Does Parent Involvement Really Help Students? Here’s What the Research Says

parental involvement in homework issues

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Parental involvement has been a top priority for school leaders for decades, and research shows that it can make a major difference in student outcomes.

But a parents’ rights movement that has captured headlines over the past few years and become a major political force has painted a particular picture of what parents’ involvement in their children’s education looks like.

Policies that have passed in a number of individual school districts, states, and the U.S. House have spelled out parents’ rights to inspect curriculum materials and withdraw their children from lessons they deem objectionable; restricted teaching about race, gender identity, and sexuality; and resulted in the removal of books from school libraries, including many with LGBTQ+ characters and protagonists of color.

The parents’ rights movement has been divisive and attracted the ire of some teachers who feel censored. But it has also opened up the conversation around parent involvement in school, said Vito Borrello, executive director of the National Association for Family, School, and Community Engagement.

And that’s a good thing, he said.

“The parents’ rights bills in and of themselves, I wouldn’t suggest are entirely focused on best practice family engagement,” said Borrello, whose group works to advance effective family, school, and community engagement policies and practices. “However, what the parents’ rights bills have done is elevated the important role that parents have in their child’s education.”

For decades, research from around the world has shown that parents’ involvement in and engagement with their child’s education—including through parent-teacher conferences, parent-teacher organizations, school events, and at-home discussions about school—can lead to higher student achievement and better social-emotional outcomes.

Here are five takeaways from the research.

1. Studies show more parental involvement leads to improved academic outcomes

When parents are involved in their children’s schooling, students show higher academic achievement, school engagement, and motivation, according to a 2019 American Psychological Association review of 448 independent studies on parent involvement.

A 2005 study from researchers at the Johns Hopkins University Center on School, Family and Community Partnerships , for example, showed that school practices encouraging families to support their child’s math learning at home led to higher percentages of students scoring at or above proficiency on standardized math tests.

And research shows that parent involvement with reading activities has a positive impact on reading achievement, language comprehension, and expressive language skills, as well as students’ interest in reading, attitudes toward reading, and level of attention in the classroom, according to a research summary by the National Literacy Trust.

“When parents become involved at school by, for example, attending events such as open houses or volunteering in the classroom, they build social networks that can provide useful information, connections to school personnel (e.g., teachers), or strategies for enhancing children’s achievement,” the APA research review said. “In turn, parents with heightened social capital are better equipped to support their children in succeeding in school as they are able to call on resources (e.g., asking a teacher to spend extra time helping their children) and utilize information they have gathered (e.g., knowing when and how their children should complete their homework).”

Protesters hold signs at a Moms for Liberty rally at the state Capitol in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania on October 9, 2021. About 100 people attended the rally to protest mask and vaccine mandates.

2. Parent involvement changes social-emotional outcomes, too

The APA study showed that not only does parental involvement lead to improved academic outcomes, but it also has a positive impact on students’ social and emotional skills and decreases instances of delinquency.

That finding also applies internationally.

A 2014 International Education Studies report on parental involvement among 9th and 10th graders in Jordan showed that parental involvement had a positive impact on students’ emotional engagement in school. That means students with more involved parents are more likely to have fun, enjoy school, have high self-esteem, and perceive school as a satisfying experience.

And when parents visit their children’s school, that contributes to a sense of safety among the students, ultimately improving school engagement, the study said. Although conducted in Jordan, the study provides insight into how parental involvement affects students’ social-emotional development in other countries, including the United States.

Parent involvement also gives teachers the tools to better support their students, Borrello said.

“When teachers understand what their students are going through personally and at home and any challenges they may have, then that improves their teaching,” he said. “They’re able to support their student in ways they wouldn’t be able to otherwise.”

Speaker of the House Kevin McCarthy, center, with Rep. Elise Stefanik, R-N.Y., left, and Rep. Julia Letlow, R-La., speaks about proposed legislation dubbed the "Parents Bill of Rights," Wednesday, March 1, 2023, on Capitol Hill in Washington.

3. Not all parental involvement is created equal

Different levels and types of parent involvement led to varying outcomes for students, according to the American Psychological Association study.

For example, school-based involvement, such as participation in parent-teacher conferences, open houses, and other school events, had a positive impact on academics in preschool, middle school, and high school, but the size of the impact was much lower in high school than in preschool. That may be because parents have fewer opportunities to be involved in the high school environment than in younger students’ classrooms where parents might volunteer.

At-home discussions and encouragement surrounding school also have a positive impact on students’ academic achievement at all developmental stages, with that type of parent involvement being most effective for high schoolers, according to the study. Reading with children and taking them to the library have a positive impact as well.

But one common form of parental involvement, helping kids with their homework, was shown to have little impact on students’ academic achievement.

In fact, homework help had a small negative impact on student achievement, but positive impacts on student motivation and engagement in school, according to the APA study.

The research shows the value of encouraging parents to be involved in their student’s learning at home, and not just attending school events, Borrello said.

“In the past, schools either had an event that wasn’t connected to learning or only measured the engagement of a family based on how often they came to the school,” he said. “What families are doing to create an environment of learning and supporting learning at home, is probably even more important than how many times they’re coming to school.”

4. Results of parent involvement don’t discriminate based on race or socioeconomics

Research has shown a consensus that family and parent involvement in schools leads to better outcomes regardless of a family’s ethnic background or socioeconomic status.

Parent involvement has led to higher academic outcomes both for children from low and higher socioeconomic status families.

When comparing the impact of parent involvement on students of different races and ethnicities, the APA found that school-based involvement had a positive impact on academics among Black, Asian, white, and Hispanic children, with a stronger impact on Black and white families than families from other demographics. The finding also extended internationally, with similar effects on children outside of the United States.

5. Schools can encourage parent involvement in person and at home

Parent involvement doesn’t have to end with parent-teacher conferences. There are many ways for schools to encourage parents to be more involved both in school and at home, Borrello said.

The best way to start, he said, is by creating a school culture that is welcoming to families.

“That starts with the principal, and that starts with school leadership that is welcoming to families, from how they’re engaging parents in the classroom to what policies they have in schools to welcome families,” Borrello said.

Parent gathering spaces or rooms in school buildings, scheduled parent engagement meetings and office hours, and at-school events held outside of the school day are all good places to start, Borrello said. From there, schools can work to include parents in more decision-making, give parents resources to support learning at home, and equip teachers with the tools to engage and connect with parents.

“If the school is not welcoming and families don’t feel welcome at the school, then you’re not going to get them to come to school no matter what you do,” Borrello said. “Then it’s really thinking about who you’re creating those relationships with families so that they can be heard.”

Coverage of strategies for advancing the opportunities for students most in need, including those from low-income families and communities, is supported by a grant from the Walton Family Foundation, at www.waltonk12.org . Education Week retains sole editorial control over the content of this coverage. A version of this article appeared in the August 16, 2023 edition of Education Week as Does Parent Involvement Really Help Students? 5 Key Takeaways Based on The Research

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Perceived parental involvement and student engagement with homework in secondary school: The mediating role of self-handicapping

  • Published: 30 April 2021
  • Volume 42 , pages 4350–4361, ( 2023 )

Cite this article

parental involvement in homework issues

  • José Carlos Núñez   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-9187-1201 1 ,
  • Carlos Freire   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-6252-4016 2 ,
  • María del Mar Ferradás   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-9716-8306 2 ,
  • Antonio Valle   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-8160-9181 2 &
  • Jianzhong Xu   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-0269-4590 3 , 4  

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Research in the field of homework has confirmed the significant association between students’ perceptions of their parents’ involvement and their motivation and engagement with these tasks. In this study we analyzed the possible mediating role of self-handicapping strategies in the relationship between perceptions of parental support (content-oriented and autonomy-oriented support) when doing homework and the students’ behavioral engagement (time spent, effort made, amount of homework done, level of procrastination). The participants were 643 students in compulsory secondary education (between 7th and 10th grade). The results showed that the lower the perceptions of support from parents when doing homework, the greater the students’ use of self-handicapping strategies and the worse their behavioral engagement (less effort, less amount of homework done, more procrastination) and vice versa. These findings seem to indicate that self-handicapping is a motivational strategy that would partially explain students’ poor behavioral engagement with homework in the absence of parental support.

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This work was partially funded by the European Regional Development Funds (European Union and Principality of Asturias) through the Science, Technology and Innovation Plan (FC-GRUPIN-IDI/2018/000199), and the research project EDU2017–82984-P (MEIC).

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José Carlos Núñez

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Carlos Freire, María del Mar Ferradás & Antonio Valle

Mississippi State University, Starkville, USA

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Núñez, J.C., Freire, C., Ferradás, M.d.M. et al. Perceived parental involvement and student engagement with homework in secondary school: The mediating role of self-handicapping. Curr Psychol 42 , 4350–4361 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01791-8

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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW article

Parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement: a meta-analysis.

\r\nQiaodan Jiang

  • College of Teacher Education, Ningbo University, Ningbo, China

Introduction: Given the importance of parent involvement to students' academic achievement, researchers have used a variety of methods to investigate the relationship between the two, but few focus on the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' achievement in a specific subject by using meta-analysis. This meta-analysis investigated the relationship between parent homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement from two dimensions: supportive (SPI) and intrusive parent homework involvement (IPI), along with their moderators.

Methods: Accessed through Web of Science, Taylor and Francis Online, EBSCO, Springer Link, Elsevier, and ProQuest databases, a total of 20 empirical studies between 2005 to 2022, 41 independent effect sizes were included ( N = 16,338). Effect size estimations were obtained by transforming Fisher's correlation coefficient. This study has conducted the heterogeneity tests of the magnitudes grouped according to different moderators, and investigated the publication bias that affects meta-analysis studies.

