Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 183 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Q&A for work

Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search.

The right way to talk about my thesis?

Is either of these grammatically and semantically correct?

As part of my undergraduate thesis, I undertook a project under ...
I undertook a thesis research project under ...

If not, how do I phrase it such that it indicates I took up a project and submitted a thesis on the subject?

  • grammaticality
  • phrase-requests

Anirudh Ramanathan's user avatar

  • I think the second one because it is a title or topic of thesis . –  mmb Commented Nov 6, 2013 at 8:18
  • the word "under" is used in a few words in your sentence, this confounds the matter a little –  New Alexandria Commented Nov 6, 2013 at 16:29
  • @NewAlexandria under Prof. XYZ at ... –  Anirudh Ramanathan Commented Nov 6, 2013 at 16:35

2 Answers 2

Did you mean to say: 'As part of my undergraduate degree/course, I undertook a project, on which I submitted a thesis'?

I am a UK person and this reflects what might be the case here.

WS2's user avatar

  • Yeah, that is what I meant to say; but is there a better way to put that? The project description comes after "undertook a project" and the last fragment which says I submitted a thesis seems out of place. :( –  Anirudh Ramanathan Commented Nov 6, 2013 at 9:23
  • 1 How about: 'I undertook a project on the subject of the influence of homeopathy on mainstream medicine; that being the subject of my thesis'? –  WS2 Commented Nov 6, 2013 at 9:37
  • I think it is better to have 2 separate sentences. How does " I presented my findings in my undergraduate thesis" sound? Is it correct? –  Anirudh Ramanathan Commented Nov 6, 2013 at 9:40
  • Looks fine to me. –  WS2 Commented Nov 6, 2013 at 13:54

You could try:

I submitted a thesis on (topic) as a part of my undergraduate project.

Gurpreet K Sekhon's user avatar

  • I have an explanation of the project that follows. "I submitted a thesis on..." doesn't seem like something I can expand on. –  Anirudh Ramanathan Commented Nov 6, 2013 at 9:35
  • You could follow it with, "PROJECT SUMMARY:" or a similar title and proceed with the actual summation. –  Gurpreet K Sekhon Commented Nov 6, 2013 at 14:23

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged grammaticality phrase-requests or ask your own question .

  • Featured on Meta
  • Upcoming initiatives on Stack Overflow and across the Stack Exchange network...
  • We spent a sprint addressing your requests — here’s how it went

Hot Network Questions

  • Why are responses to an attack in a cycling race immediate?
  • Where am I wrong in my derivation of RC charging circuit equation?
  • Transferring at JFK: How is passport checked if flights arrive at/depart from adjacent gates?
  • What does "that" in "No one ever meant that, Drax" refer to?
  • Is the text of a LLM determined by a random seed?
  • When selling a machine with proprietary software that links against an LGPLv3 library, do I need to give the customer root access?
  • Why did the general choose this as the exact time of attack?
  • What spells can I cast while swallowed?
  • PowerShell manipulation of `for` results
  • A check given by castling: is it a discovered check or a special case?
  • Are we certain of the mass we calculate for supermassive black holes?
  • Souls originating from Adam HaRishon
  • How much does a factory reset help in hiding a device's identification details?
  • Is "necesse est tibi esse placidus" valid classical Latin?
  • How to see what statement (memory address) my program is currently running: the program counter register, through Linux commands?
  • Improve spacing around equality = and other math relation symbols
  • Center Set of Equations Using Align
  • ForeignFunctionLoad / RawMemoryAllocate and c-struct that includes an array
  • Capture multiple errors before raising an exception
  • Can I convert 50 amp electric oven circuit to subpanel, and power oven plus water heater, plus maybe a car charger?
  • When do people say "Toiletten" in the plural?
  • Can you be charged with breaking and entering if the door was open, and the owner of the property is deceased?
  • Why did the main wire to my apartment burn before the breaker tripped?
  • Computing residue at infinity

my thesis is on

  • Features for Creative Writers
  • Features for Work
  • Features for Higher Education
  • Features for Teachers
  • Features for Non-Native Speakers
  • Learn Blog Grammar Guide Community Events FAQ
  • Grammar Guide

Thesis Checker: Free Online Editor

Start typing, paste, or use

Get more suggestions to enhance this text and all your future writing

Your suggestions will show once you've entered some text.

Great job! We didn't find any suggestions in your text.

Works wherever you do

Get spelling, grammar, and style suggestions everywhere you write.

Why should you use an online thesis checker?

You’ve already done countless hours of research to write your thesis. You don’t want to spend countless hours correcting it, too.

You’ll sound professional

Wow your supervisors with how grammatically sound your writing is, how clear it is, and how well it flows.

You’ll save time

ProWritingAid’s thesis checker saves you hassle by acting as the first line of defense against pesky grammar issues.

You’ll become a better writer

Every time you run your thesis through ProWritingAid, you’ll see what your common mistakes are and how to fix them.

Professors and students love using ProWritingAid

Great tool for academic work. Easy to use and the reports and summary evaluation of your documents in several categories is very useful. So much more than spelling and grammar!

prowritingaid customer

Debra Callender

If you’re an English teacher, you need to take a look at this tool—it reinforces what you’re teaching, highlights strengths and weaknesses, and makes it easier to personalize instruction.

prowritingaid customer

Jennifer Gonzales

Only reason I managed to get an A in all my freshmen composition classes.

ProWritingAid customer

Chris Layton

Your first line of defense before submission

Save time on editing so you can focus on your research. ProWritingAid’s thesis checker helps you quickly and easily improve your grammar and style.

Academic writing made easier

Stop stressing over your first draft. Now you can improve any sentence in just a few clicks. Shorten sentences , correct informal language, expand your sentence variety, and add transitions.

Catch every easy-to-miss mistake

Typos and grammar errors can slip into anyone’s work. ProWritingAid’s AI-powered thesis checker can catch and fix even the trickiest issues so your ideas can shine.

Product UI real time checker academic

In-depth analysis whenever you need it

Sure, that email might only need a cursory check. But a 100-page thesis needs more comprehensive reviews. Use our structure analysis , complex paragraph alerts , and transitions report to improve your work.

Write clearly, concisely, and accurately

Strike the right balance between clarity and academic rigor with analytical language goals and power verb suggestions . You can ensure your work is professional without sacrificing readability.

Product UI informal language check

Get access to a library of expert resources

With ProWritingAid, you get more than just an app—you get the tools to become a better writer. Our in-app learning tool comes packed with helpful explanations for every suggestion.

Want more? Join our community or read our blog for advice from our resident experts on how to become a better writer.

Headshot-content_w_image-style-experts

ProWritingAid’s Thesis Checker FAQs

1. how do i use the online thesis checker.

Sign up for free, upload your thesis, and run any of ProWritingAid’s 20+ reports. You’ll see a number of suggestions that you can either accept or reject.

2. Does the essay checker work with British English and American English?

The thesis checker works with British English, American English, Australian English, and Canadian English. Just choose the one you’d like to use, and ProWritingAid will tailor its suggestions to match.

3. Is using a thesis checker cheating?

Not at all. The thesis checker won’t ever write the thesis for you. It will only point out possible edits and advise you on changes you need to make. You have full autonomy and can decide which changes to accept.

4. Is there a student discount?

Students who have an eligible student email address can get 20% off ProWritingAid Premium. Email [email protected] from your student email address to access your discount.

5. Can ProWritingAid check my thesis for free?

Absolutely. ProWritingAid offers a free membership to everyone, always, and you can edit up to 500 words at a time. If you need to edit more work, you can upgrade to Premium at any time.

