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Green manufacturing concept: A case study in foundry industry

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Jasvinder Singh , Chandan Deep Singh , Dharmpal Deepak; Green manufacturing concept: A case study in foundry industry. AIP Conf. Proc. 20 February 2024; 2986 (1): 030077.

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The objectives of this case study are to take care of the green manufacturing components that contribute to economic stability. The manufacturing industry can reduce its carbon footprint by implementing green manufacturing concept techniques. The sector contributes to decrease pollutions and its effects on the environment. The current study combines a survey conducted on the basis of questionnaire and green idea recommendations from industry professionals. The outcome divides the green notion into eight categories. Green design initiative, Role of legislation in promoting GM, organizational style, Eco knowledge, Business environment, society influences, financial incentive and innovation. The data was examined using the Cronbach alpha. The findings reveal that elements with a higher reliability index than 0.7 should receive greater attention when it comes to implementing the green idea in the industrial business.

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What Is Green Manufacturing, and Why Does It Matter?

A truly sustainable manufacturing process is the goal for many companies. In this article, we take a look at the Green Manufacturing framework that we deem to be the most practical and relevant to help reach that goal. 

Can Manufacturing Be Sustainable?

Before we dive deeper into why Green Manufacturing can be a beneficial approach for your company, let’s clear up the terminology. As much as we’d like to see the manufacturing industry be sustainable, at the moment, it’s a bit of an  oxymoron .

Manufacturing is the process of turning raw materials into finished goods. That, by definition, is not sustainable. A sustainable business creates interchangeable inputs and outputs. It’s a closed-loop, also known as cradle to cradle. Ideally, a sustainable manufacturing plant would:

  • produce more energy than it uses;
  • create more new materials than it uses;
  • produce zero waste;
  • clean more air and water than it pollutes.

Today reaching just one of the criteria mentioned above is a strong sign of a company’s leadership in environmental issues. Reaching all of them is something that seems impossible for most companies.

Learn more: How to Define Waste in Manufacturing?

Sustainable manufacturing examples

Truly sustainable manufacturing is no easy goal to achieve, but many good examples exist. We can’t vouch for these companies meeting all the criteria above, but they are definitely examples of the best practice.

For example:

  • Sierra Nevada , a well-known California beer brand. In the company’s California facilities beermakers, compost waste generated from the brewery into the soil. This improves the soil’s fertility which is then used to grow new barley and hops to make more beer.
  • Patagonia  – an American retailer of outdoor clothing. As of 2020, they’re at 100% renewable electricity in the US and 76% globally, achieved through both on-site and off-site installations. And that’s not all of it – in 2020 94% of their product line used recycled materials and they repaired over 100 thousand garments to extend their life cycle. On top of that, they also have been contributing one percent (1%) of their annual net revenues to nonprofit charitable organizations that promote environmental conservation and sustainability.
  • Germany’s Siemens AG also provides a story of reinvention. The company’s spin-off  Siemens Energy Global established in 2020, has become a major supplier of renewable power and energy solutions for the developing world.

However, the majority of the manufacturers are far from the examples shared above. Due to various roadblocks, for many, it’s been challenging to move the needle in becoming truly sustainable. For these companies, the Green Manufacturing approach has been highly beneficial.

What is Green Manufacturing?

lean to green

Green Manufacturing, also known as Lean & Green , is an approach to evaluating and improving the manufacturing process. It’s based on Lean manufacturing principles and thus provides a dynamic, proven, and successful approach to going green.

The Green Manufacturing framework is built around the 7 Green Value streams and offers a clear vision to strive for in each of them, for example reaching 100% renewable energy powered operations or zero waste sent to landfill.

It’s also important to note that there currently is no accreditation or external audits for implementing the Green Manufacturing framework. This framework is useful for manufacturers to improve their processes, track their progress and share that progress with stakeholders. 

Green value stream approach

The difference between Lean and Green is that in the case of Lean, waste is viewed  from the customer perspective , and in the case of Green –  from the environment’s perspective .

The rest of the framework – principles, processes, and tools – are applied in the same way for both Lean and Green, which makes it familiar to manufacturers and therefore easy to apply in practice.

lean manufacturing waste

Waste in a non-value-adding activity from the customers perspective.

  • Transportation
  • Overproduction
  • Excess processing

green manufacturing waste

Waste is considered from the environmental perspective.