Results and discussion: The results showed an overall positive link between SPI and students' mathematics achievement ( r = 0.076, 95% CI = [0.037, 0.114]) and a negative link between IPI and students' mathematics achievement ( r = −0.153, 95% CI = [−0.226, −0.079]). For the link of SPI and students' mathematics achievement, the effect sizes were (a) strongest when SPI was measured by autonomy support, followed by content support and provision of structure respectively; (b) stronger when students' mathematics achievement indicated by non-standardized measurement than standardized measurement. For the link of IPI and students' mathematics achievement, the effect sizes varied across grade level, strongest in high school, followed by middle school and lowest in primary school. These findings provide important implications for how to improve parental homework involvement practice to increase students' mathematics achievement.

1. Introduction

Homework as a valuable method of improving students' learning and academic achievement has been widely used across countries ( Cooper et al., 2000 ; Trautwein, 2007 ; Trautwein and Lüdtke, 2009 ; Núñez et al., 2015 ; Fan et al., 2017 ; Šilinskas and Kikas, 2019b ). Characterized by greater pressure and difficulty than other subjects, mathematics typically includes homework that requires help from parents ( Kitsantas et al., 2011 ). Although a plethora of studies have proved that students' mathematics achievement was related to parental homework involvement ( Patall et al., 2008 ; Dumont et al., 2012 ; Kikas et al., 2022 ), researchers have not reached a consistent conclusion on whether the relationship is positive or negative. Some argued that the two were positively related (e.g., Dumont et al., 2012 ; Gonida and Cortina, 2014 ; Lerner et al., 2021 ), while others found a negative link (e.g., Patall et al., 2008 ; Levpušček and Zupančič, 2009 ; Šilinskas et al., 2013 ; Šilinskas and Kikas, 2019b ), making parental homework involvement became the most controversial one among all other types of parent involvement ( Moroni et al., 2015 ).

Fiskerstrand (2022) recommended that it is essential to conduct a meta-analysis of the significance and causal–effect relationships at the indicator level between parental involvement and the mathematics outcome based on comparable quantitative methods. Thus, this study conducted a meta-analysis aimed at answering the following research questions:

(1) What is the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement in basic education?

(2) Whether the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement in basic education is influenced by a variety of moderating variables?

1.1. Parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement

Researchers have pointed out that the mixed conclusion was largely due to the types of parental involvement in homework (e.g., Ng et al., 2004 ; Pomerantz et al., 2007 ; Patall et al., 2008 ; Karbach et al., 2013 ; Gonida and Cortina, 2014 ; Suárez et al., 2014 ; Núñez et al., 2015 ), thus it is important to disentangle the different types of parental homework involvements, rather than to focus only on the quantity or frequency of involvement ( Balli et al., 1997 ; Fan and Chen, 2001 ; Hoover-Dempsey et al., 2001 ; Pomerantz et al., 2007 ; Patall et al., 2008 ; Dumont et al., 2012 ).

Informed by the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) ( Ryan and Deci, 2000 , 2017 ), types of parental homework involvement were generally measured by two dimensions: supportive parental homework involvement (SPI) and intrusive parental homework involvement (IPI) ( Moroni et al., 2015 ; Xu et al., 2018 ). According to SDT, parents' supportive involvement, such as autonomy support, has a positive influence on maintained intrinsic motivation, enhanced internalization, and greater psychological adjustment and wellbeing, whereas the parents' intrusive involvement, such as controlling, has a negative effect on children's important outcomes, leaving children feeling less engaged, being viewed by teacher as less competent, and becoming more physically aggressive over time. In addition, these general results held in young people from both individualistic and collectivist cultures. When the relationship was discussed from these two dimensions, the conclusion became clearer. Specifically, when parental homework involvement has been characterized as supportive (i.e., support of autonomy and provision of structure), a positive relationship between SPI and students' achievement has been found ( Cooper et al., 2000 ; Pomerantz et al., 2005 ). However, IPI (i.e., controlling or monitoring) was generally associated with negative or null outcomes of student learning and achievement ( Ng et al., 2004 ; Brown, 2005 ; Pomerantz et al., 2007 ; Patall et al., 2008 ; Dumont et al., 2014 ; Gonida and Cortina, 2014 ; Moè et al., 2018 ; Xu et al., 2018 ; Šilinskas and Kikas, 2019b ).

In this meta-analysis, we expect to get a conclusion consistent with the abovementioned research and propose the following hypotheses:

H1: Students' mathematics achievement is positively related to supportive parental homework involvement (SPI).

H2: Students' mathematics achievement is negatively related to intrusive parental homework involvement (IPI).

1.2. Potential moderators

Findings from previous studies on the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' academic achievement are inconclusive. On the one hand, the insufficient sample size for each separate study may be the reason for the mixed results. On the other hand, results vary depending on factors such as the different dimensions of the parental homework involvement measured (e.g., parent homework control vs. parents homework support; Kikas et al., 2022 ); different participants' types (e.g., students vs. parents vs. teachers; Erdem and Kaya, 2020 ); different measuring tools of students' mathematics achievement (e.g., non-standardized measurement vs. standardized test; Jeynes, 2005 ; Castro et al., 2015 ); different demographics characteristics such student grade level (e.g., primary school vs. Middle school vs. High school; Núñez et al., 2015 ), region and culture (e.g., minority vs. white students; Jeynes, 2005 ) among studies. Meanwhile, different study attributes, such as the type and year of publications, may also lead to inconsistent research results. Therefore, this meta-analysis addressed the small sample size issue and tested the moderating effects from three aspects: measurement tools, demographic variables, and study attributes, in order to model different results across studies.

1.2.1. Measuring tools

1.2.1.1. type of spi and ipi.

How SPI and IPI were measured may lead to distinctive results. By comparing the questionnaires of SPI and IPI in past research, we found that SPI may measure several typical sub-types, including autonomy support, content support, and provision of structure, while IPI was generally measured by parental control and interference. Specifically, questions such as “My parents convey confidence in my ability to do math homework assignments ( Xu and Corno, 2022 ); When my parents help me with my school work, they always encourage me to find the correct answer by myself ( Karbach et al., 2013 )” were used to measure parent autonomy support, which can be defined as “allowing children to explore their environment, initiate their own behavior, and take an active role in solving problems” ( Pomerantz et al., 2007 ). SDT indicated that when acting with autonomy, behaviors are engaged wholeheartedly, whereas one experiences incongruence, and conflict when doing what is contrary to one's volition. What is more important in most settings having support for autonomy as a contextual factor plays a critical role in allowing individuals to actively satisfy all of their needs—to gravitate toward, make relevant choices in relation to, and employ optimizing strategies for satisfying each basic need ( Ryan and Deci, 2017 ). In other words, autonomy support is seen as the most critical aspect of the satisfaction of human psychological needs. Thus, it is believed that when parental homework involvement is measured by autonomy support, the largest correlation should be discovered in the SPI-students' mathematics achievement link.

Questions such as “My parents help me with math if I ask them; I can always ask my parents if I don't understand something in math” were used to measure content support, another sub-type of SPI, referring to the extent to which parents provide direct help on homework when asked by children ( Xu et al., 2018 ; Xu and Corno, 2022 ). By being available for help if needed, content support tends to increase students' sense of autonomy, sense of competence, and persistence in learning ( Moorman and Pomerantz, 2008 ). Nevertheless, Xu et al. (2018) revealed that as compared with parental autonomy support, parental content support may backfire even when asked by children. Since parental content support may lead to a sense of incompetence in children, and when asked by children for content support, many parents may find it difficult to withdraw their support as children become more competent and are well on their own. Therefore, we speculate that when parental homework involvement is measured by content support, it may also have a positive impact on students' math achievement, although this correlation may not be as significant as the parent autonomy support students' math achievement link.

Questions such as “Do you provide incentives for your child to finish his/her mathematics homework ( O'Sullivan et al., 2014 ); whether the television was on or off when their child did homework ( Cooper et al., 2000 )” were used to measure “provision of structure”, referring to the degree of parents provide clear and consistent guidelines and follow through on contingencies for their children's homework ( Cooper et al., 2000 ). SDT indicated that the provision of structure supports one's competence needs. The need for competence is evident as an inherent striving, manifested in curiosity, manipulation, and a wide range of epistemic motives ( Deci and Moller, 2005 ). In this way, parental provision of structure may enhance children's sense of competence, believing that they can exert a positive influence on their grades and other academic outcomes ( O'Sullivan et al., 2014 ). Nevertheless, Wang and Cai (2017) indicated that the impact of the parental provision of structure on students' math achievement may largely depend on how students perceive their parents' behavior. For example, parental provision of structure is positively associated with students' academic performance in China, given that Chinese children may perceive parental provision of structure as an act of love. Thus, we speculate that when parental homework involvement is measured by the provision of structure, it may have a positive impact on students' math achievement, provided that students view it as a supportive involvement.

H3-a: The positive correlation is strongest when SPI was measured by autonomy support, followed by content support and provision of structure, respectively.

For IPI, questions such as “Me doing homework is very important to my parents; My parents scold and punish me if I don't do all the homework ( Núñez et al., 2015 ); I insisted my child do things in my way when it came to doing his/her math homework ( Wu et al., 2022 )” were used to measure parent homework controlling, which can be defined as “control and pressure on student to complete assignments” ( Šilinskas and Kikas, 2019b ). Questions such as “My parents often interfere when I'm doing my math homework; When I'm doing math homework, my parents ask if I need help ( Kikas et al., 2022 )” were used to measure parental interference which refers to parents' tendency to solve the students' homework although the student has not asked for it or interrupting student in their homework ( Moroni et al., 2015 ). It has been shown that parental control decreases students' sense of autonomy, sense of competence, and effort in challenging learning situations ( Pomerantz et al., 2007 ). On the other hand, interference was the most damaging type of parental homework involvement because it undermined mastery goal orientation and reduced perceived competence ( Gonida and Cortina, 2014 ). Thus, we generate the following hypothesis:

H3-b: The negative correlation is strongest when IPI was measured by interference, followed by controlling.