6. Does ProWritingAid have a plagiarism checker?

Yes! ProWritingAid’s plagiarism checker will check your work against over a billion web-pages, published works, and academic papers, so you can be sure of its originality. Find out more about pricing for plagiarism checks here .

Submit your thesis with confidence

Drop us a line or let's stay in touch via :

  • Resources Home 🏠
  • Try SciSpace Copilot
  • Search research papers
  • Add Copilot Extension
  • Try AI Detector
  • Try Paraphraser
  • Try Citation Generator
  • April Papers
  • June Papers
  • July Papers

SciSpace Resources

What is a thesis | A Complete Guide with Examples

Madalsa

Table of Contents

A thesis is a comprehensive academic paper based on your original research that presents new findings, arguments, and ideas of your study. It’s typically submitted at the end of your master’s degree or as a capstone of your bachelor’s degree.

However, writing a thesis can be laborious, especially for beginners. From the initial challenge of pinpointing a compelling research topic to organizing and presenting findings, the process is filled with potential pitfalls.

Therefore, to help you, this guide talks about what is a thesis. Additionally, it offers revelations and methodologies to transform it from an overwhelming task to a manageable and rewarding academic milestone.

What is a thesis?

A thesis is an in-depth research study that identifies a particular topic of inquiry and presents a clear argument or perspective about that topic using evidence and logic.

Writing a thesis showcases your ability of critical thinking, gathering evidence, and making a compelling argument. Integral to these competencies is thorough research, which not only fortifies your propositions but also confers credibility to your entire study.

Furthermore, there's another phenomenon you might often confuse with the thesis: the ' working thesis .' However, they aren't similar and shouldn't be used interchangeably.

A working thesis, often referred to as a preliminary or tentative thesis, is an initial version of your thesis statement. It serves as a draft or a starting point that guides your research in its early stages.

As you research more and gather more evidence, your initial thesis (aka working thesis) might change. It's like a starting point that can be adjusted as you learn more. It's normal for your main topic to change a few times before you finalize it.

While a thesis identifies and provides an overarching argument, the key to clearly communicating the central point of that argument lies in writing a strong thesis statement.

What is a thesis statement?

A strong thesis statement (aka thesis sentence) is a concise summary of the main argument or claim of the paper. It serves as a critical anchor in any academic work, succinctly encapsulating the primary argument or main idea of the entire paper.

Typically found within the introductory section, a strong thesis statement acts as a roadmap of your thesis, directing readers through your arguments and findings. By delineating the core focus of your investigation, it offers readers an immediate understanding of the context and the gravity of your study.

Furthermore, an effectively crafted thesis statement can set forth the boundaries of your research, helping readers anticipate the specific areas of inquiry you are addressing.

Different types of thesis statements

A good thesis statement is clear, specific, and arguable. Therefore, it is necessary for you to choose the right type of thesis statement for your academic papers.

Thesis statements can be classified based on their purpose and structure. Here are the primary types of thesis statements:

Argumentative (or Persuasive) thesis statement

Purpose : To convince the reader of a particular stance or point of view by presenting evidence and formulating a compelling argument.

Example : Reducing plastic use in daily life is essential for environmental health.

Analytical thesis statement

Purpose : To break down an idea or issue into its components and evaluate it.

Example : By examining the long-term effects, social implications, and economic impact of climate change, it becomes evident that immediate global action is necessary.

Expository (or Descriptive) thesis statement

Purpose : To explain a topic or subject to the reader.

Example : The Great Depression, spanning the 1930s, was a severe worldwide economic downturn triggered by a stock market crash, bank failures, and reduced consumer spending.

Cause and effect thesis statement

Purpose : To demonstrate a cause and its resulting effect.

Example : Overuse of smartphones can lead to impaired sleep patterns, reduced face-to-face social interactions, and increased levels of anxiety.

Compare and contrast thesis statement

Purpose : To highlight similarities and differences between two subjects.

Example : "While both novels '1984' and 'Brave New World' delve into dystopian futures, they differ in their portrayal of individual freedom, societal control, and the role of technology."

When you write a thesis statement , it's important to ensure clarity and precision, so the reader immediately understands the central focus of your work.

What is the difference between a thesis and a thesis statement?

While both terms are frequently used interchangeably, they have distinct meanings.

A thesis refers to the entire research document, encompassing all its chapters and sections. In contrast, a thesis statement is a brief assertion that encapsulates the central argument of the research.

Here’s an in-depth differentiation table of a thesis and a thesis statement.

Aspect

Thesis

Thesis Statement

Definition

An extensive document presenting the author's research and findings, typically for a degree or professional qualification.

A concise sentence or two in an essay or research paper that outlines the main idea or argument.  

Position

It’s the entire document on its own.

Typically found at the end of the introduction of an essay, research paper, or thesis.

Components

Introduction, methodology, results, conclusions, and bibliography or references.

Doesn't include any specific components

Purpose

Provides detailed research, presents findings, and contributes to a field of study. 

To guide the reader about the main point or argument of the paper or essay.

Now, to craft a compelling thesis, it's crucial to adhere to a specific structure. Let’s break down these essential components that make up a thesis structure

15 components of a thesis structure

Navigating a thesis can be daunting. However, understanding its structure can make the process more manageable.

Here are the key components or different sections of a thesis structure:

Your thesis begins with the title page. It's not just a formality but the gateway to your research.

title-page-of-a-thesis

Here, you'll prominently display the necessary information about you (the author) and your institutional details.

  • Title of your thesis
  • Your full name
  • Your department
  • Your institution and degree program
  • Your submission date
  • Your Supervisor's name (in some cases)
  • Your Department or faculty (in some cases)
  • Your University's logo (in some cases)
  • Your Student ID (in some cases)

In a concise manner, you'll have to summarize the critical aspects of your research in typically no more than 200-300 words.

Abstract-section-of-a-thesis

This includes the problem statement, methodology, key findings, and conclusions. For many, the abstract will determine if they delve deeper into your work, so ensure it's clear and compelling.

Acknowledgments

Research is rarely a solitary endeavor. In the acknowledgments section, you have the chance to express gratitude to those who've supported your journey.

Acknowledgement-section-of-a-thesis

This might include advisors, peers, institutions, or even personal sources of inspiration and support. It's a personal touch, reflecting the humanity behind the academic rigor.

Table of contents

A roadmap for your readers, the table of contents lists the chapters, sections, and subsections of your thesis.

Table-of-contents-of-a-thesis

By providing page numbers, you allow readers to navigate your work easily, jumping to sections that pique their interest.

List of figures and tables

Research often involves data, and presenting this data visually can enhance understanding. This section provides an organized listing of all figures and tables in your thesis.

List-of-tables-and-figures-in-a-thesis

It's a visual index, ensuring that readers can quickly locate and reference your graphical data.

Introduction

Here's where you introduce your research topic, articulate the research question or objective, and outline the significance of your study.

Introduction-section-of-a-thesis

  • Present the research topic : Clearly articulate the central theme or subject of your research.
  • Background information : Ground your research topic, providing any necessary context or background information your readers might need to understand the significance of your study.
  • Define the scope : Clearly delineate the boundaries of your research, indicating what will and won't be covered.
  • Literature review : Introduce any relevant existing research on your topic, situating your work within the broader academic conversation and highlighting where your research fits in.
  • State the research Question(s) or objective(s) : Clearly articulate the primary questions or objectives your research aims to address.
  • Outline the study's structure : Give a brief overview of how the subsequent sections of your work will unfold, guiding your readers through the journey ahead.

The introduction should captivate your readers, making them eager to delve deeper into your research journey.

Literature review section

Your study correlates with existing research. Therefore, in the literature review section, you'll engage in a dialogue with existing knowledge, highlighting relevant studies, theories, and findings.