  • Waste to landfill
  • Biodiversity

The frameworks used in the lean approach, for example, DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control), can be used also for Green manufacturing implementation. That is possibly the best part about implementing Green – manufacturers can use the same time-tested approaches to tackle waste.

Learn more: Introduction to Lean Six Sigma DMAIC Methodology & DMAIC Project Example

Benefits of Green Manufacturing

The economic benefits of going green (and lean) are significant, and every business that has yet to move in this direction has an opportunity to discover it for themselves. Those who have already taken steps in this direction report many gains.

It has been proven that companies that work on their ESG (environmental, social, and governance) performance, do better financially. A meta-study evaluating over 2000 individual analyses of ESG performance across investment firms between 1970 and 2014 confirms this. In  nearly half of the cases , companies with good ESG performance offered better financial returns. And only 11% showed a negative correlation.

Cost savings

The logic behind this one is straightforward – if you reduce the volume of raw materials and resources you use to produce the final product, you reduce their cost. Many companies benefit from these savings already by implementing new initiatives like energy-saving (reduce energy costs), pollution reduction (reduce taxes to the government), economical driving (reduce fuel costs), or raw material reuse and reduction (reduce costs of sourcing new materials).

In  a survey executed by Deloitte  in 2021, almost half of the 750 executives surveyed reported that their environmental sustainability initiatives measurably boosted their corporate financial performance.

Increased customer loyalty and attraction

While price and quality have long been—and remain—the dominant motivations in consumers’ choice rationale, the expectations have risen on other fronts, too. It is as important as ever for companies to show their  responsibility, trustworthiness, and good reputation .

Beyond that, customers are ready to pay extra for sustainable products –  85% of consumers have become ‘greener’  in their purchasing in recent years*.* Making your products greener will help you keep your current customers while helping you attract new ones.

Improved employee engagement and retention

Many of us are acutely aware of the costs associated with attracting and keeping the best employees. With companies competing for talent globally, company values and way of working play an essential role.  Employees are concerned with the environment  and want to work for companies that share their values.

factory collaboration

On top of that, numerous reports show just how important employee engagement is for keeping your teams functional. Working with Lean & Green methodology inevitably will help you engage your team to achieve all of these goals.

Innovation and development of new technologies

Going green will push you into looking into new technologies and ways of doing things better. And that is innovation. Striving to become a green manufacturer can’t happen without increased productivity, reduction of lead times, increased capacity, and so on.

For example, if you’re using new technologies to track and measure your OEE, your company will inevitably use fewer resources to produce the same product.

Increased profit and shareholder value

The profitability of going green has been proven in research for years, but it depends on the company’s ability to integrate best-practice sustainability approaches. In his book  “The New Sustainability Advantage”, Bob Willard  (an internationally renowned leader in sustainability subject) estimates that if a typical company were to implement best-practice sustainability practices, it could improve its profit by at least  51% to 81% within three to five years . The business opportunity is related to increased revenue, reduced energy, waste management, water, and material expenses among other factors.

Integrating Green Manufacturing Into Your Workflow

Sustainability is not a trend that will pass, but rather a vision for a low-carbon, low-waste future. And inevitably Green Manufacturing plays a crucial role in reaching that. The good thing about this framework is that you can use it as a standalone, continuous-improvement approach or easily integrate it with existing continuous-improvement efforts.

To learn more about Green Manufacturing topic, we suggest reading the book  “Green Intentions” by Brett Wills . It’s a great and practical resource to help manufacturers on their journey and has inspired the content of this article. 

Start your sustainability journey

Contact our team and let us know what data you need to reach your sustainability goals.

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Diversitech Global | Trusted tool manufacturer in China

  • Diversitech Team
  • Mar 7, 2022

15 Sustainable Manufacturing Examples and Case Studies

Updated: Nov 17, 2023

Sustainable Manufacturing Examples

The environment and society are intricately linked. This is something that companies have come to realize, with many now making efforts towards sustainable manufacturing as a way of ensuring both cost efficiency while meeting expectations from customers or investors alike, and local communities that could be impacted.

The environmental and economic benefits of green growth are becoming more well-known, with many businesses already taking important steps towards it. Their pioneering experiences show that this can go hand in hand for profitability as well as sustainability.

Here are 8 reasons why big brands are moving towards sustainable products

Sustainable Manufacturing Case Studies

Sustainability is the future , but many businesses have not yet leapt into this new era. They may be struggling with their short-term survival or cost pressure from clients and lack of knowledge on how best to invest in environmental improvement. It can also simply seem like an overwhelming task for those who are just starting out.