1.2.1.2. Questionnaire reporter

Parental homework involvement questionnaire reporters might have an impact on the parental homework involvement-students' math achievement link, as parents' and students' perceptions regarding parental homework involvement may differ. It is likely that students' perceptions of parental homework involvement are more real or “knowable” to them than the actual nature or extent of parents' behavior related to homework ( Grolnick and Slowiaczek, 1994 ; Hoover-Dempsey et al., 2005 ). Studies have also pointed out that students' interpretations of parental involvement often shape their responses to that involvement and are therefore more closely related to their development than parents' actual behavior ( Schaefer, 1965 ; Grolnick et al., 1991 ; Hoover-Dempsey et al., 2005 ). Based on that, we can speculate as follows:

H4: When the parental homework involvement questionnaire is reported by students, the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' math achievement is stronger than when reported by parents themselves.

1.2.1.3. Mathematics achievement indicator

Different indicators of students' mathematics achievement may also yield different results. Andrews and Harlen (2006) suggested that various assessments of academic achievement could present problems during the synthesis stage of the study that would challenge the usefulness of the findings. A meta-analysis further revealed that “the manner of assessing student scholastic performance did not seem to impact the existence of the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement. It did, however, affect the strength of that relationship” ( Wilder, 2014 ). Compared to standardized tests that typically have tighter confidence intervals and smaller standard deviations for the test scores, non-standardized measurement can be easily influenced by many factors or biases of the assessor. Since Jeynes (2005) revealed that the teacher as a significant person in rating students' mathematics performance is likely to be influenced by a high degree of parent involvement. It is possible that when students' mathematics achievement is reported by non-standardized measurement, larger parental homework involvement-students' mathematics achievement links may find. Given this, we propose the following hypothesis:

H5: In both SPI-students' math achievement and IPI-students' math achievement link, students' mathematics achievement reported by non-standardized measurement have larger links than those reported by standardized tests.

1.2.2. Demographic variables

1.2.2.1. culture.

Differences in culture might also drive inconsistent results. Since the existing research on the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement was mainly conducted in a certain area, it remained a research gap to investigate the potential moderating effect of cultural background, so we test it in this meta-analysis. Danişman (2017) , pointed out that the moderating effect of culture was statistically significant in the parent involvement and students' achievement link ( Q = 5.382, p < 0.05). Specifically, parents from collectivist countries ( r = 0.43) had a stronger effect on student achievement than those from individualist ( r = 0.30) countries. According to Hofstede (1991) cultural dimensions theory, people in collectivist cultures feel as if they belong to larger in-groups or collectives which care for them in exchange for loyalty. As a result, a collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of social harmony, respectfulness, and group needs over individual needs. Thus, the relationship between parents and children might be closer in collectivist cultures, and parental homework involvement may have a greater impact on students' math achievement. On the contrary, people who live in individualist cultures tend to believe that independence, competition, and personal achievement are more important. Children tend to complete their homework independently. Thus, parental homework involvement may not have a significant impact on students' math achievement.

H6: Compared with individualism, the correlation between parents' homework involvement and students' math achievement under the collectivism culture is stronger.

1.2.2.2. Grade level

Past studies suggested that students' grade levels moderated the link between parental homework involvement and students' achievement (e.g., Skaliotis, 2010 ). Since younger students appear to have less developed study habits, parental homework involvement has been found to have desirable effects on elementary school students ( Dufresne and Kobasigawa, 1989 ). However, others found contradictory results that the relationship between perceived parental homework involvement and academic achievement was stronger in middle high school and high school than in elementary school ( Núñez et al., 2015 ). The inconsistent conclusion largely fails to consider the type of parental homework involvement. We speculate that lower-grade students often lack the ability to self-control and self-management, and have not formed good learning habits or strategies yet. At this stage, parental supportive homework involvement will have the strongest effect on improving their academic achievement. Furthermore, younger students, who have not yet developed independent personalities, rely more on their parents' help, therefore might have a greater tolerance for parental control or interference in homework. However, students in middle and high school have gradually developed an independent learning style, and they no longer require much supportive homework involvement from their parents, making the correlation between SPI and math achievement weakened. Furthermore, puberty sharply distinguishes middle and high school students from other students, by changing their brains yielding greater emotional intensity ( Nelson et al., 2012 ). SDT also revealed that psychological needs, satisfactions, and frustrations vary within persons over time. Therefore, IPI may cause their extremely strong resistance, and eventually lead to a stronger negative impact on middle and high school students' math achievement. We generate the following hypothesis, hoping to adjudicate these mixed results:

H7-a: As students' grades increase, the correlation between SPI and students' math achievement gradually weakens.

H7-b: As students' grades increase, the correlation between IPI and students' math achievement gradually strengthens.

1.2.3. Study attributes

1.2.3.1. publication type.

Publication type may affect the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement. It has been well established that journals are more likely to publish significant findings than non-significant findings ( Card, 2015 ), and the non-significant results are usually excluded from quantitative reviews of research results. Therefore, the effect size may be larger in journal articles than in dissertations.

1.2.3.2. Publication year

The publication year of studies may moderate the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement. From the perspective of technological progress, the rapid development of information technology has brought a new look to student mathematics learning. Using online homework tools in mathematics learning has thus become a new phenomenon that complements traditional homework ( Sarmiento, 2017 ). Though such web-based mathematics homework can help students obtain skills that lessen anxiety and raise students' consciousness in the learning process ( Albelbisi, 2019 ), it often requires more parental involvement as well. Meanwhile, global, national, and local policies also started to promote the importance of parent education involvement and advocate for a greater role of parents in education in order to enhance the academic achievement of their children ( Englund et al., 2004 ). Therefore, parental homework involvement behavior may increase over time, and the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement might become stronger.

1.3. This study

In this meta-analysis, we aim to synthesize the results of previous studies testing the impact of SPI and IPI on students' mathematics achievement and to identify the potential factors that moderate it. First, we sum up the overall effect size of the relationship between SPI and students' mathematics achievement, IPI, and students' mathematics achievement, respectively. Next, we explore whether this relationship differs across measuring tools (type of SPI/IPI, questionnaire reporter, mathematics achievement indicator), demographics (culture and grade level), and study attributes (publication type and year) by testing moderators.

2. Research methods

2.1. literature search and screening.

This study mainly uses electronic retrieval to collect journals and doctoral dissertations about the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement (Unpublished documents such as government documents and conference papers are not included in the search scope) between June 2005 (No earlier studies of parental homework involvement and student's mathematics achievement) to December 2022. We searched the following databases: Web of Science, Taylor and Francis Online, EBSCO, Springer Link, Elsevier, and ProQuest databases. Meanwhile, Google Scholar was used to assist with retrieval.

The literature search has gone through two rounds of procedures. The first round was extensive searching through keywords compilation. During the search process, it was found that there were few relevant articles about the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement. Most of the studies on the relationship between them were included in a broader scope of “parent involvement and students' academic achievements” for discussion. In order to collect articles as much as possible, we took the following as the retrieval formula, combining three retrieval fields of subject, title, and full text:

(parent involvement OR parent engagement OR parent participation OR parent help) AND (academic achievements OR academic attainment OR academic outcomes OR academic scores OR academic grades).

A total of 338 articles were obtained in the first round of large-scale retrieval. The second round of retrieval was based on citation backtracking. By tracking the references and cited articles of the articles obtained from the first round, 96 articles were obtained in this round. After deleting 25 repetitive articles, 409 articles were obtained in two rounds.

Subsequently, we began two rounds of screening for these 409 articles. By reading the titles and abstracts, 103 articles unrelated to the research question were excluded in the first round of screening. The second round of screening was conducted by reading the full text of the remaining 306 articles. The inclusion criteria for this round of screening are as follows (see Figure 1 for a flow chart of the article selection process): (1) only empirical studies are included; (2) the Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient r between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement is clearly reported; (3) it reports the measuring tool of students' mathematics achievement (The mathematics achievement here do not include comprehensive achievement including math, such as GPA, composite scores of language and math, etc.); and (4) it reports the sample size. By reading the abstract and full text while screening according to the above criteria, 20 articles published between 2005 and 2022 met the requirements and were finally included in the study.

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Figure 1 . Flow diagram of literature search and study inclusion criteria.

2.2. Coding variables

The selected articles were coded according to the constituent elements, and each independent sample was coded only once (See Table 1 for coding results).

1. References: Author, Year of publication (if the same study contains multiple results, it shall be distinguished by serial number).

2. Type of SPI/IPI 1 : Supportive (Autonomy Support, Content Support, Provision of Structure); Intrusive (Controlling, Interference).

3. Questionnaire reporter: Students; Parents.

4. Mathematics achievement indicator 2 : Standardized measurement; Non-standardized measurement.

5. Culture: Individualist; Collectivist (Refer to the evaluation results of Hofstede Cultural Guide for judgment of cultural background of different countries/regions: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/ ).

6. Grade level: Primary school; Middle school; High school; Mixed.

7. Publication type: Journal; Doctoral dissertation.

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Table 1 . Characteristics of the 41 studies in the meta-analysis.

In order to ensure the coding reliability, two researchers who studied and regularly run meta-analyses coded the included articles separately. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to analyze the consistency of the two researchers coding results for the two moderators (types of SPI/IPI, mathematics achievement indicators) that may have different opinions. Results showed that Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.969 ( p < 0.0001) and 0.945 ( p < 0.0001), respectively, indicating that there was a strong consistency between them. Then, the two researchers discussed their disagreements and agreed on the final codes via consensus.

2.3. Assessment of study quality

The methodology quality of included studies was assessed by two independent reviewers using the standardized critical appraisal instruments prepared by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). For cross-sectional surveys, the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for prevalence studies was used. This tool comprised nine questions, and studies that obtained five or more “Yes” ratings out of nine were included in the review ( Munn et al., 2015 ). For longitudinal studies (e.g., Šilinskas et al., 2013 ; Viljaranta et al., 2018 ; Šilinskas and Kikas, 2019a , b ; Kikas et al., 2022 ), JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for cohort studies was used. This tool comprised eleven questions, and studies that obtained <6 “Yes” scores were excluded. The final score consistency of the two independent reviewers was 0.85. All 20 studies met the inclusion standard, indicating that the quality of the studies included in this study met the analysis requirements.