Literature-review-section-thesis

It's here that you identify gaps in the current knowledge, positioning your research as a bridge to new insights.

To streamline this process, consider leveraging AI tools. For example, the SciSpace literature review tool enables you to efficiently explore and delve into research papers, simplifying your literature review journey.

Methodology

In the research methodology section, you’ll detail the tools, techniques, and processes you employed to gather and analyze data. This section will inform the readers about how you approached your research questions and ensures the reproducibility of your study.

Methodology-section-thesis

Here's a breakdown of what it should encompass:

  • Research Design : Describe the overall structure and approach of your research. Are you conducting a qualitative study with in-depth interviews? Or is it a quantitative study using statistical analysis? Perhaps it's a mixed-methods approach?
  • Data Collection : Detail the methods you used to gather data. This could include surveys, experiments, observations, interviews, archival research, etc. Mention where you sourced your data, the duration of data collection, and any tools or instruments used.
  • Sampling : If applicable, explain how you selected participants or data sources for your study. Discuss the size of your sample and the rationale behind choosing it.
  • Data Analysis : Describe the techniques and tools you used to process and analyze the data. This could range from statistical tests in quantitative research to thematic analysis in qualitative research.
  • Validity and Reliability : Address the steps you took to ensure the validity and reliability of your findings to ensure that your results are both accurate and consistent.
  • Ethical Considerations : Highlight any ethical issues related to your research and the measures you took to address them, including — informed consent, confidentiality, and data storage and protection measures.

Moreover, different research questions necessitate different types of methodologies. For instance:

  • Experimental methodology : Often used in sciences, this involves a controlled experiment to discern causality.
  • Qualitative methodology : Employed when exploring patterns or phenomena without numerical data. Methods can include interviews, focus groups, or content analysis.
  • Quantitative methodology : Concerned with measurable data and often involves statistical analysis. Surveys and structured observations are common tools here.
  • Mixed methods : As the name implies, this combines both qualitative and quantitative methodologies.

The Methodology section isn’t just about detailing the methods but also justifying why they were chosen. The appropriateness of the methods in addressing your research question can significantly impact the credibility of your findings.

Results (or Findings)

This section presents the outcomes of your research. It's crucial to note that the nature of your results may vary; they could be quantitative, qualitative, or a mix of both.

Results-section-thesis

Quantitative results often present statistical data, showcasing measurable outcomes, and they benefit from tables, graphs, and figures to depict these data points.

Qualitative results , on the other hand, might delve into patterns, themes, or narratives derived from non-numerical data, such as interviews or observations.

Regardless of the nature of your results, clarity is essential. This section is purely about presenting the data without offering interpretations — that comes later in the discussion.

In the discussion section, the raw data transforms into valuable insights.

Start by revisiting your research question and contrast it with the findings. How do your results expand, constrict, or challenge current academic conversations?

Dive into the intricacies of the data, guiding the reader through its implications. Detail potential limitations transparently, signaling your awareness of the research's boundaries. This is where your academic voice should be resonant and confident.

Practical implications (Recommendation) section

Based on the insights derived from your research, this section provides actionable suggestions or proposed solutions.

Whether aimed at industry professionals or the general public, recommendations translate your academic findings into potential real-world actions. They help readers understand the practical implications of your work and how it can be applied to effect change or improvement in a given field.

When crafting recommendations, it's essential to ensure they're feasible and rooted in the evidence provided by your research. They shouldn't merely be aspirational but should offer a clear path forward, grounded in your findings.

The conclusion provides closure to your research narrative.

It's not merely a recap but a synthesis of your main findings and their broader implications. Reconnect with the research questions or hypotheses posited at the beginning, offering clear answers based on your findings.

Conclusion-section-thesis

Reflect on the broader contributions of your study, considering its impact on the academic community and potential real-world applications.

Lastly, the conclusion should leave your readers with a clear understanding of the value and impact of your study.

References (or Bibliography)

Every theory you've expounded upon, every data point you've cited, and every methodological precedent you've followed finds its acknowledgment here.

References-section-thesis

In references, it's crucial to ensure meticulous consistency in formatting, mirroring the specific guidelines of the chosen citation style .

Proper referencing helps to avoid plagiarism , gives credit to original ideas, and allows readers to explore topics of interest. Moreover, it situates your work within the continuum of academic knowledge.

To properly cite the sources used in the study, you can rely on online citation generator tools  to generate accurate citations!

Here’s more on how you can cite your sources.

Often, the depth of research produces a wealth of material that, while crucial, can make the core content of the thesis cumbersome. The appendix is where you mention extra information that supports your research but isn't central to the main text.

Appendices-section-thesis

Whether it's raw datasets, detailed procedural methodologies, extended case studies, or any other ancillary material, the appendices ensure that these elements are archived for reference without breaking the main narrative's flow.

For thorough researchers and readers keen on meticulous details, the appendices provide a treasure trove of insights.

Glossary (optional)

In academics, specialized terminologies, and jargon are inevitable. However, not every reader is versed in every term.

The glossary, while optional, is a critical tool for accessibility. It's a bridge ensuring that even readers from outside the discipline can access, understand, and appreciate your work.

Glossary-section-of-a-thesis

By defining complex terms and providing context, you're inviting a wider audience to engage with your research, enhancing its reach and impact.

Remember, while these components provide a structured framework, the essence of your thesis lies in the originality of your ideas, the rigor of your research, and the clarity of your presentation.

As you craft each section, keep your readers in mind, ensuring that your passion and dedication shine through every page.

Thesis examples

To further elucidate the concept of a thesis, here are illustrative examples from various fields:

Example 1 (History): Abolition, Africans, and Abstraction: the Influence of the ‘Noble Savage’ on British and French Antislavery Thought, 1787-1807 by Suchait Kahlon.
Example 2 (Climate Dynamics): Influence of external forcings on abrupt millennial-scale climate changes: a statistical modelling study by Takahito Mitsui · Michel Crucifix

Checklist for your thesis evaluation

Evaluating your thesis ensures that your research meets the standards of academia. Here's an elaborate checklist to guide you through this critical process.

Content and structure

  • Is the thesis statement clear, concise, and debatable?
  • Does the introduction provide sufficient background and context?
  • Is the literature review comprehensive, relevant, and well-organized?
  • Does the methodology section clearly describe and justify the research methods?
  • Are the results/findings presented clearly and logically?
  • Does the discussion interpret the results in light of the research question and existing literature?
  • Is the conclusion summarizing the research and suggesting future directions or implications?

Clarity and coherence

  • Is the writing clear and free of jargon?
  • Are ideas and sections logically connected and flowing?
  • Is there a clear narrative or argument throughout the thesis?

Research quality

  • Is the research question significant and relevant?
  • Are the research methods appropriate for the question?
  • Is the sample size (if applicable) adequate?
  • Are the data analysis techniques appropriate and correctly applied?
  • Are potential biases or limitations addressed?

Originality and significance

  • Does the thesis contribute new knowledge or insights to the field?
  • Is the research grounded in existing literature while offering fresh perspectives?

Formatting and presentation

  • Is the thesis formatted according to institutional guidelines?
  • Are figures, tables, and charts clear, labeled, and referenced in the text?
  • Is the bibliography or reference list complete and consistently formatted?
  • Are appendices relevant and appropriately referenced in the main text?

Grammar and language

  • Is the thesis free of grammatical and spelling errors?
  • Is the language professional, consistent, and appropriate for an academic audience?
  • Are quotations and paraphrased material correctly cited?

Feedback and revision

  • Have you sought feedback from peers, advisors, or experts in the field?
  • Have you addressed the feedback and made the necessary revisions?