Related Article: Case Study: Taking Advantage of ODM Manufacturing

Here are some examples and brief case studies which will help show how this new approach has helped businesses save money in addition to improving their products or operations.

1. Gairdin: Manufactures sustainable gardening tools and pots

Gairdin - Sustainable Garden Tool Manufacturing

Gairdín, pronounced “Gar-Jean”, is the Gaelic Irish word for garden. They specialise in garden tools that are environmentally friendly, made from recycled and sustainable raw materials like Ocean-Bound Plastics and Algae-Blended Resin. Gairdin are a division of Diversitech Global comprising 20 years of industrial expertise in product design, manufacture and packaging. Find originality and innovation with sustainable materials always top-most in mind.

Related Article: 7 Sustainable Gardening Practices for Environmentally Conscious Individuals

2. Electrolux, Kinston Plant: Reduced energy cnsumption

The Electrolux Green Spirit program made an impactful approach to reducing energy consumption and environmental impact. Their Kinston factory achieved this by running the processes as efficiently as possible, switching off all equipment when not in use, lowering the plant's demand for compressed air and installing motion sensors for lighting. And engaged engineering and maintenance personnel to find and repair a compressed air leak every day.

3. Advanced Composite Structure: Eliminated excess raw material usage

Using lean manufacturing and a value mapping process, their production processes and the layout of the company’s production area were analyzed and reviewed. They eliminated excess movement, materials, and extra tooling to help create a more streamlined product flow. The company reduced costs by 65%, increased production from 20 units per shift to 45 units per shift, reduced its production facility size by 73%, and reduced scrap rates from 24% to 1.8%.

4. Guardian Automotive: Implemented a waste recycling program

Guardian Automotive is committed to reducing its environmental footprint. They have implemented a waste reduction program for them not only to be sustainable but also more efficient with resources. The company is now recycling among other materials unused glass cullet, fiberglass and scrap polyvinyl chloride. In 2005, the Ligonier Plant recycled more than 13,000 tons of waste and saved over $360,000.

5. Custom Print: Reduced its chemical inventory

When an investigation into the company’s chemical inventory and purchasing records revealed over 80 different chemicals on-site, a team from press operators to maintenance personnel got together for some brainstorming sessions to reduce inventory. Wasted ink was reduced by training employees to mix speciality colors from existing ink stocks. Furthermore, they came up with suggestions like modifying ventilation and air-conditioning efficiency to help improve worker health as well as greatly reduce energy costs.

6. Chrome Deposit Corporation: Cut down natural gas consumption

To increase energy efficiency and improve their responsible business practices, Chrome Deposit Corporation embarked on an effort to develop new ways of doing things. By making simple changes like adjusting boiler settings and repairing minor gas line leakages, the company was able to cut its natural gas consumption by 12%. They also purchased two chillers which implemented a closed loop system for water use. This resulted in an 85% reduction in water usage.

7. Kennecott Utah Copper Refinery: Improved power grid efficiency

Kennecott Utah has improved the energy efficiency of its refinery through the installation of a combined heat and power system. Their 6-megawatt system replaced power purchased from the coal-powered grid. It supplies more than half of the refinery’s total electricity needs and waste heat is recycled to make steam for turbines. Among deep reductions in emitted pollutants, CO2 emissions were reduced by 36,000 tonnes.

8. Besam North America: Improved energy and waste handling

Sustainable Manufacturing Case Studies

With serious consultation and recommendations, Besam targeted energy, waste, and productivity surveys. This included replacing metal halide lighting with fluorescent fixtures with occupancy sensors, installation of high-efficiency lamps and electronic ballasts, reducing compressor air pressure, and repair of compressed air leaks

9. Rapid-Line: Sustainable operations to reduce its natural gas usage

Rapid-Line which fabricates and tooling for the manufacturing industry was experiencing a significant increase in their natural gas costs. Also, one of their customers encouraged them to get more involved with green practices. A new installation of ceiling fans and baffles made for better heating and cooling. Extra insulation, automated controls and reusing excess heat from the paint-line ovens boosted efficiencies and eliminated external furnace heating.

10. Isothane: Replaced hazardous raw materials with sustainable alternatives

Isothane manufactures chemical products used for insulating and protecting constructions, buildings and civil engineering structures. New government legislation had been introduced with strict emission standards and to comply with flameproof manufacturing and storage standards. They spent two months researching less hazardous and flammable chemical alternatives. Substitute materials were found and old lines were discontinued. Solvent material use was greatly decreased and much less hazardous material was stored on-site.