2.4. Effect size calculation

In this meta-analysis, data were analyzed using Comprehensive Meta Analysis 3.0, and Pearson's product–moment correlation coefficient r was used to calculate the effect size. First, we extracted the initial effect size in each study, that is, the correlation coefficient r between parents' homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement. Then, Fisher's z-transformation was applied to r , weighted based on the sample size with 95% confidence intervals: Z = 0.5 * ln [(1 + r)/(1 – r)], where the variance of Z is V Z = 1/n−3 and the standard deviation of Z is SE Z = square root of (1/n−3).

2.5. Data processing and analysis

Homogeneity tests determined whether each result was significantly different from the overall effect size, which informs the selection of a fixed-effect model vs. a random-effect model. If a homogeneity test shows that the effect size is homogeneous, a fixed-effect model is used. If it indicates significantly large heterogeneity in the effect size, a random-effect model is used. In addition, large heterogeneity suggests potential moderation effects ( Lipsey and Wilson, 2001 ; Card et al., 2010 ).

2.6. Sensitivity analysis

We conducted a cumulative analysis to assess if the effect size estimate stabilizes with the inclusion of studies. If any new study produces a sudden shift as the volume of data accumulates, then there might exist a bias ( Borenstein et al., 2009 ).

2.7. Evaluation of publication bias

We assessed the risk of publication bias through funnel plot and Egger's linear regression method to determine whether potential bias affects the validity and robustness of research results under different circumstances. CMA software is used to draw funnel plots that can visually identify deviations, and Egger's regression method is used to quantify the asymmetry of funnel plots. The assumption is that, without publication bias, the scattered points representing each study will be symmetrically distributed on both sides of the average effect quantity, and the intercept of Egger's regression is close to 0 and not significant ( Egger et al., 1997 ). On the contrary, when the scatter points are asymmetric and the p -value of Egger's test is <0.05, it indicates the existence of publication bias.

3.1. Effect size and homogeneity tests

This meta-analysis of 20 articles and 41 independent effect sizes had 16,338 participants. The sample sizes of the studies ranged from 33 to 3,018. The average sample size is about 583, and the time span is 2005–2022. As illustrated in the Table 2 and forest plot of SPI and IPI (see Figures 2 , 3 ), the homogeneity tests for 22 independent samples of SPI and 19 independent samples of IPI both showed substantial heterogeneity among the selected studies ( Q SPI = 94.391, df = 21, p < 0.0001; Q IPI = 297.629, df = 18, p < 0.0001) and likely moderation effects. Meanwhile, I SPI 2 = 77.752%, I IPI 2 = 93.952%, both are larger than 75%, indicating that there were variables moderating the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' math achievement ( I 2 values: 25% [low], 50% [medium], 75% [high]; Higgins and Thompson, 2002 ), so a random-effect model was used.

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Table 2 . Random-effect model of the correlation between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement.

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Figure 2 . Forest plot for the random-effects model of 22 studies (SPI).

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Figure 3 . Forest plot for the random-effects model of 19 studies (IPI).

The random-effect model showed a significant positive correlation between SPI and students' math achievement ( r = 0.076, 95% CI = [0.037, 0.114]), and a significant negative correlation between IPI and students' math achievement ( r = −0.153, 95% CI = [−0.226, −0.079]).

3.2. Sensitivity analysis

As is shown in Figures 4 , 5 , the effect size tended to stabilize and the confidence intervals tended to narrow as studies were added to the analysis, which suggests that the results were robust to our assumptions.

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Figure 4 . Cumulative analysis results for 22 SPI studies.

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Figure 5 . Cumulative analysis results for 19 IPI studies.

3.3. Publication bias tests

As shown in Figures 6 , 7 , there was no obvious asymmetry in the funnel plots, which indicated that there was no publication bias. In addition, Egger's regression test showed that t SPI(22) = 0.092, p = 0.928; t IPI(19) = 1.169, p = 0.258, which further verified that there was no potential publication bias in the data set. Therefore, the abovementioned tests support that the effects included in this study have no publication bias.

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Figure 6 . Funnel plot of effect sizes of the correlation between SPI and students' mathematics achievement.

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Figure 7 . Funnel plot of effect sizes of the correlation between IPI and students' mathematics achievement.

3.4. Moderator analysis

We used a meta-analysis of variance to test the potential moderate effect of six categories of variables: type of SPI/IPI, questionnaire reporter, mathematics achievement indicator, culture, grade level, and publication type. Meanwhile, meta-regression analysis was used to test the potential moderating effect of the publication year (see Tables 3 , 4 ).

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Table 3 . Correlation between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement: Univariate analysis of variance for the moderator variables (categorical variables).

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Table 4 . The correlation between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement: Univariate regression analysis of continuous variables (random-effects model).

3.4.1. Measuring tools

3.4.1.1. type of spi/ipi.

The homogeneity tests results showed that three different sub-types of supportive parental homework involvement can significantly moderate the relationship between SPI and students' mathematics achievement ( Q BET SPI = 6.216, df = 2, p = 0.045), while two sub-types of intrusive parental homework involvement had no moderating effect on the relationship between IPI and students' mathematics achievement ( Q BET IPI = 0.004, df = 1, p = 0.950). Specifically, when SPI was measured as autonomy support, content support, and provision of structure, respectively, the correlation between SPI and students' mathematics achievement decreased successively and even showed a weak negative correlation when measured as the provision of structure ( r SPI − AS = 0.133, 95% CI = [0.084, 0.181]; r SPI − CS =0.049, 95% CI = [−0.002, 0.099]; r SPI − PS = −0.009, 95% CI = [−0.243, 0.227]).

3.4.1.2. Questionnaire reporter

The homogeneity test results showed that the questionnaire reporter has no moderating effect on the relationship between both SPI-students' math achievement link and IPI-students' math achievement ( Q BETS PI = 2.293, df = 1, p = 0.084; Q BET IPI = 0.962, df = 1, p = 0.327).

3.4.1.3. Mathematics achievement indicator

The homogeneity test results showed that it can significantly moderate the relationship between SPI and students' mathematics achievement ( Q BET SPI = 14.423, df =1, p = 0.009), but has no effect on the relationship between IPI and students' mathematics achievement ( Q BET IPI = 1.225, df = 1, p = 0.233). When students' mathematics achievement was indicated by non-standardized measurement, the correlation was stronger than indicated by standardized measurement ( r SPI-non-standardized = 0.123, 95% CI = [0.087, 0.159], r SPI-standardized = 0.036, 95% CI = [−0.019, 0.091]).

3.4.2. Demographic variables

3.4.2.1. culture.

Homogeneity test results showed that although cultural background could not moderate the relationship between SPI and students' mathematics achievement ( Q BET SPI = 0.088, df = 1, p = 0.767), it could significantly moderate the relationship between IPI and students' mathematics achievement ( Q BET IPI = 70.039, df = 1, p < 0.0001). However, given that the collectivist category included only one independent sample, we supposed that this moderating effect was not representative.

3.4.2.2. Grade level

Homogeneity test results indicated that it could not significantly moderate the relationship between SPI and students' mathematics achievement ( Q BET SPI = 6.682, df = 3, p = 0.083), but it could significantly moderate the relationship between IPI and students' mathematics achievement ( Q BET IPI = 21.041, df = 3, p < 0.0001). To be more specific, with the increase in the grade level, the correlation between IPI and students' math achievement was gradually increasing ( r IPI-primary < r IPI-middle < r IPI-high : −0.093 < −0.228 < −0.360).

3.4.3. Study attributes

3.4.3.1. publication type.

Homogeneity test results showed that it has a moderating effect on the relationship between SPI and students' math achievement ( Q BET SPI = 3.970, df = 1, p = 0.046); but no moderating effect between IPI and students' math achievement ( Q BET IPI = 0.994, df = 1, p = 0.319). However, considering that the source of 22 SPI studies only includes one doctoral dissertation (three independent samples from the dissertation were actually all from Nwokedi (2020) doctoral dissertation), we supposed that this moderation effect of publication type was not representative.

3.4.3.2. Publication year

The results of the meta-regression analysis show that the publication year has no moderating effect on the relationship between SPI, IPI, and students' math achievement ( Q Model [1, k = 22] = 2.94, p = 0.086; Q Model [1, k = 19] = 0.84, p = 0.358, respectively).

4. Discussion

This study analyzed the effects of 22 independent samples of SPI and 19 independent samples of IPI on students' mathematics achievement from 2005 to 2022. The results showed that SPI was significantly positively correlated with students' mathematics achievement, while IPI was significantly negatively correlated with students' mathematics achievement. Among them, the type of SPI, mathematics achievement indicators, and grade level moderated those effects.

4.1. Parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement

The results of meta-analysis support the hypotheses H1 and H2 that student's mathematics achievement was positively related to SPI and negatively related to IPI. These findings refute previous studies that reported non-significant or only negative correlations between parental homework involvement and math achievements (e.g., Karbach et al., 2013 ), demonstrating the value of supporting children's autonomy. As SDT states, autonomy, competence, and relatedness are three innate psychological needs of human beings, when they are satisfied, it yields enhanced self-motivation and mental health and when they are thwarted, it led to diminished motivation and wellbeing ( Ryan and Deci, 2000 ). By enhancing students' feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness which contributes to their intrinsic motivation, SPI can improve students' mathematics achievement. In contrast, when parental homework involvement is intrusive, students' innate needs for competence, autonomy, and psychological relatedness were undermined ( Moroni et al., 2015 ) and their persistence during homework tend to diminish, thus it may have a negative impact on their math achievement ( Cooper et al., 2000 ; Grolnick and Pomerantz, 2009 ; Hill and Tyson, 2009 ; Dumont et al., 2012 , 2014 ).