Overall assessment

  • Does the thesis as a whole feel cohesive and comprehensive?
  • Would the thesis be understandable and valuable to someone in your field?

Ensure to use this checklist to leave no ground for doubt or missed information in your thesis.

After writing your thesis, the next step is to discuss and defend your findings verbally in front of a knowledgeable panel. You’ve to be well prepared as your professors may grade your presentation abilities.

Preparing your thesis defense

A thesis defense, also known as "defending the thesis," is the culmination of a scholar's research journey. It's the final frontier, where you’ll present their findings and face scrutiny from a panel of experts.

Typically, the defense involves a public presentation where you’ll have to outline your study, followed by a question-and-answer session with a committee of experts. This committee assesses the validity, originality, and significance of the research.

The defense serves as a rite of passage for scholars. It's an opportunity to showcase expertise, address criticisms, and refine arguments. A successful defense not only validates the research but also establishes your authority as a researcher in your field.

Here’s how you can effectively prepare for your thesis defense .

Now, having touched upon the process of defending a thesis, it's worth noting that scholarly work can take various forms, depending on academic and regional practices.

One such form, often paralleled with the thesis, is the 'dissertation.' But what differentiates the two?

Dissertation vs. Thesis

Often used interchangeably in casual discourse, they refer to distinct research projects undertaken at different levels of higher education.

To the uninitiated, understanding their meaning might be elusive. So, let's demystify these terms and delve into their core differences.

Here's a table differentiating between the two.

Aspect

Thesis

Dissertation

Purpose

Often for a master's degree, showcasing a grasp of existing research

Primarily for a doctoral degree, contributing new knowledge to the field

Length

100 pages, focusing on a specific topic or question.

400-500 pages, involving deep research and comprehensive findings

Research Depth

Builds upon existing research

Involves original and groundbreaking research

Advisor's Role

Guides the research process

Acts more as a consultant, allowing the student to take the lead

Outcome

Demonstrates understanding of the subject

Proves capability to conduct independent and original research

Wrapping up

From understanding the foundational concept of a thesis to navigating its various components, differentiating it from a dissertation, and recognizing the importance of proper citation — this guide covers it all.

As scholars and readers, understanding these nuances not only aids in academic pursuits but also fosters a deeper appreciation for the relentless quest for knowledge that drives academia.

It’s important to remember that every thesis is a testament to curiosity, dedication, and the indomitable spirit of discovery.

Good luck with your thesis writing!

Frequently Asked Questions

A thesis typically ranges between 40-80 pages, but its length can vary based on the research topic, institution guidelines, and level of study.

A PhD thesis usually spans 200-300 pages, though this can vary based on the discipline, complexity of the research, and institutional requirements.

To identify a thesis topic, consider current trends in your field, gaps in existing literature, personal interests, and discussions with advisors or mentors. Additionally, reviewing related journals and conference proceedings can provide insights into potential areas of exploration.

The conceptual framework is often situated in the literature review or theoretical framework section of a thesis. It helps set the stage by providing the context, defining key concepts, and explaining the relationships between variables.

A thesis statement should be concise, clear, and specific. It should state the main argument or point of your research. Start by pinpointing the central question or issue your research addresses, then condense that into a single statement, ensuring it reflects the essence of your paper.

You might also like

Boosting Citations: A Comparative Analysis of Graphical Abstract vs. Video Abstract

Boosting Citations: A Comparative Analysis of Graphical Abstract vs. Video Abstract

Sumalatha G

The Impact of Visual Abstracts on Boosting Citations

Introducing SciSpace’s Citation Booster To Increase Research Visibility

Introducing SciSpace’s Citation Booster To Increase Research Visibility

The Writing Center • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Thesis Statements

What this handout is about.

This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft.

Introduction

Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.

What is a thesis statement?

A thesis statement:

  • tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
  • is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
  • directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
  • makes a claim that others might dispute.
  • is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.

If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft. The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively. (Check out our handout on understanding assignments for more information.)

How do I create a thesis?

A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis” that presents a basic or main idea and an argument that you think you can support with evidence. Both the argument and your thesis are likely to need adjustment along the way.

Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement. For more ideas on how to get started, see our handout on brainstorming .

How do I know if my thesis is strong?

If there’s time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following :

  • Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question. If the prompt isn’t phrased as a question, try to rephrase it. For example, “Discuss the effect of X on Y” can be rephrased as “What is the effect of X on Y?”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is likely to  be “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.
  • Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.

Suppose you are taking a course on contemporary communication, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: “Discuss the impact of social media on public awareness.” Looking back at your notes, you might start with this working thesis:

Social media impacts public awareness in both positive and negative ways.

You can use the questions above to help you revise this general statement into a stronger thesis.

  • Do I answer the question? You can analyze this if you rephrase “discuss the impact” as “what is the impact?” This way, you can see that you’ve answered the question only very generally with the vague “positive and negative ways.”
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not likely. Only people who maintain that social media has a solely positive or solely negative impact could disagree.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? No. What are the positive effects? What are the negative effects?
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? No. Why are they positive? How are they positive? What are their causes? Why are they negative? How are they negative? What are their causes?
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? No. Why should anyone care about the positive and/or negative impact of social media?

After thinking about your answers to these questions, you decide to focus on the one impact you feel strongly about and have strong evidence for:

Because not every voice on social media is reliable, people have become much more critical consumers of information, and thus, more informed voters.

This version is a much stronger thesis! It answers the question, takes a specific position that others can challenge, and it gives a sense of why it matters.

Let’s try another. Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn. “This will be easy,” you think. “I loved Huckleberry Finn!” You grab a pad of paper and write:

Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel.

You begin to analyze your thesis:

  • Do I answer the question? No. The prompt asks you to analyze some aspect of the novel. Your working thesis is a statement of general appreciation for the entire novel.

Think about aspects of the novel that are important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write:

In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.
  • Do I answer the question? Yes!
  • Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not really. This contrast is well-known and accepted.
  • Is my thesis statement specific enough? It’s getting there–you have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation. However, it’s still not clear what your analysis will reveal.
  • Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? Not yet. Compare scenes from the book and see what you discover. Free write, make lists, jot down Huck’s actions and reactions and anything else that seems interesting.
  • Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? What’s the point of this contrast? What does it signify?”

After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write:

Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain’s Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave “civilized” society and go back to nature.

This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.

Works consulted

We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.

Anson, Chris M., and Robert A. Schwegler. 2010. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers , 6th ed. New York: Longman.

Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.

Ramage, John D., John C. Bean, and June Johnson. 2018. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing , 8th ed. New York: Pearson.

Ruszkiewicz, John J., Christy Friend, Daniel Seward, and Maxine Hairston. 2010. The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers , 9th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.

You may reproduce it for non-commercial use if you use the entire handout and attribute the source: The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Make a Gift

Reference management. Clean and simple.

How to write an excellent thesis conclusion [with examples]

Tips for writing thesis conclusion

Restate the thesis

Review or reiterate key points of your work, explain why your work is relevant, a take-away for the reader, more resources on writing thesis conclusions, frequently asked questions about writing an excellent thesis conclusion, related articles.

At this point in your writing, you have most likely finished your introduction and the body of your thesis, dissertation, or research paper . While this is a reason to celebrate, you should not underestimate the importance of your conclusion. The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable.

A good conclusion will review the key points of the thesis and explain to the reader why the information is relevant, applicable, or related to the world as a whole. Make sure to dedicate enough of your writing time to the conclusion and do not put it off until the very last minute.