11. Wausau Tile: Used recycled glass chip as raw material

Wausau Tile wanted to save money and use less natural raw materials while being environmentally conscious. The company believed that by using post-consumer/industrial glass chips, which is difficult and expensive to recycle, they could reduce their environmental impact and attract new customers with their decorative value. With the use of large glass chip aggregate, they were able to make their products attractive and architecturally pleasing, and have introduced it across whole product lines.

12. Calstone: Sustainable furniture production

The company found that it could expand its market by selling more environmentally sustainable furniture products. Major changes were brought to its manufacturing plant. A vapour spray system reduced degreasing agents used on metal components. A 2000 gallon water tank reuses water for cooling equipment, and rainwater is collected for toilet flushing. Installed skylights brought in natural light for the benefit of indoor foliage plants that purify the indoor air. The company buys electricity from a hydro and wind power provider and has installed solar panels on the roof.

13. PortionPac Chemical Corporation: Products assessment based on green standards

Intending to become more sustainable, the company began an assessment on its products and obtained third-party green certification for all floor cleaners, all-purpose cleaners, glass cleaners and bowl cleaners. Also, by updating packaging components, they reduced waste, disposal costs and shipping. In addition, they also found a buyer for one of their by-product materials. These steps made PortionPac attractive to large businesses, schools and hospitals as they had the sustainability credentials along with their potential for saving costs

14. S.C. Johnson: Reduced environmental effects of its ingredients

In order to continue producing high-quality products with an environmentally-friendly mindset, S.C Johnson has developed their Greenlist system which ranks the environmental and health effects of ingredients used in its manufacturing process leading to the reformulation of many old favorites. After reviewing Saran Wrap usage, the company eliminated 4 million pounds of PVDC and reduced 1.8 million pounds of volatile organic compounds from its famous Windex product.

15. Honda: Reduced scarce material usage

Honda is serious about sustainability. They have a Green Path program that targets reductions in the use of materials and scarce resources, developing products that are easier to recycle, and reduced water waste as well CO2 emissions during manufacture. Honda uses wind turbines at its Ohio plant to generate 10,000-megawatt hours of electricity per year. It also moves 80% of vehicles from plant to dealership by train, which has reduced CO2 emissions by over 60%.

So, what does this mean for sustainable manufacturers? It means that making a switch to producing sustainable products is not only the best thing to do for the environment, but it’s also a wise business decision. Consumers are more interested than ever in buying sustainable products and that trend is only going to continue.

Making the switch to sustainable manufacturing may seem daunting, but it’s important to remember that you’re not alone. There are plenty of resources and support systems in place to help you get started. And the best part is, making the right choice for your business and the environment can also be good for you.

See our article: Is it Really cheaper to manufacture in China

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The aim of this paper is to identify the factors that helps to implement the green manufacturing in the industry. The CO2 emission and the waste that is generated from the industry is one of the main factor for the environmental degradation which leads to global warming and acid rain. Government rules and regulation are the key important factors that helps achieve the environmental, economic and intangible performance. Data regarding the survey was collected and analyzed by the mean score. Implementation of these factors in the industry helps achieve economic growth at national and international level.

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As the manufacturing sector to play a bigger role in the country's economy, there should be a growth while mitigating the environmental concerns for which the manufacturing sector must use energy and resources efficiently and minimize the generation of waste. Green Producing (GM) Industrial Activity is currently the necessity of the time associate degreed less an empty catchword.. In this research paper, a conceptual framework has been presented for the manufacturing organization to implement green manufacturing which assists the operation manager to create their process and product more sustainable. Thus, a resultant framework is based on an inclusive and methodical analysis of the literature to describe the dynamic process of green energy, green products, and green processes in manufacturing organizations. As the research raises theoretical and managerial questions as well as scope for future research on this important topic, the assessment and the conceptual framework might b...

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Case Studies: Use Green Engineering in the Design and Operation of Industrial Processes

Green engineering is being incorporated across the chemical processing industry to lower risk, reduce waste, and improve the economics of chemical manufacturing. Toward that effort, EPA’s Green Engineering Program provides case studies that can be used as examples in the application of the green engineering principles to industrial processes.