4.2. Moderation

The moderation tests showed that the link between SPI and students' mathematics achievement was moderated by three sub-types of SPI and mathematics achievement indicator, while the link between IPI and students' mathematics achievement was moderated by students' grade level; we will discuss these in the following subsections.

4.2.1. Measuring tools

4.2.1.1. type of spi.

Among the three sub-types of SPI, the largest correlation was found between parental autonomy support and students' mathematics achievement. But a small positive correlation was found in content support-students' math achievement link, and even a negative correlation was found between the parental provision of structure-students' math achievement link, partially rejecting hypothesis H3-a. The largest correlation between parental autonomy support and students' math achievement is congruent with previous research (e.g., Viljaranta et al., 2018 ). Furthermore, it supports the SDT argument—autonomy support as a contextual factor plays a critical role in allowing individuals to actively satisfy all their needs. Satisfaction with each of the three psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) is all facilitated by autonomy support ( Ryan and Deci, 2017 ).

What needs to be carefully explained is the intriguing results that why parental content support showed a weak positive correlation with students' math achievement, and when measured as the provision of structure it even showed a weak negative correlation. One explanatory reason may be that parental content support, even when requested, may lead to a sense of incompetence for children ( Xu et al., 2018 ; Xu and Corno, 2022 ). The sense of incompetence will lead to self-doubt, undermining children's self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, and in turn reducing its positive impact on mathematical achievement. In addition, it is worth noting that although SDT indicated that parental provision of structure is critical in helping children develop a sense of control understanding and perceived competence, which become the basis for effective functioning ( Grolnick and Ryan, 1989 ; Soenens et al., 2010 ), the premise is that students can internalize the values behind the activities supported by parents. However, students may display behavioral compliance by adapting their behavior to parental directives in the presence of the parental provision of structure but fail to internalize the values ( Wang and Cai, 2017 ). For example, driven by Asian cultural values that emphasize interdependence and filial piety ( Pomerantz et al., 2011 ; Cheung and Pomerantz, 2012 ), students are more inclined to display behavioral compliance to show their obedience, even though they do not agree with their parents' arrangement. Over time, they fail to internalize the values behind parental structural support or even have an aversion, but they never show it, which leads to their inability to develop control awareness, understanding, and perception, and ultimately has a negative impact on mathematics achievement. In addition, Ryan and Deci (2017) indicated that without autonomy support, the structure is not likely to be internalized to a degree that yields identified or integrated motivation. Furthermore, findings confirm that more beneficial outcomes occur under autonomy-supportive, high-structure circumstances ( Grolnick et al., 2014 ). This provides inspiration for future parental homework involvement that a structuring parent is not one who just sets out rules and communicates consequences but who also facilitated the child in successfully enacting them and supports their autonomy as well.

4.2.1.2. Mathematics achievement indicator

For students' mathematics achievement, non-standardized measurement showed a greater correlation in the SPI-mathematics achievement link, echoing Jeynes (2005) research, supporting hypothesis H5. When parents are supportively involved in students' homework and their support is perceived by teachers, it may affect the validity of teachers using non-standardized measurement to rate students' math achievement. As a result, students' mathematics achievement will become more positive, leading to a larger positive correlation between supportive parent homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement link.

4.2.2. Grade level

In higher grade levels, IPI had stronger negative effects on students' mathematics achievement, supporting hypothesis H7-b. The moderating effect of grade level can be explained by the following aspects:

The first is the rising math anxiety of parents. This explanation was previously suggested by Maloney et al. (2015) that when higher-math-anxiety parents frequently help their children with math homework, their children learn less math over the course of the school year. Retanal et al. (2021) further proved that parents' math anxiety will have a negative impact on students' math achievement through parental intrusive homework involvement. On this basis, we can further deduce that the rising math anxiety of parents may be closely related to students' grade levels. As Hembree (1990) demonstrated that students' math anxiety varies in grade level: it is low or medium in primary school, and it then increases, peaks in the high school period, and slowly falls after graduation. For parents who involve in students' math homework, their anxiety may also differ across grade levels. To be more specific, the content of primary school mathematics homework is very basic, parent do not need to acquire expert knowledge and skills in mathematics to explain math problems in homework to their children ( Szczygieł, 2020 ). However, with the increase in grade level, the math curriculum is more complex and abstract, and students start to have difficulties maintaining good performance in mathematics ( Núñez et al., 2015 ). Correspondingly, parents may also feel more anxious when involved in advanced math homework, as they may lack sufficient knowledge and expertise ( Jeynes, 2007 ; Patall et al., 2008 ; Wilder, 2014 ). In general, the increase in grade level drives the increase of parents' math anxiety, and parents' math anxiety will have an indirect negative impact on students' math achievement through IPI, which makes the negative correlation between IPI and students' math achievement show a trend of increasing with the grade level.

In addition, the mental characteristics of students in different grades can also explain the results. Compared to students in middle and high school, young children have less effective study habits and are less capable of avoiding distractions ( Cooper and Valentine, 2001 ), thus parental control and interference are needed as an important way to help them focus and get rid of procrastination ( Bronson, 2000 ). In contrast, middle- and high-school students have more developed self-regulation skills ( Zimmerman and Pons, 1990 ), which supports them to become more autonomous, free, and independent, and conduct their learning in a more planned, conscious manner ( Gorgoz and Tican, 2020 ). In this case, parents' control and interference will disrupt their rhythm by undermining their innate needs for competence, autonomy, and psychological relatedness. Thus, they had a stronger negative impact on middle and high school students' math achievement.

Culture and publication type show moderating effects on IPI-mathematics achievement and SPI-mathematics achievement link respectively. However, we believe that such moderating effects are caused by uneven sample size distribution and therefore are not representative. This inspires future meta-analyses to retest the moderating effect of these two variables on the basis of richer data. Meanwhile, the homogeneity test results showed that questionnaire reporters have no moderating effect. The result echoes Thomas et al. (2020) , indicating a parallel between parent and student perception. Since many researchers believe that parents' and students' perceptions of what counts as parental involvement seem to vary ( Barge and Loges, 2003 ; DePlanty et al., 2007 ), further studies are needed to shed light on the mixed results.

5. Implications

This meta-analysis has theoretical, practical, and methodological implications. The findings indicate that an ecological theoretical model is needed to understand the outcome of students' mathematics achievement ( Bronfenbrenner, 1974 ). Whether students' autonomy is supported by parents' homework involvement, which is a type of interaction students experience in their immediate environment, plays an important role according to SDT theory ( Ryan and Deci, 2000 , 2017 ). The relationship between parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement is not an either-or issue. It is the type and quality of parental homework involvement that matters.

Practically, educators may utilize these findings to consider how to collaborate with parents in students' mathematics learning. First, schools can design and run family education workshops to increase parents' awareness of the value of autonomy support rather than just providing structural support, controlling, or interfering. Second, teachers may provide supportive counseling or direct strategies to help parents become more effectively involved in their children's homework, ensuring that instructional techniques parents use are in line with those being used by teachers. Third, teachers should use homework as a formative assessment tool to diagnose students' strengths and weaknesses in mathematics and improve instruction accordingly rather than just report summative scores to parents. It may reduce math anxiety of parents as grade level increases, and thus decrease instructive parental homework involvement and its negative impacts.

Methodologically, this meta-analysis showed the need to differentiate the type of parental homework involvement, mathematics achievement measurement, and grade level. Future studies should define different types of parental homework involvement more clearly and consider the impact of specific parental homework involvement types. Also, future studies should use standardized mathematics achievement tests to make the results more comparable. Furthermore, more longitudinal studies should be conducted to capture the differences across grade levels.

6. Limitations and prospects

Though this study followed meta-analysis methods and procedures, there are still some limitations in the classification of parental homework involvement, data collection, analysis of moderating variables, and selection of sample participants, which need to be improved in future research.

First, there is currently no comprehensive study on the classification of parental homework involvement, and questionnaires for each type of parental homework involvement are validated by the authors of included studies rather than standardized tests that have been widely used. Future studies should further classify parental homework involvement from a functional perspective and develop standardized scales to measure it. Second, in terms of data collection, this meta-analysis only included 41 independent samples. As more such studies accumulate, future meta-analysis might yield more profound results. In addition, we only examined the searchable literature published in English, thus future studies can expand the language range of literature search to Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, Korean, and so on. Third, regarding the analysis of moderating variables, there are significant differences in the sample size within some of the moderating variables examined in this study, which makes it difficult to ensure the robustness of the subgroup analysis results. Future research can further validate the analysis results of this study by enriching and balancing the number of studies within the moderating variable group. Finally, regarding the selection of sample groups, as the participants included were mainly focused on primary to high school students, future studies can include younger students (e.g., kindergarteners), school dropouts, or older adults.

7. Conclusion

This meta-analysis extends previous studies on the relationship between parental homework involvement and students' academic achievement with attention to types of parental involvement—supportive and intrusive, using mathematics as a specific subject. Through 41 effect sizes from 20 articles of 16,338 participants, we found a significant positive link between SPI and students' mathematics achievement and a negative link between IPI and students' mathematics achievement. The link between SPI and students' mathematics achievement differed across the three types of SPI (autonomy support, content support, and provision of structure) and mathematics achievement indicators. Specifically, autonomy support showed the strongest positive link, followed by content support and provision of structure. The link was stronger when measured by non-standardized measurements than standardized measurements. For the IPI-mathematics achievement link, it differed across students' grade levels, the negative link was strongest in high school, followed by middle school, and lowest in primary school.

Data availability statement

The original contributions presented in the study are included in the article/ Supplementary material , further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author.