This article provides an effective technique for writing a conclusion adapted from Erika Eby’s The College Student's Guide to Writing a Good Research Paper: 101 Easy Tips & Tricks to Make Your Work Stand Out .

While the thesis introduction starts out with broad statements about the topic, and then narrows it down to the thesis statement , a thesis conclusion does the same in the opposite order.

  • Restate the thesis.
  • Review or reiterate key points of your work.
  • Explain why your work is relevant.
  • Include a core take-away message for the reader.

Tip: Don’t just copy and paste your thesis into your conclusion. Restate it in different words.

The best way to start a conclusion is simply by restating the thesis statement. That does not mean just copying and pasting it from the introduction, but putting it into different words.

You will need to change the structure and wording of it to avoid sounding repetitive. Also, be firm in your conclusion just as you were in the introduction. Try to avoid sounding apologetic by using phrases like "This paper has tried to show..."

The conclusion should address all the same parts as the thesis while making it clear that the reader has reached the end. You are telling the reader that your research is finished and what your findings are.

I have argued throughout this work that the point of critical mass for biopolitical immunity occurred during the Romantic period because of that era's unique combination of post-revolutionary politics and innovations in smallpox prevention. In particular, I demonstrated that the French Revolution and the discovery of vaccination in the 1790s triggered a reconsideration of the relationship between bodies and the state.

Tip: Try to reiterate points from your introduction in your thesis conclusion.

The next step is to review the main points of the thesis as a whole. Look back at the body of of your project and make a note of the key ideas. You can reword these ideas the same way you reworded your thesis statement and then incorporate that into the conclusion.

You can also repeat striking quotations or statistics, but do not use more than two. As the conclusion represents your own closing thoughts on the topic , it should mainly consist of your own words.

In addition, conclusions can contain recommendations to the reader or relevant questions that further the thesis. You should ask yourself:

  • What you would ideally like to see your readers do in reaction to your paper?
  • Do you want them to take a certain action or investigate further?
  • Is there a bigger issue that your paper wants to draw attention to?

Also, try to reference your introduction in your conclusion. You have already taken a first step by restating your thesis. Now, check whether there are other key words, phrases or ideas that are mentioned in your introduction that fit into your conclusion. Connecting the introduction to the conclusion in this way will help readers feel satisfied.

I explored how Mary Wollstonecraft, in both her fiction and political writings, envisions an ideal medico-political state, and how other writers like William Wordsworth and Mary Shelley increasingly imagined the body politic literally, as an incorporated political collective made up of bodies whose immunity to political and medical ills was essential to a healthy state.

Tip: Make sure to explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research.

Although you can encourage readers to question their opinions and reflect on your topic, do not leave loose ends. You should provide a sense of resolution and make sure your conclusion wraps up your argument. Make sure you explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research and how your research intervenes within, or substantially revises, existing scholarly debates.

This project challenged conventional ideas about the relationship among Romanticism, medicine, and politics by reading the unfolding of Romantic literature and biopolitical immunity as mutual, co-productive processes. In doing so, this thesis revises the ways in which biopolitics has been theorized by insisting on the inherent connections between Romantic literature and the forms of biopower that characterize early modernity.

Tip: If you began your thesis with an anecdote or historical example, you may want to return to that in your conclusion.

End your conclusion with something memorable, such as:

  • a call to action
  • a recommendation
  • a gesture towards future research
  • a brief explanation of how the problem or idea you covered remains relevant

Ultimately, you want readers to feel more informed, or ready to act, as they read your conclusion.

Yet, the Romantic period is only the beginning of modern thought on immunity and biopolitics. Victorian writers, doctors, and politicians upheld the Romantic idea that a "healthy state" was a literal condition that could be achieved by combining politics and medicine, but augmented that idea through legislation and widespread public health measures. While many nineteenth-century efforts to improve citizens' health were successful, the fight against disease ultimately changed course in the twentieth century as global immunological threats such as SARS occupied public consciousness. Indeed, as subsequent public health events make apparent, biopolitical immunity persists as a viable concept for thinking about the relationship between medicine and politics in modernity.

Need more advice? Read our 5 additional tips on how to write a good thesis conclusion.

The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable. To write a great thesis conclusion you should:

The basic content of a conclusion is to review the main points from the paper. This part represents your own closing thoughts on the topic. It should mainly consist of the outcome of the research in your own words.

The length of the conclusion will depend on the length of the whole thesis. Usually, a conclusion should be around 5-7% of the overall word count.

End your conclusion with something memorable, such as a question, warning, or call to action. Depending on the topic, you can also end with a recommendation.

In Open Access: Theses and Dissertations you can find thousands of completed works. Take a look at any of the theses or dissertations for real-life examples of conclusions that were already approved.

my thesis is on

Have a language expert improve your writing

Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.

  • Knowledge Base
  • Dissertation

How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Introduction

Published on September 7, 2022 by Tegan George and Shona McCombes. Revised on November 21, 2023.

The introduction is the first section of your thesis or dissertation , appearing right after the table of contents . Your introduction draws your reader in, setting the stage for your research with a clear focus, purpose, and direction on a relevant topic .

Your introduction should include:

  • Your topic, in context: what does your reader need to know to understand your thesis dissertation?
  • Your focus and scope: what specific aspect of the topic will you address?
  • The relevance of your research: how does your work fit into existing studies on your topic?
  • Your questions and objectives: what does your research aim to find out, and how?
  • An overview of your structure: what does each section contribute to the overall aim?

Instantly correct all language mistakes in your text

Upload your document to correct all your mistakes in minutes

upload-your-document-ai-proofreader

Table of contents

How to start your introduction, topic and context, focus and scope, relevance and importance, questions and objectives, overview of the structure, thesis introduction example, introduction checklist, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about introductions.

Although your introduction kicks off your dissertation, it doesn’t have to be the first thing you write — in fact, it’s often one of the very last parts to be completed (just before your abstract ).

It’s a good idea to write a rough draft of your introduction as you begin your research, to help guide you. If you wrote a research proposal , consider using this as a template, as it contains many of the same elements. However, be sure to revise your introduction throughout the writing process, making sure it matches the content of your ensuing sections.

Receive feedback on language, structure, and formatting

Professional editors proofread and edit your paper by focusing on:

  • Academic style
  • Vague sentences
  • Style consistency

See an example

my thesis is on

Begin by introducing your dissertation topic and giving any necessary background information. It’s important to contextualize your research and generate interest. Aim to show why your topic is timely or important. You may want to mention a relevant news item, academic debate, or practical problem.

After a brief introduction to your general area of interest, narrow your focus and define the scope of your research.

You can narrow this down in many ways, such as by:

  • Geographical area
  • Time period
  • Demographics or communities
  • Themes or aspects of the topic

It’s essential to share your motivation for doing this research, as well as how it relates to existing work on your topic. Further, you should also mention what new insights you expect it will contribute.

Start by giving a brief overview of the current state of research. You should definitely cite the most relevant literature, but remember that you will conduct a more in-depth survey of relevant sources in the literature review section, so there’s no need to go too in-depth in the introduction.

Depending on your field, the importance of your research might focus on its practical application (e.g., in policy or management) or on advancing scholarly understanding of the topic (e.g., by developing theories or adding new empirical data). In many cases, it will do both.

Ultimately, your introduction should explain how your thesis or dissertation:

  • Helps solve a practical or theoretical problem
  • Addresses a gap in the literature
  • Builds on existing research
  • Proposes a new understanding of your topic

Perhaps the most important part of your introduction is your questions and objectives, as it sets up the expectations for the rest of your thesis or dissertation. How you formulate your research questions and research objectives will depend on your discipline, topic, and focus, but you should always clearly state the central aim of your research.