These case studies are meant to be:

  • Stepping stones for those with interests in the chemical processing industry to use in developing their own industry-specific scenarios.
  • A way to improve across government and non-government entities the knowledge and broad application of the nine Principles of Green Engineering.

Read the Principles of Green Engineering.

Case studies: Green engineering in industrial processes

Reactive distillation.

  • Automobile emissions
  • Hazordous chemicals

Professors M. Doherty and M. Malone of the University of Massachusetts Department of Chemical Engineering explored the topic "Recent Advances in Reactive Distillation." In comparing traditional versus reactive distillation methods, such as in the production of methyl acetate, the latter methods have the advantage of being able to:

  • Reduce raw materials usage
  • Reduce byproducts prevent pollution
  • Reduce energy use
  • Avoid separating reactants
  • Eliminate/reduce solvents
  • Enhance overall rates
  • "Beat" low equilibrium constants

Example: Graphic comparison of production of methyl acetate using traditional and reactive distillation methods.

This graphic shows the traditional production of methyl acetate.

Reducing automobile emissions and saving energy

William Obenchain and Marcel van Schaik of the American Iron and Steel Institute, and Pete Peterson of the U.S. Steel Group conducted a case study on the UltraLight Steel Auto Body-Advanced Vehicle Concepts (ULSAB-AVC), in which reductions in automobile emissions and improvements in gas mileage were observed as a result of using lightweight steel in the construction of cars.

The ULSAB-AVC is a complete conceptual design for steel intensive compact and mid-size sedans. The designs were developed by a consortium of 33 steelmakers from around the world. The designs specify gasoline and diesel powered models; in the U. S. combined driving cycle the mid-sized sedan will achieve 52 miles per gallon when powered with a gasoline engine and 68 miles per gallon if equipped with a diesel engine. This equates to only 0.32 (diesel) - 0.38 (gasoline) lbs of CO 2 per mile.

ULSAB-AVC: Comparison of mileage and CO 2  emissions

CAFE = Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards for automobiles and trucks

Minimizing hazardous chemicals in the paper industry

Carl Houtman of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Product Service and of the University of Wisconsin at Madison conducted a case study on minimizing the use of hazardous chemicals in the paper industry. To eliminate the use of and exposure to hazardous chemicals in the bleaching process, a new delignification agent (a polyoxometalate, or POM) is used to provide the basis for closed-mill bleaching technology.

This technology eliminates the use of a hazardous chemical while maintaining effective lignin removal. The two flow charts below compare the traditional bleach process and the new "green" process using POM.

Graphic comparison of l ignin removal from wood using traditional and "green" methods . 

This diagram shows the traditional bleach process for lignin removal from wood (delignification) - DEop process.

While this delignification process completely eliminates beach plant effluent, it requires increased steam and energy usage as well as new capital equipment. As demonstrated in the table below, the trade-offs are that the POM process requires higher process flow temperature and has a high steam requirement to run the oxidative reactor.

Furthermore, the increased capital cost in mills already built prohibits immediate implementation. The challenge will be to reduce process temperature and to eliminate the oxidative reactor to decrease steam requirements.

Paper bleaching: comparison of process stream and energy inputs

POM = polyoxometalate process, uses no ClO 2 or NaOH, DEop = traditional method of bleaching

Minimizing worker exposure to mist in the auto industry

Exposure to mist from machining fluids can cause serious health problems, including cancer, respiratory problems, and allergic reactions. To limit exposure from inhalation of this mist, Professors Manke, Gulari, and Smolinski of the Wayne State University Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science tested the effect of adding polymers to both water-based and straight-oil machining fluids.

A cost-effective method of reducing mist from oil-based fluids has already been widely implemented in the auto industry. For water-based fluids, however, the economics of mist suppression techniques are not yet as favorable, and engineers continue to look for practical ways to meet this challenge.

For straight oil fluids, polyisobutylene (PIB) can be added to control mist. An addition of 70 ppm of PIB results in a 40 percent reduction in average mist levels and a 67 percent reduction in peak mist levels. This additive has been used extensively in auto manufacturing facilities. Its costs are relatively low and only weekly replacement is required.

Graphic showing influence of polymers on atomization of machine fluids.

These image compare mist in mineral oil with and without PIB. Adding 1.0 g/l PIB reduces mist in mineral oil.

Chart showing reduction of mist of machining fluids using PIB additive.

To control mist from water-based machining fluids, engineers are exploring the use of polyethylene oxide (PEO) for this purpose. The results are promising. However, high treatment levels are needed (up to 500 pm), the polymer is relatively costly, and daily replacement is required.