Author contributions

QJ: writing-original draft preparation and methodology. LS: writing-reviewing, editing, and supervision. DZ: conceptualization, writing-reviewing, editing, and supervision. WM: methodology, supervision, and writing-reviewing and editing. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

This work was supported by National Social Science Fund of China-On Mechanism and Strategy of Classroom Assessment for Deeper Learning (Grant No: BHA180121).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Publisher's note

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Supplementary material

The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1218534/full#supplementary-material

1. ^ The codes of parents' homework involvement types for each independent sample were based on the questionnaire items used by the sample. For example, “My parent helped me find a quiet area for doing my 7th grade math homework ( Nwokedi, 2020 )” focuses on the structural support behavior of parents in the homework process, so it was coded as “provision of structure”; “My parents will not let me watch TV, or play with my friends…until I have finished my homework ( Núñez et al., 2015 )”. This item refers to pressure on students to complete homework, hence it was coded as “controlling”.

2. ^ Standardized measurement came exclusively from standardized math tests, while non-standard measurement involves some forms of teacher rating, school rating, and parents rating, such as math curriculum grades and school report card grades. This practice is common among existing meta-analyses on the topic (e.g., Jeynes, 2005 ; Ma et al., 2016 ).

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Keywords: supportive parental homework involvement, intrusive parental homework involvement, students, mathematics achievement, meta-analysis

Citation: Jiang Q, Shi L, Zheng D and Mao W (2023) Parental homework involvement and students' mathematics achievement: a meta-analysis. Front. Psychol. 14:1218534. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1218534

Received: 07 May 2023; Accepted: 26 June 2023; Published: 13 July 2023.

Reviewed by:

Copyright © 2023 Jiang, Shi, Zheng and Mao. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) . The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

*Correspondence: Donghui Zheng, ndzdh@163.com

Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Stanford-led study highlights the importance of letting kids take the lead

Research led by Stanford education professor Jelena Obradović finds that too much parental involvement when children are focused on an activity can undermine behavioral development.

Parents today often look for teachable moments – and opportunities abound. When reading a book with a child, for example, it might mean discussing story plots with him. If she isn’t allowed to play a videogame, it means explaining why.

Jelena Obradović portrait

Jelena Obradović (Image credit: Courtesy Graduate School of Education)

There’s good reason for this: Research has shown that engaged parenting helps children build cognitive and emotional skills.

Too much parental direction, however, can sometimes be counterproductive, according to a new study led by Jelena Obradović , an associate professor at Stanford Graduate School of Education, published March 11 in the Journal of Family Psychology .

In the study , the researchers observed parents’ behavior when kindergarten-age children were actively engaged in playing, cleaning up toys, learning a new game and discussing a problem. The children of parents who more often stepped in to provide instructions, corrections or suggestions or to ask questions – despite the children being appropriately on task – displayed more difficulty regulating their behavior and emotions at other times. These children also performed worse on tasks that measured delayed gratification and other executive functions, skills associated with impulse control and the ability to shift between competing demands for their attention.

Obradović and her co-authors found that the phenomenon occurs across the socioeconomic spectrum.

“Parents have been conditioned to find ways to involve themselves, even when kids are on task and actively playing or doing what they’ve been asked to do,” said Obradović, who also directs the Stanford Project on Adaptation and Resilience in Kids ( SPARK ). “But too much direct engagement can come at a cost to kids’ abilities to control their own attention, behavior and emotions. When parents let kids take the lead in their interactions, children practice self-regulation skills and build independence.”

Obradović’s research, which introduces a far more granular measure of parental engagement than traditional methods, shines new light on how parents help and hinder their children’s development during the pivotal transition to elementary school.

It also comes as today’s parents, increasingly derided as “helicopter” and “snowplow” caregivers, are spending more time with their kids than their own mothers and fathers did – even before the COVID-19 pandemic turned many parents into primary playmates and homeschoolers.

A deeper dive into parent-child interactions

Finding the right balance when engaging with children is especially important around kindergarten, said Obradović, whose research examines how caregiving environments contribute to child health, learning and well-being over time. The onset of elementary school is an especially challenging time when kids are expected to manage their attention, emotions and behaviors without parents’ direct help.

“This is a really important shift, when parents have to learn to pull back,” she said.

For their research, Obradović and her co-authors – Michael Sulik , a research scientist at SPARK, and Anne Shaffer, an associate professor of psychology at the University of Georgia – brought together a diverse group of 102 children ages 4 to 6 and their primary caregivers in a Stanford lab.

For two and a half hours, the kids worked on a series of tasks that have been used by child development specialists for decades to measure self-regulation, as well as executive functions deemed either “cool” (when emotions don’t matter) or “hot” (when emotions are high). The children also participated with their parents in structured activities requiring different degrees of adult interaction.

In a novel approach, the scholars had each parent and child observed separately. Using video recordings, the interactions were broken down second by second and evaluated independently. This allowed Obradović and her team to identify subtle shifts in how parents engage with their children. During a 25-minute activity, for example, a mother might follow her son’s lead for 13 seconds, then withdraw for 5 seconds, then direct him for 35 seconds.

Typically, when researchers study a given aspect of parenting, they assign a single rating for the entire interaction. But that approach can be biased by the researcher’s overall impression of the parent-child relationship.

Most caregivers seem supportive and caring, said Obradović. “On average, you don’t see a lot of parents yelling at their kids or being intrusive or checking their phones,” she said. “But there is a lot of variability within those averages, and our goal was to discover more subtle differences among parents who are generally doing fine.”

These moment-by-moment shifts in parental engagement matter. “These are subtle things, but the message that children are getting may not be so subtle,” Obradović said.

Permission to take a break

For their analysis, Obradović and her collaborators created a measure of what they call “parental over-engagement.” They noted the moments when a child was working independently or leading an activity, and they calculated the ratio between times when parents intervened in ways that were meant to be helpful (not harsh or manipulative) and times when parents followed the child’s lead.

The researchers found a correlation between high levels of parent involvement when a child is focused on a task and children’s difficulties with self-regulation and other behaviors. This was most apparent for children’s “hot” executive functions.

When a child was passively engaged, the researchers didn’t find any link between parental over-engagement and children’s self-regulation. According to Obradović, this suggests that there is no harm in parents stepping in when children are not actively on task.

Obradović said the point of the study is not to criticize parents. “When we talk about parental over-engagement, we’re not saying it’s bad or obviously intrusive engagement,” she said. “There’s nothing wrong with suggesting ideas or giving tips to children.”

But it’s important for parents to be aware that teachable moments have their place, she said. Helping a preschooler to complete a puzzle, for example, has been shown to support cognitive development and build independence. And guidance is important when children are not paying attention, violating rules or only half-heartedly engaging in an activity.

Sometimes, however, kids just need to be left alone or allowed to be in charge. This message may be especially relevant during the pandemic, Obradović noted, when parents may wonder how much direct involvement their children need, especially with everybody balancing new obligations.

“Have that honest conversation with yourself, especially if your kid is doing OK,” she said. “As stressful as this time is, try to find opportunities to let them take the lead.”

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Parental Involvement in Your Child’s Education

The key to student success, research shows.

Two fathers sit with their young daughter in front of a laptop.

If you could wave a mag­ic wand that would improve the chances of school suc­cess for your chil­dren as well as their class­mates, would you take up that challenge?

For decades, researchers have point­ed to one key suc­cess fac­tor that tran­scends near­ly all oth­ers, such as socioe­co­nom­ic sta­tus, stu­dent back­ground or the kind of school a stu­dent attends: parental involve­ment.

The extent to which schools nur­ture pos­i­tive rela­tion­ships with fam­i­lies — and vice ver­sa — makes all the dif­fer­ence, research shows. Stu­dents whose par­ents stay involved in school have bet­ter atten­dance and behav­ior, get bet­ter grades, demon­strate bet­ter social skills and adapt bet­ter to school.

Parental involve­ment also more secure­ly sets these stu­dents up to devel­op a  life­long love of learn­ing , which researchers say is key to long-term success.

A gen­er­a­tion ago, the Nation­al PTA found that three key par­ent behav­iors are the most accu­rate pre­dic­tors of stu­dent achieve­ment, tran­scend­ing both fam­i­ly income and social status:

  • cre­at­ing a home envi­ron­ment that encour­ages learning;
  • com­mu­ni­cat­ing high, yet rea­son­able, expec­ta­tions for achieve­ment; and 
  • stay­ing involved in a child’s edu­ca­tion at school.

What’s more, researchers say when this hap­pens, the moti­va­tion, behav­ior and aca­d­e­m­ic per­for­mance of all chil­dren at a par­tic­u­lar school improve. Sim­ply put, the bet­ter the part­ner­ship between school and home, the bet­ter the school and the high­er the stu­dent achieve­ment across the board.

Down­load Our Parental Involve­ment in Edu­ca­tion Report

What Is Parental Involve­ment, and How Is It Dif­fer­ent From Parental Engagement?

Parental involve­ment is the active, ongo­ing par­tic­i­pa­tion of a par­ent or pri­ma­ry care­giv­er in the edu­ca­tion of a child. Par­ents can demon­strate involve­ment at home by:

  • read­ing with children;
  • help­ing with homework;
  • dis­cussing school events;
  • attend­ing school func­tions, includ­ing par­ent-teacher meet­ings; and
  • vol­un­teer­ing in classrooms.

While both parental involve­ment and parental engage­ment in school sup­port stu­dent suc­cess, they have impor­tant differences.

Involve­ment is the first step towards engage­ment. It includes par­tic­i­pa­tion in school events or activ­i­ties, with teach­ers pro­vid­ing learn­ing resources and infor­ma­tion about their student’s grades. With involve­ment, teach­ers hold the pri­ma­ry respon­si­bil­i­ty to set edu­ca­tion­al goals. 

But while teach­ers can offer advice, fam­i­lies and care­givers have impor­tant infor­ma­tion about their chil­dren that teach­ers may not know. So a student’s learn­ing expe­ri­ence is enriched when both bring their per­spec­tives to the table. 