If your research aims to test hypotheses , you can formulate them here. Your introduction is also a good place for a conceptual framework that suggests relationships between variables .

  • Conduct surveys to collect data on students’ levels of knowledge, understanding, and positive/negative perceptions of government policy.
  • Determine whether attitudes to climate policy are associated with variables such as age, gender, region, and social class.
  • Conduct interviews to gain qualitative insights into students’ perspectives and actions in relation to climate policy.

To help guide your reader, end your introduction with an outline  of the structure of the thesis or dissertation to follow. Share a brief summary of each chapter, clearly showing how each contributes to your central aims. However, be careful to keep this overview concise: 1-2 sentences should be enough.

I. Introduction

Human language consists of a set of vowels and consonants which are combined to form words. During the speech production process, thoughts are converted into spoken utterances to convey a message. The appropriate words and their meanings are selected in the mental lexicon (Dell & Burger, 1997). This pre-verbal message is then grammatically coded, during which a syntactic representation of the utterance is built.

Speech, language, and voice disorders affect the vocal cords, nerves, muscles, and brain structures, which result in a distorted language reception or speech production (Sataloff & Hawkshaw, 2014). The symptoms vary from adding superfluous words and taking pauses to hoarseness of the voice, depending on the type of disorder (Dodd, 2005). However, distortions of the speech may also occur as a result of a disease that seems unrelated to speech, such as multiple sclerosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

This study aims to determine which acoustic parameters are suitable for the automatic detection of exacerbations in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by investigating which aspects of speech differ between COPD patients and healthy speakers and which aspects differ between COPD patients in exacerbation and stable COPD patients.

Checklist: Introduction

I have introduced my research topic in an engaging way.

I have provided necessary context to help the reader understand my topic.

I have clearly specified the focus of my research.

I have shown the relevance and importance of the dissertation topic .

I have clearly stated the problem or question that my research addresses.

I have outlined the specific objectives of the research .

I have provided an overview of the dissertation’s structure .

You've written a strong introduction for your thesis or dissertation. Use the other checklists to continue improving your dissertation.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

Research bias

  • Survivorship bias
  • Self-serving bias
  • Availability heuristic
  • Halo effect
  • Hindsight bias
  • Deep learning
  • Generative AI
  • Machine learning
  • Reinforcement learning
  • Supervised vs. unsupervised learning

 (AI) Tools

  • Grammar Checker
  • Paraphrasing Tool
  • Text Summarizer
  • AI Detector
  • Plagiarism Checker
  • Citation Generator

The introduction of a research paper includes several key elements:

  • A hook to catch the reader’s interest
  • Relevant background on the topic
  • Details of your research problem

and your problem statement

  • A thesis statement or research question
  • Sometimes an overview of the paper

Don’t feel that you have to write the introduction first. The introduction is often one of the last parts of the research paper you’ll write, along with the conclusion.

This is because it can be easier to introduce your paper once you’ve already written the body ; you may not have the clearest idea of your arguments until you’ve written them, and things can change during the writing process .

Research objectives describe what you intend your research project to accomplish.

They summarize the approach and purpose of the project and help to focus your research.

Your objectives should appear in the introduction of your research paper , at the end of your problem statement .

Scope of research is determined at the beginning of your research process , prior to the data collection stage. Sometimes called “scope of study,” your scope delineates what will and will not be covered in your project. It helps you focus your work and your time, ensuring that you’ll be able to achieve your goals and outcomes.

Defining a scope can be very useful in any research project, from a research proposal to a thesis or dissertation . A scope is needed for all types of research: quantitative , qualitative , and mixed methods .

To define your scope of research, consider the following:

  • Budget constraints or any specifics of grant funding
  • Your proposed timeline and duration
  • Specifics about your population of study, your proposed sample size , and the research methodology you’ll pursue
  • Any inclusion and exclusion criteria
  • Any anticipated control , extraneous , or confounding variables that could bias your research if not accounted for properly.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

George, T. & McCombes, S. (2023, November 21). How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Introduction. Scribbr. Retrieved July 5, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/introduction-structure/

Is this article helpful?

Tegan George

Tegan George

Other students also liked, how to choose a dissertation topic | 8 steps to follow, how to write an abstract | steps & examples, get unlimited documents corrected.

✔ Free APA citation check included ✔ Unlimited document corrections ✔ Specialized in correcting academic texts

Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 183 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Q&A for work

Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search.

My thesis focus or My thesis' focus

I would like to describe the main focus of my thesis. However, I do not know which one is correct:

My thesis focus is on ...

My thesis' focus is on...

  • sentence-structure

Mary's user avatar

  • 2 "My thesis focuses on..." is probably better than the two above –  Gamora Commented Jul 1, 2019 at 16:40

Since it is "the focus of my thesis", the correct way is "My thesis' focus"

TK-421's user avatar

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for browse other questions tagged grammar sentence-structure ..

  • Featured on Meta
  • Upcoming initiatives on Stack Overflow and across the Stack Exchange network...
  • We spent a sprint addressing your requests — here’s how it went

Hot Network Questions

  • How to see what statement (memory address) my program is currently running: the program counter register, through Linux commands?
  • ForeignFunctionLoad / RawMemoryAllocate and c-struct that includes an array
  • Challenge the appointment of the prime minister
  • Air magic only used to decrease humidity and improve living conditions?
  • Center Set of Equations Using Align
  • Level shift a digital 1.8V signal to split supply rail, using BJT
  • Is there a way to change a cantrip spell type to Necromancy in order to fulfil the requirement of the Death Domain Reaper ability for Clerics?
  • Is it possible to easily change the inclination when using momentum exchange tethers?
  • Was I wrongfully denied boarding for a flight where the airliner lands to a gate that doesn't directly connect to the international part the airport?
  • 2024 UK election: Which demographic factors explain the geography?
  • Where am I wrong in my derivation of RC charging circuit equation?
  • Could two moons orbit each other around a planet?
  • Can the differential be unitless while the variable have an unit in integration?
  • What does "that" in "No one ever meant that, Drax" refer to?
  • Decorate equations with arrows using TikZ
  • Tour de France General Classification time
  • When selling a machine with proprietary software that links against an LGPLv3 library, do I need to give the customer root access?
  • How can Afghan origin mother with Canadian citizenship legally immigrate to UK to live with daughter with British citizenship?
  • Is the text of a LLM determined by a random seed?
  • Were there any stone vessels (including mortars) made in Paleolithic?
  • Any alternative to lockdown browser?
  • How to solve the intersection truncation problem of multiple \draw[thick, color=xxx] commands by color?
  • Minimum number of select-all/copy/paste steps for a string containing n copies of the original
  • Can I convert 50 amp electric oven circuit to subpanel, and power oven plus water heater, plus maybe a car charger?

my thesis is on

Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 183 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Q&A for work

Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search.

When can a thesis get rejected or asked for a major revision?

I am planning to submit my thesis next month. I have 4 published SCI-indexed journals (Elsevier, Springer, IEEE transaction, World Scientific) and 2 more journals communicated (all first authors). My thesis is on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology. The thesis will be sent to two external examiners about whom I will not know (Institute policy). I am fearing what will happen if my thesis somehow gets rejected (I do not know why I am so scared right now).

Should I be worried that my thesis may get rejected?

Also, what happens when the thesis gets major revision?

Do I have to do the corrections and send the thesis again?

