Teaching tactic (b) Teaching Technique (c) Teaching Strategy (d) Teaching Method

84. Students find/explore the in formations themselves in (a) lecture method (b) Discovery method (c) Both (d) none

85. Teacher performs practically and explains in (a) Lecture method (b) discovery method (c) demonstration method (d) Problem solving method

86. Role of student is active in (a) Discover method (b) Problem solved method (c) Inquiry method (d) All above For more Visit now

87. Micro teacher is a (a) Teacher method (b) Teaching training technique (c) Motivational technique (d) none of above

88. What is the tie of presentation in Micro teaching? (a) 1-5 min (b) 5-10 min (c) 10-15 min (d) 15-20 min

89. What is the No of students in micro teaching? (a) 1-5 (b) 5-10 (c) 10-15 (d) 15-20

90. Micro teaching started in (a) 1950 (b) 1960 (c) 1970 (d) 1980

91 Micro teaching focuses on the competency over (a) Method (b) Skills (c) Contents (d) None of above

92. Which is more suitable in teaching of science? (a) Lecture method (b) demonstration method (c) Discussion method (d) Project method

93. Which one is exception? (a) Books (b) Magazine (c) Diagrams (d) T.V

94. Which is not included in print media? (a) Books (b) Magazine (c) Diagrams (d) T.V

95. How many senses a person uses while observing film? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4

96. How much knowledge is gained through the sense of seeing? (a) 75% (b) 13% (c) 6% (d) 3%

97. How much knowledge is gained through the sense of listening? (a)75% (b) 13% (c) 6% (d) 3%

98. How much knowledge is gained through the sense of touch? (a)75% (b) 13% (c) 6% (d) 3%

99. How much knowledge is gained through the sense of smell? (a) 75% (b) 13% (c)6% (d) 3%

100. How much knowledge is gained through the sense of taste? (a)75% (b) 13% (c) 6% (d) 3%

101. According to W. Therber,types of Models are (a)2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5

102. Mock up models are those which explain (a) Principles or working of machine (b) Internal structure (c) External structure (d) None of above

103. A field trip is arranged for (a) Making an excursion (b) See other people doing things (c) Note the meaning of action (d) all of the above

104. Interest can be created in students in specific topics of study be the use of (a) Chalk board (b) Fellalin (c) Bulletin board (d) All of above

105. The most direct experience from the following is that of (a) Motion pictures (b) Visual symbol (c) Demonstration (d) field trip

106. What is true about science Text Book? (a) There is no difference between textbook and curriculum (b) Our teachers take textbook as curriculum (c) Our teacher do not take textbook as a part curriculum (d) Textbook does not help in the selection of instructional activities

107. Which one is a standard for demonstration method? (a) Student should observe the demonstration and teacher should not tell important finding (b) To keep accuracy of results the teacher should dictate the result (c) Demonstration should be pre- tested to remove the weakness in demonstration (d) all of the above

108. Wragg has suggested how many numbers of students in a micro teaching class? (a) 33 to 40 (b) 25 to 30 (c) 15to 20 (d) 5 to10

109. What is the merits of microteaching? (a) Feedback helps in the improvement of method of teaching (b) Due to shortage of time you divide the lesson plan into small units and thus gain mastery over the content (c) It helps in self evaluation and teacher build up confidence in them (d) all of the above

110. Method is based on the facts that students learn association, activity and cooperation is know as (a) Demonstration (b) Project (c) Problem- solving (d) discussion

111. Exhibition of Science fairs promote students ability of (a) Knowledge order skills (b) Comprehension and application (c) Higher order skills (d) Homer order skills

112. The ultimate focus of scientific method is on (a) Hypothesis formulation (b) Observation (c) Experimentation (d) Formulation of a law theory

113. What is the first step in the project method of teaching (a) Determination of activities (b) Determination of objectives (c) Planning (d) distribution of work For more Visit now

114. Which one is NOT the Psychological principle of teaching? (a) Proceed from concrete to abstract (b) Proceed from complex to simple (c) Proceed from known to unknown (d) Proceed from simple to difficult

115. Which is the SECOND step in the problem solving method? (a) Testing hypothesis (b) Recognition and definition of problem (c) Conclusion (d) Formulation of hypothesis

116. Which is the best method of teaching Science at school level? (a) Lecture (b) Analytical (c) direct (d) Demonstration

117. Which is not the step of scientific method? (a) Observation (b) Experiment (c) Prediction (d) Interview

118. The ultimate result of scientific method is (a) Development of knowledge (b) Development of senses (c) Both a & b (d) None of a & b

119. Aims are (a) National expectations (b) Institution expectations (c) Learning expectations (d) None of the above

120. Goals are at (a) National level (b) Subject level (c) Classroom level (d) All of the above

121. Objectives are at (a) National level (b) Subject level (c) Classroom level (d) All of the above

122. To promote science and technology is (a) Aim (b) Goals (c) Objective (d) All of the above

123. To important computer education is (a) Aim (b) Goal (c) Objective (d) All of the above

124. To identify the parts of the computer is (a) Aim (b) Goal (c) Objective (d) All of the above

125. “State first law of motion” indicates (a) Knowledge (b) Comprehension (c) application (d) Evaluation

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