With engage­ment , home and school come togeth­er as a team. Schools empow­er par­ents and care­givers by pro­vid­ing them with ways to active­ly par­tic­i­pate, pro­mot­ing them as impor­tant voic­es in the school and remov­ing bar­ri­ers to engage­ment. Exam­ples include encour­ag­ing fam­i­lies to join the fam­i­ly-teacher asso­ci­a­tion or arrang­ing vir­tu­al fam­i­ly-teacher meet­ings for fam­i­lies with trans­porta­tion issues. 

Research has found that the ear­li­er edu­ca­tors estab­lish fam­i­ly engage­ment, the more effec­tive they are in rais­ing stu­dent performance.

Why Is It Impor­tant to Involve Par­ents in School?

It ben­e­fits students.

Chil­dren whose fam­i­lies are engaged in their edu­ca­tion are more like­ly to: 

  • earn high­er grades and score high­er on tests;
  • grad­u­ate from high school and college;
  • devel­op self-con­fi­dence and moti­va­tion in the class­room; and
  • have bet­ter social skills and class­room behavior.

In one study, researchers looked at lon­gi­tu­di­nal data on math achieve­ment and found that effec­tive­ly encour­ag­ing fam­i­lies to sup­port stu­dents’ math learn­ing at home was asso­ci­at­ed with high­er per­cent­ages of stu­dents who scored at or above pro­fi­cien­cy on stan­dard­ized math achieve­ment tests.

Stu­dents whose par­ents are involved in school are also less like­ly to suf­fer from low self-esteem or devel­op behav­ioral issues, researchers say. 

And class­rooms with engaged fam­i­lies per­form bet­ter as a whole, mean­ing that the ben­e­fits affect vir­tu­al­ly all stu­dents in a classroom.

It Pos­i­tive­ly Influ­ences Children’s Behavior

Decades of research have made one thing clear: parental involve­ment in edu­ca­tion improves stu­dent atten­dance, social skills and behav­ior. It also helps chil­dren adapt bet­ter to school.

In one instance, researchers look­ing at children’s aca­d­e­m­ic and social devel­op­ment across first, third and fifth grade found that improve­ments in parental involve­ment are asso­ci­at­ed with few­er ​ “ prob­lem behav­iors” in stu­dents and improve­ments in social skills. Researchers also found that chil­dren with high­ly involved par­ents had ​ “ enhanced social func­tion­ing” and few­er behav­ior problems.

It Ben­e­fits Teachers

Because it improves class­room cul­ture and con­di­tions, par­ent involve­ment also ben­e­fits teach­ers. Know­ing more about a stu­dent helps teach­ers pre­pare bet­ter and know­ing that they have par­ents’ sup­port ensures that teach­ers feel equipped to take aca­d­e­m­ic risks and push for stu­dents to learn more. 

How Can Par­ents Get Involved in Their Child’s Education?

  • Make learn­ing a pri­or­i­ty in your home, estab­lish­ing rou­tines and sched­ules that enable chil­dren to com­plete home­work, read inde­pen­dent­ly, get enough sleep and have oppor­tu­ni­ties to get help from you. Talk about what’s going on in school. 
  • Read to and with your chil­dren: Even 10 – 20  min­utes dai­ly makes a dif­fer­ence. And par­ents can go fur­ther by ensur­ing that they read more each day as well, either as a fam­i­ly or pri­vate read­ing time that sets a good example.
  • Ask teach­ers how they would like to com­mu­ni­cate. Many are com­fort­able with text mes­sages or phone calls, and all teach­ers want par­ents to stay up to date, espe­cial­ly if prob­lems arise.
  • Attend school events, includ­ing par­ent-teacher con­fer­ences, back-to-school nights and oth­ers — even if your child is not involved in extracur­ric­u­lar activities. 
  • Use your com­mute to con­nect with your kids; ask them to read to you while you dri­ve and encour­age con­ver­sa­tions about school. 
  • Eat meals togeth­er: It’s the per­fect oppor­tu­ni­ty to find out more about what’s going on in school.
  • Pri­or­i­tize com­mu­ni­ca­tion with teach­ers, espe­cial­ly if demand­ing work sched­ules, cul­tur­al or lan­guage bar­ri­ers are an issue. Find out what resources are avail­able to help get par­ents involved. 

Parental Involve­ment Out­side the Classroom

Out­side of the class­room, engaged par­ents more often see them­selves as advo­cates for their child’s school — and are more like­ly to vol­un­teer or take an active role in governance. 

Researchers have not­ed that par­ent involve­ment in school gov­er­nance, for instance, helps par­ents under­stand edu­ca­tors’ and oth­er par­ents’ moti­va­tions, atti­tudes and abil­i­ties. It gives them a greater oppor­tu­ni­ty to serve as resources for their chil­dren, often increas­ing their own skills and con­fi­dence. In a few cas­es, these par­ents actu­al­ly fur­ther their own edu­ca­tion and upgrade their job.

While pro­vid­ing improved role mod­els for their chil­dren, these par­ents also ensure that the larg­er com­mu­ni­ty views the school pos­i­tive­ly and sup­ports it. They also pro­vide role mod­els for future par­ent leaders.

Read­ing and Homework

Very ear­ly in their school career — by fourth grade — chil­dren are expect­ed to be able to read to learn oth­er sub­jects. But recent research shows that about two-thirds of the nation’s pub­lic school fourth graders aren’t pro­fi­cient read­ers .

To make chil­dren suc­cess­ful in read­ing , and in school more gen­er­al­ly, the sin­gle most impor­tant thing you can do is to read aloud with them.

Youth Sports and Oth­er Extracur­ric­u­lar Activities

Par­ents can make or break their child’s rela­tion­ship with sports and oth­er extracur­ric­u­lar activ­i­ties, so they should think deeply about how to show chil­dren the fun of mas­ter­ing a new skill, work­ing toward a group or indi­vid­ual goal, weath­er­ing adver­si­ty, being a good sport and win­ning or los­ing gracefully.

Beyond this, par­ents with coach­ing skills should con­sid­er vol­un­teer­ing to get involved. The Nation­al Alliance for Youth Sports notes that only about 5 % to 10 % of youth sports coach­es have received any rel­e­vant train­ing before coach­ing, with most coach­es step­ping up because their child is on the team and no one else volunteered.

Parental Involve­ment in Juve­nile Justice

Par­ents find­ing them­selves involved in the juve­nile jus­tice sys­tem on behalf of their kids face a sys­tem that offers many chal­lenges and few resources. 

The Annie E. Casey Foundation’s Juve­nile Deten­tion Alter­na­tives Ini­tia­tive has long sought to sharply reduce reliance on deten­tion, with the aim of decreas­ing reliance on juve­nile incar­cer­a­tion nationwide.

But par­ents whose chil­dren face the judi­cial sys­tem can make a dif­fer­ence. Sur­veys of cor­rec­tions offi­cials note that fam­i­ly involve­ment is one of the most impor­tant issues fac­ing the juve­nile sys­tem, and it is also the most oper­a­tional­ly challenging. 

One well-respect­ed frame­work out­lines the impor­tance of five ​ “ dimen­sions” that mea­sure parental involve­ment, includ­ing recep­tiv­i­ty to receiv­ing help, a belief in pos­i­tive change, invest­ment in plan­ning and obtain­ing ser­vices and a good work­ing rela­tion­ship between the par­ent and the jus­tice system.

What Suc­cess­ful Parental Involve­ment Looks Like

Experts urge par­ents to be present at school as much as pos­si­ble and to show inter­est in children’s schoolwork.

As not­ed in the Annie E. Casey Foun­da­tion ​ “ Parental Involve­ment in Edu­ca­tion Pol­i­cy” brief, the Nation­al PTA lists six key stan­dards for good parent/​family involve­ment programs:

  • Schools engage in reg­u­lar, two-way, mean­ing­ful com­mu­ni­ca­tion with parents.
  • Par­ent­ing skills are pro­mot­ed and supported. 
  • Par­ents play an inte­gral role in assist­ing stu­dent learning.
  • Par­ents are wel­come in the school as vol­un­teers, and their sup­port and assis­tance are sought. 
  • Par­ents are full part­ners in the deci­sions that affect chil­dren and families. 
  • Com­mu­ni­ty resources are used to strength­en schools, fam­i­lies and stu­dent learning.

How To Avoid Neg­a­tive Parental Involvement

Teach­ers may, on occa­sion, com­plain of ​ “ heli­copter par­ents” whose involve­ment — some­times called ​ “ hov­er­ing” — does more harm than good. One vet­er­an edu­ca­tor recent­ly told the sto­ry of an award-win­ning col­league who quit the pro­fes­sion because of the grow­ing influ­ence of ​ “ a group of usu­al­ly well-inten­tioned, but over-involved, over­pro­tec­tive and con­trol­ling par­ents who bub­ble-wrap their children.” 

What these par­ents fail to under­stand, he said, is that their good inten­tions ​ “ often back­fire,” imped­ing their children’s cop­ing skills and capac­i­ty to prob­lem-solve. Such over-involve­ment can actu­al­ly increase children’s anx­i­ety and reduce self-esteem. 

The colleague’s plea: ​ “ Please part­ner with us rather than per­se­cute us. That will always be in your children’s best interests.”

Resources for Par­ents, Teach­ers, School Admin­is­tra­tors and Advocates

  • Child Trends Fam­i­lies and Par­ent­ing Research
  • Har­vard Grad­u­ate School of Edu­ca­tion’s Usable Knowl­edge series
  • Par­ent Insti­tute for Qual­i­ty Education
  • The Nation­al Par­ent Teacher Association
  • Johns Hop­kins Uni­ver­si­ty Nation­al Net­work of Part­ner­ship Schools
  • The Casey Foun­da­tion Parental Involve­ment in Edu­ca­tion pol­i­cy brief
  • The Casey Foun­da­tion’s Fam­i­lies as Pri­ma­ry Part­ners in Their Child’s Devel­op­ment and School Readiness

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Parental involvement in homework: relations with parent and student achievement-related motivational beliefs and achievement

Affiliation.