When a reviewer is checking a thesis, usually what does he want in it?
Does he read the entire thesis line by line?
Kindly share any incident of thesis rejections if you know of any, why it was rejected and how the person finally got his degree.
  • peer-review
  • thesis-committee
  • bioinformatics

girl101's user avatar

  • 5 Surely you have been a PhD student long enough to have asked other students what they went through? Have you asked your supervisor? Supervisors don’t usually allow submission until the work is ready and you should have agreed the work with your supervisor. –  Solar Mike Commented Aug 19, 2020 at 5:00
  • 4 With several journal publications in solid or better journals, it's very unlikely to be rejected. If the supervisor gave you green light, they assume you are fine. It is good to be anxious to some extent, but at this stage, according to what you report, it does not look like an existential matter. Of course, we do not know the details of the case, but I do not see red flags here. –  Captain Emacs Commented Aug 19, 2020 at 7:43
  • 5 where are you? Thesis submission and marking processes vary wildly between different academic cultures. –  Chris H Commented Aug 19, 2020 at 10:55
  • 3 I have never heard of a PhD thesis being rejected. It would reflect catastrophically on the advisor and damage the relationship between the advisor and other examiners. Usually, submission of the thesis needs approval by the advisor. You can trust your advisor to recognize if a thesis is such utter trash that it can be rejected. –  user9482 Commented Aug 19, 2020 at 12:27
  • 1 This is a question you should be asking to your advisor and committee. It is not a question for strangers on the internet. –  David Ketcheson Commented Aug 19, 2020 at 13:04

4 Answers 4

This very much depends on which system you are in. I can answer from the point of view of the UK system.

It is very un likely your thesis will be outright rejected.

It is very likely you will be asked to make some corrections.

Yes, you will have to make the corrections and send the thesis again.

Requirements for a thesis are generally set out by the university. They normally specify you must have made a "novel contribution to the field" and the work is, in principle, of publication quality. Or something similar.

Yes, a good examiner will read the thesis line by line.

There are five possible outcomes from the examination of a thesis.

  • Accepted without corrections
  • Minor corrections - generally textual changes only - 3 month time limit
  • Major corrections - might involve some reanalysis, but no new experiments - 6 month time limit.
  • Resubmit - this thesis does not pass, but contains sufficient material to convince the examiners you are capable of passing. You are giving leave to rewrite and resubmit the thesis. May involve new experiments - often 1 year time limit.
  • Fail (either with or without a Master of Philosophy degree).

Almost all students are given minor or major corrections - I'd say 90% fall into these categories. Slightly more in minor corrections probably. Maybe 8% get no corrections, and perhaps 1.5% are asked to resubmit. Very, very few fail outright.

Ian Sudbery's user avatar

  • I'm in the UK system as well. I've been supervisor and examiner and I've seen what happened to other students. From my experience 1.5% is far too low a percentage for resubmission. I'd say 10% or even more. I have made this decision as examiner, and had it made by other examiners for one of my students (although that was apparently not based on the thesis in the first place, more on viva performance); I have examined less than 10 and supervised 5-10. I've also seen this happening in other cases. I agree with the rest, by and large. –  Christian Hennig Commented Aug 19, 2020 at 12:37
  • 4 Disciplinary differences I guess - I've never done it, nor had it done to one of my students. Of my colleagues, I only know of one or two occasions where they have given out a re-submission. –  Ian Sudbery Commented Aug 19, 2020 at 12:55
  • This would match my US experience in biology. I would say the number for anything worse than "major corrections" is effectively zero when the advisor supports the thesis , and 4 or 5 become much more likely if not. Most who would otherwise fall into 4 or especially 5 would likely not even submit a thesis. –  Bryan Krause ♦ Commented Aug 19, 2020 at 21:51

Four published journal articles and two under review, that sounds impressive to me! It's natural to fear your thesis will get rejected, it's natural to be scared: Search this forum for impostor syndrome

Also, what happens when the thesis gets major revision? Do I have to do the corrections and send the thesis again?

That'll likely depend on your institute and country. I suspect you'll need to make corrections in a timely fashion, perhaps your examiners will need to check they are satisfied.

A novel (valid) contribution to your field (just like a journal article), mastery of the material, and a broad understand of your domain.

That depends on the examiner.

user2768's user avatar

The other answers have generally good advice, to address a specific question you had:

I only know of one thesis that was completely rejected. In this case:

  • The student had a very weak publication record.
  • The student decided it was time for them to graduate (not the advisor).
  • The procedure for a defense didn't require the advisors signature, so they submitted the form and schedule the exam without their consent. (And initially without their knowledge.)
  • The advisor told them they weren't ready to graduate.
  • At the defense I'm told they couldn't answer even basic questions on the field properly.
  • After a year they were able to try one more time, and nothing changed, so they failed out of the program.

From what you've posted, this is far from your situation. So, while occasion anxiety is understandable, it is probably unwarranted in your case.

I also know of one case where someone's PhD was found to highly overlap with another PhD in another area with completely different terminology. (Math vs CS) That was awful for everyone involved - in that case they were given more time by the committee to come back and address it, and eventually they graduated.

Nathan S.'s user avatar

It is possible but unlikely that your thesis is rejected.

Although probably technically illegal, it is also probable that any sensible examiner would quietly contact your supervisor before submitting a report if there was a major problem with the thesis, if only to make sure there was no major misunderstanding and avoid embarrassment for the student but also for those like the thesis director who allowed the thesis to go forward. My experience is that examiners will prefer to hold their noses and accept a marginal or bad thesis rather than cause trouble and reject the submission.

The most likely outcome is that you will be asked to make minor revisions, and then your school will have some procedure to handle this time-wise. Usually the examiners do not need to see the thesis again when resubmitted after minor corrections.

Depending on how closely the thesis is examined, it may be accepted as is, but this very rare in my experience, and not necessarily desirable and one wonders how closely the examiner did his/her job. You want the examiner to engage with and improve the outcome to raise the visibility of the results.

In 35 or so years of experience, I know for certain of only three cases where a thesis was rejected: in two instances a document was submitted over the objection of the thesis director; in the third instance a real error was found in the thesis. Since this is exceptionally rare, you tend to hear about such instances when they happen. Thankfully, I was not involved directly in any of the situations.

ZeroTheHero's user avatar

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for browse other questions tagged phd thesis peer-review thesis-committee bioinformatics ..

  • Featured on Meta
  • We spent a sprint addressing your requests — here’s how it went
  • Upcoming initiatives on Stack Overflow and across the Stack Exchange network...

Hot Network Questions

  • Why is there not a test for diagonalizability of a matrix
  • Why did Nigel Farage choose Clacton as the constituency to campaign in?
  • How do I drill a 60cm hole in a tree stump, 4.4 cm wide?
  • What makes Python better suited to quant finance than Matlab / Octave, Julia, R and others?
  • Were there any stone vessels (including mortars) made in Paleolithic?
  • Segments of a string, doubling in length
  • Can player build dungeons in D&D? I thought that was just a job for the DM
  • How can Afghan origin mother with Canadian citizenship legally immigrate to UK to live with daughter with British citizenship?
  • Could two moons orbit each other around a planet?
  • It was the second, but we were told it was the fifth
  • Can you be charged with breaking and entering if the door was open, and the owner of the property is deceased?
  • Is the text of a LLM determined by a random seed?
  • What is the reason for using decibels to measure sound?
  • What spells can I cast while swallowed?
  • Was I wrongfully denied boarding for a flight where the airliner lands to a gate that doesn't directly connect to the international part the airport?
  • pdfgrep How to locate the pages that contain multiple strings and print the page numbers?
  • The object modified by relative clauses
  • How to solve the intersection truncation problem of multiple \draw[thick, color=xxx] commands by color?
  • A check given by castling: is it a discovered check or a special case?
  • The meaning of "奪耳" in 《說文解字》
  • firefox returns odd results for file:/// or file:///tmp
  • Computing residue at infinity
  • Book about a boy who becomes a sorcerer
  • I forgot to remove all authors' names from the appendix for a double-blind journal submission. What are the potential consequences?

my thesis is on

Important Addresses

Harvard Campus Map

Harvard College

University Hall Cambridge, MA 02138

Harvard College Admissions Office and Griffin Financial Aid Office

86 Brattle Street Cambridge, MA 02138

Social Links

If you are located in the European Union, Iceland, Liechtenstein or Norway (the “European Economic Area”), please click here for additional information about ways that certain Harvard University Schools, Centers, units and controlled entities, including this one, may collect, use, and share information about you.