To improve the economics of treatment for water-based fluids, researchers are investigating optimization of polymer-surface interactions and synthesis of "designer" antimisting systems.

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TXM Lean Solutions

Green Manufacturing Case Study in Lean Manufacturing: Automotive Green Plant

Client Futuris

Location Wuxi, China

The Challenge

This case study on Lean Manufacturing focuses on a new green plant. The client, Futuris is a global leading manufacturer of automotive components, providing seating and interior systems. Futuris had established a new green plant in Wuxi to provide high-quality seating systems to SAIC, GMC and Tesla. The management team in Wuxi wanted to establish a visual Lean management system with the production line and material replenishment to meet client high expectations.

case study on green manufacturing

The TXM Solutions

TXM firstly facilitated a cross-functional team with VSM workshop at Futuris. The lead time was quite long in the current state map: 51.4 days. With Lean in mind, the team developed a future state map with 9.1 days lead time.

case study on green manufacturing

After VSM workshops, followed by several Kaizen workshops. A layout workshop was conducted with TXM PLDP (Plant Layout Development Process) system.

case study on green manufacturing

Supermarket and Kanban were introduced to the material replenishment system, which improved material flow and achieved levelling production.

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Developing people is one of the key elements in establishing a Lean culture. In Futuris, TXM used its own P5S (Practical 5S) and visual management to coach teams to cultivate better behavour in addressing housekeeping and improving attitudes to problem-solving which helped to improve everyday performance.

The Results

case study on green manufacturing

A visual material replenishment system with supermarket, Kanban and kitting were established. 5S and visual management resulted in quicker problem-solving. At the end of the project, Futuris Wuxi plant was able to achieve its lead time of 10 days, which meant an 80% reduction compared to the beginning of the project (51.4 days). It improved customer satisfaction dramatically.

case study on green manufacturing

Author: Timothy McLean

Timothy McLean is the Managing Director of TXM Lean Solutions and is an author of Lean books.

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Failure mode and effects analysis of suction hose manufacturing industry: a case study of automobiles

  • Original Article
  • Published: 03 May 2024

Cite this article

case study on green manufacturing

  • Ahsan Razzaq 1 ,
  • Tauseef Aized 2 ,
  • Muhammad Faizan Ameer 1 ,
  • Sami Ullah Khan 3 ,
  • M. Ijaz Khan 4 &
  • Barno Sayfutdinovna Abdullaeva 5  

Human comfort and safety are the most important criterion in the manufacturing of an automobile, for this reason, every manufacturing industry assures the reliability and quality of components utilized in the automobile industry. Air Conditioner (A/C) is an essential part of an automobile that significantly contributes to human comfort and safety. It is essential to remove the failures in the manufacturing of A/C to enhance quality and reliability. In this research, a fuzzy failure mode and effects analysis (Fuzzy-FMEA) technique has been established to analyze and eradicate the risks of 16 possible failures in suction hose manufacturing of automobile A/C. It starts from defining, categorizing, and evaluating all risk failures and then ranking them by assigning fuzzy linguistic variables by the team of experts. To validate the proposed technique, the air conditioner suction hose manufacturing process for automobiles is considered as a case study. The highest value of RPN was obtained for the multiple failure modes F1 (Fluxing on the outer surface of the flange), F2 (Coating having dust particles), F6 (Weak Sleeve locking), and F7 (hard locking and clamping dies) using conventional FMEA technique. The highest values of RPN were obtained for the potential failure modes F5 (coating length less than standard), F1, and F3 using Fussy-FMEA. The results show that this Fuzzy-FMEA technique is effective and reasonable to control quality and enhance productivity and reliability.

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Failure Mode and Effect Analysis

Risk Priority Numbers

Fuzzy Risk Priority Numbers

Manufacturing Operation Standards

Membership Function

Air Condtioner

Thermal Expansion Valve

One Point Lesson

Quality Control

Fuzzy Inference System

Quality Function Deployment

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Ahsan Razzaq & Muhammad Faizan Ameer

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Tauseef Aized

Department of Mathematics, Namal University, Mianwali, 42250, Pakistan

Sami Ullah Khan

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M. Ijaz Khan

Department of Mathematics and Information Technologies, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Vice-Rector for Scientific Affairs, Tashkent State Pedagogical University, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Barno Sayfutdinovna Abdullaeva

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