  • 1 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
  • PMID: 24905081
  • DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12039

Background: Parental involvement in homework is a home-based type of involvement in children's education. Research and theory suggest that it is beneficial for learning and achievement under certain conditions and for particular groups of individuals.

Aims: The study examined whether different types of parents' involvement in homework (autonomy support, control, interference, cognitive engagement) (1) are predicted by their mastery and performance goals for their child and their beliefs of the child's academic efficacy, and (2) predict student achievement goal orientations, efficacy beliefs, and achievement. Grade-level differences were also investigated.

Sample: The sample consisted of 282 elementary school (5th grade) and junior high school students (8th grade) and one of their parents.

Methods: Surveys were used for data collection. Structural equation modelling was applied for data analysis.

Results: (1) Autonomy support during homework was predicted by parent mastery goal, parents' control and interference by their performance goal and perceptions of child efficacy, and cognitive engagement as supplementary to homework by parent perceptions of child efficacy. (2) Parental autonomy support, control, and interference were differentially associated with student mastery and performance goal orientations, whereas parent cognitive engagement was associated with student efficacy beliefs. (3) The structural model was the same for elementary and junior high school students but the latent means for a number of variables were different.

Conclusion: Different types of parental involvement in homework were associated with different outcomes with parent autonomy support to be the most beneficial one.

Keywords: academic efficacy; achievement; achievement goal orientations; parent goals; parent involvement in homework.

© 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  • Achievement*
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Psychological
  • Motivation / physiology*
  • Parent-Child Relations*
  • Parenting / psychology*
  • Students / psychology*

parental involvement in homework issues

May 2, 2024

Despite Public Perception, Most Black Parents Are Involved In Their Child’s Education

New UNCF Report Sheds Light on Perspectives of African American Parents on Key Education Issues

With recent clips circulating on social media that call out the learning gap of Black students or lack of parental involvement, Indianapolis parent advocate and mother of three, Ashley Thomas, says that for many Black parents, this is far from the truth.

Ashley Thomas

“Many times, for a lot of us Black parents, we hear the negative when something wrong happens or, ‘Oh, these parents are not showing up.’” Thomas told BLACK ENTERPRISE .

“We’ve seen a lot of TikToks around what parents are doing, but the parents are really doing the best that they can, and they are literally being game changers…and we get to pat parents on the back for that and say, ‘Hey, that drumbeat, you get to keep that going.’”

A new report by United Negro College Fund (UNCF), “Hear Us, Believe Us: Centering African American Parent Voices in K-12 Education,” affirms Thomas’ sentiments with research that offers a comprehensive analysis of the experiences, challenges, and aspirations of African American parents in relation to race, college aspirations, parental engagement, and more .

Dr. Anderson

“We are really excited about this work and to be able to uplift parent voices, because we know too often that parent voices are rendered silent, but we know that they have been making a difference in education for decades,” Dr. Meredith B.L. Anderson, UNCF Director of K-12 Research, told BE .

While UNCF just celebrated its 80 th anniversary uplighting minority students pursuing higher education, the organization also has a K-12 advocacy arm to ensure the next generation is college-ready.

“For the past 12 years, we have been uplifting the voices of the Black community on various issues related to K-12 education: from race, college readiness, equity,” Anderson said.

“And so, my role is creating those research reports, talking to members of the community — be it parents, students, counselors, teachers — and making sure that we’re dismantling some of those deficit narratives when it comes to our Black communities, because we know they’re engaged, they’re informed, they’re ready to make change.”

The UNCF Advocacy Division creates college-readiness tools and has more than 20 publications and resources on the K-12 level alone. The newest report, released May 2, highlights the crucial role that African American parents play in their children’s education. It underscores the importance of understanding their unique perspectives and incorporating them into education policies and practices.

UNCF conducted research with a national sample of Black parents via phone surveys and focus groups. The research also included an oversample of Black parents in Chicago, Indianapolis, Atlanta, Houston, New Orleans, and Memphis. Some of the key report findings include:

  • Black parents report higher college aspirations for their child and lower instances of school suspensions when there are more Black teachers at their child’s school. For Black parents and caregivers whose children attended schools where many or most teachers were Black, the probability that their child received exclusionary discipline is almost three times lower than when their child attended schools with fewer Black teachers.
  •   Black parents greatly value higher education and are deeply engaged and invested in their child’s education with 84% of Black parents who believe it is important for their child to attend and graduate college and over 80% check their child’s homework and speak to their child’s teacher on a regular basis. Meanwhile, 93% of Black parents say they want more opportunities to be involved in their child’s education and input into education laws. 
  • Black parents want to see more Black leaders in education. Seventy percent of African American parents and caregivers believe the involvement of African American leaders and organizations will make school improvement efforts more effective.
  • School safety is a key concern for Black parents and caregivers , with 80 % of African American parents and caregivers ranking safety as the most important factor for school selection.

Dr. Anderson underscored the report’s focus on the importance of Black teachers.

“We also found that Black parents felt more respected when there were more Black teachers. So we know that Black teachers matter,” she said.

The report concludes with a series of recommendations aimed at addressing the concerns and aspirations of African American parents.

Recommendations for the K-12 Sector

  • Invest unapologetically in Black teachers.
  • Create more intentional opportunities for parent involvement.
  • Create a learning environment that reflects African American history and culture.
  • Partner with local organizations to provide resources and services for families.
  • Value and prioritize support staff in school budgets.
  • Prioritize student safety.

  Recommendations for Higher Education

  • Make intentional efforts to expose students and families to college opportunities.
  • Create intentional pipelines with districts and charter management organizations for increasing educator diversity.
  • Ensure teacher training programs include anti-racist, culturally relevant teaching practices.
  • Partner with K-12 schools and districts to provide financial and literacy to students and families.

For Thomas, the Indianapolis parent advocate, her personal passion of investing in her children’s education has poured into her professional work as founder and CEO of A.N.T. Foundation Consulting, which provides community organizing training, strategic community mobilization, and organizational leadership development. She encourages parents and educators to “co-parent” for their child’s educational success, and to take the calls-to-action in this report seriously.

“I tell parents all the time, ‘When I move, you move, it’s just like that.’ We get to move together in community to make things happen. And so, we’ve got to also make sure that reports like this don’t just sit there; we use them to empower the parents to be able to also move and take their voices on federal, state level, policy level, school district — whatever it is — because our voices are so powerful.”

Access the full report here and tune in Friday, May 3 at Noon ET to BLACK ENTERPRISE’s streaming platforms to the podcast, Class is in Session , where Dr. Anderson discusses the findings of the report and Ms. Thomas offers tips for parents to engage with schools.

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IMAGES

  1. Increase Parental Involvement in Homework with Your Homework Policy

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  2. 5 Ways To Get Parents Involved in Student Learning Beyond Homework

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  3. Tips to Increase Parental Involvement in Education

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  4. How Parental Involvement in Children's Homework Teaches Some Valuable

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  5. How Should Parents Help With Homework

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  6. Parental Involvement in Education

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VIDEO

  1. Parental Involvement

  2. Unleashing Your Child's Potential: The Power of Homework and Parental Support

  3. Parental Involvement Helps Children Improve Reading Skills

COMMENTS

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  3. Does Parent Involvement Really Help Students? Here's What the Research Says

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  4. Full article: Parental involvement and educational success among

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  7. PDF Parental Involvement in Homework

    Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36, 195-210. Harvard Family Research Project Harvard Graduate School of Education 3 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 Website: www.hfrp.org Email: [email protected] Tel: 617-495-9108 Fax: 617-495-8594. Page 8.

  8. Parent Involvement in Homework: A Research Synthesis

    New emphasis is being placed on the importance of parent involvement in children's education. In a synthesis of research on the effects of parent involvement in homework, a meta-analysis of 14 studies that manipulated parent training for homework involvement reveals that training parents to be involved in their child's homework results in (a) higher rates of homework completion, (b) fewer ...

  9. Frontiers

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  10. Parental Involvement in Homework: Educational Psychologist: Vol 36, No 3

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  11. Parental involvement in homework: Relations with parent and student

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  12. Parents' Reported Involvement in Students' Homework: Strategies and

    In this study we examined homework, the most common point of intersection among parent, child, and school activities related to formal learning, in interviews with 69 parents of first-through fifth-grade students. Analyses revealed rich information about parents' thinking, strategies, and actions related to homework. Their ideas generally clustered around 5 major themes: concern for children's ...

  13. Parent involvement in homework: A research synthesis.

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  16. Study reveals impact of too much parental involvement

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  17. Parental involvement in homework of children with learning disabilities

    1. INTRODUCTION. The issue of parental involvement in students' homework has attracted scientific interest of many researchers during the last two decades (e.g., Epstein, 1991; Fan & Chen, 2001; Gonida & Cortina, 2014; Jeynes, 2003; Patall et al., 2008).Parental involvement is defined as "the parents' or caregivers' investment in the education of their children" (LaRocque et al., 2011, p ...

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    Perceived Parental Involvement in Homework. Parental involvement in homework is a multidimensional construct and forms a part of parenting. While studies examining general parenting have differentiated either between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive [see Baumrind, Citation 1966]) or parenting dimensions (warmth/emotional support, behavioral and psychological control ...

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  22. Parental involvement in homework: relations with parent and student

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  23. UNCF Report Reveals Black Parents' Key Education Issues

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  24. Parental involvement in homework: A qualitative Bourdieusian study of

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  25. Teacher Appreciation Week Kicks Off With New UNCF Study

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  26. Current issues on parental involvement in schools: a multicultural

    parental involvement concerns a wide range of issues, such as parental expectations about their children's academic future, control over homework, the extent to which they become involved in helping children to learn for school assignments or to do the homework, or the frequency with which parents are physically present at school. (p. 34)