  • Application Tips
  • Navigating Campus
  • Preparing for College
  • How to Complete the FAFSA
  • What to Expect After You Apply
  • View All Guides
  • Parents & Families
  • School Counselors
  • Información en Español
  • Undergraduate Viewbook
  • View All Resources

Search and Useful Links

Search the site, search suggestions, alert: independence day office closure.

The Admissions & Financial Aid Office will be closed on Thursday, July 4 and Friday, July 5 for the Independence Day holiday. We will reopen with normal business hours on Monday, July 8.

Last Updated: July 03, 5:00pm

Open Alert: Independence Day Office Closure

What my thesis means to me.

Student Holding a laptop in front of him

Last week, I submitted my senior thesis, and I wanted to take the opportunity to reflect on what this journey has meant to me.

As a government concentrator, writing a thesis is optional. The vast majority of seniors in our department choose not to write one, and that’s perfectly fine. There’s certainly no pressure to do so! But I thought I wanted to give it a shot. As a first-generation student, I guess part of my motivation was simply to prove to myself that I could take on the challenge.

my thesis is on

Now, when I committed to the idea of writing a thesis, I barely had any direction. All I knew was that I wanted my thesis to cover two things I care about: education and my home state of Mississippi. I could have written on countless topics within those parameters. But when I started this project my junior year, I was totally directionless. 

I'm sharing this because I want to stress that you do not have to already be an expert on your research topic. When I started, I was worried I didn’t have a clear enough interest. I feared I wasn’t as prepared as my peers. But in the end, finding my direction was part of the process! As I explored different areas of interest, more questions came up. And as I sought answers to those questions, the process repeated itself. Eventually, I settled on a topic. 

my thesis is on

A year of research, ups, and downs later and, on March 17th, I finally submitted a behemoth 163-page thesis titled, “‘The Broken Bridge of Literacy’: Assessing Inequitable Responses to Mississippi’s 2013 Literacy-Based Promotion Act.” In my paper, I explore a major educational reform in my home state. Conducting my own independent research, I was fueled by the feeling that I was contributing something substantive to a place I care so much about!

my thesis is on

A year ago, when I first began this project, I could have never imagined having a finished product like the one I submitted. In fact, I laughed at my adviser back in October when she tried to convince me that my then 20-page paper would be well over the 80-page minimum for the Government Department. At the time, I literally could not fathom having that much to write. But with the research, along came the words.  

Looking back over the past year, this thesis is something I’d just describe as a “wild ride.” On the one hand, this process served as a motivator throughout the pandemic; as I went to school remotely, my thesis kept me feeling connected to Harvard. At the same time, it was stressful! I had so many periods of self-doubt when I needed my adviser’s reliable pep talks to keep me going. There were times when I had been looking at spreadsheets for so long I was ready to rip my laptop in half! (And don't even get me started on my caffeine intake.)

my thesis is on

But as I reflect on this process, I’m proud of the growth that came with it. I’m also grateful for the bond I made with my adviser as well as for the love and support I received from my friends and parents. The end product would have never been possible without shoulders to lean on, others willing to listen to yet another rant , and people in my corner encouraging me to power through.

my thesis is on

All of this said, I want to reiterate that there’s no pressure to write a thesis. Some departments might require theses, but Government isn’t one of them. I never felt judged one way or another. In fact, I told my adviser at the beginning: I’m not shooting for some award; I just want something which showcases my passions and my learning from the past four years. And despite the complaints, despite the erratic sleep schedule in those last few weeks, I’m proud to have this thesis. Overcoming a lot of self-doubt, I proved to myself I could do it. Even if nobody reads it front-to-back (I haven’t even read it in order in its entirety!) I’m proud to have this proof that I could do it.

Young child posing for Kindergarten graduation

Here I am getting ready for my Kindergarten graduation!

  • Student Life

Braeden Class of '21 Alumni

College student, Braeden

Student Voices

My unusual path to neuroscience, and research.

Raymond Class of '25

Picture of a Boston Children's Hospital sign placed across a stone wall.

Beginning my senior thesis: A personal commitment to community and justice

Amy Class of '23 Alumni

landscape

Summer Opportunities at Harvard

Perrin Class of '23 Alumni

Picture of outside Widener library in the summertime

To revisit this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories .

  • What Is Cinema?

I Taught the Taylor Swift Class at Harvard. Here’s My Thesis

Image may contain Taylor Swift Couch Furniture Person Teen Guitar Musical Instrument and Guitarist

L ast fall I told Harvard’s English Department that I planned to offer a class this spring on Taylor Swift . No one objected; Harvard professors like me get lots of latitude in confecting electives as long as we also offer the bread-and-butter material our majors need. (Most of my work is poetry-related; I also teach our regular undergrad course about literary form, from Beowulf on.) I’d call my new class Taylor Swift and Her World , as in: We’d read and listen to other artists and authors (part of her world). But also as in: It’s her world; we just live in it.

I’ve been living in it ever since. I thought I’d be teaching a quiet seminar: 20-odd Swifties around a big oak table, examining and appreciating her career, from her debut to Midnights , alongside her influences, from Carole King (see her Rock & Roll Hall of Fame speech) to William Wordsworth (see “The Lakes” from Folklore ). We would track her echoes and half rhymes, her arrangements and collaborations and allusions, her hooks and her choruses. We might sing along. We’d learn why “You Belong With Me” relies so much on its with ( you don’t belong to me, nor I to you ). We’d learn how the unease in “Tolerate It” speaks to its time signature (5/4). Maybe some English majors would get into songwriting. Maybe some Swifties would leave with old poems in their heads.

To be fair, almost all those things have now happened. We did sing along. Some undergrads learned to love the 18th-century poet and satirist Alexander Pope, or at least to pretend they did: Pope’s “Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot” depicts his exasperation with superfans, false friends, and haters in ways rarely equaled until Reputation. We cracked open Easter eggs, and we studied her rhythms. But we couldn’t fit around a table. At one point 300 students signed up for the class; almost 200 ended up taking it. We met in a concert hall on campus, with a grand piano at center stage. I gave what I hope were engaging lectures, with pauses for questions, and stage props: a melodica, or a cuddly stuffed snake (for the snake motifs on Reputation ). We had theater lights, and balcony seats, and the kind of big screen few humanities classrooms now need.

Image may contain People Person Adult Crowd Floor Flooring Audience Backpack Bag Indoors and Architecture

Harvard English Professor Stephanie Burt teaches the course “Taylor Swift and Her World.”

And we had eyes on us from outside the room. One user on Twitter (now officially X) “leaked” our syllabus as if we had kept a Hollywood secret. Students put clips (with our okay) on TikTok. And we had reporters—daily, for weeks—asking to visit. We ended up inviting the Today show, whose camera-ready journalist Emilie Ikeda listened admirably to our undergrads. My teaching assistants, our students, and I spoke with the BBC. And with TMZ. And with Australian public radio. And with broadcast TV news in Boston, and Boise, and Sacramento, and NPR and RTE (Irish public broadcasting), and with journalists from Brazil, Chile, the People’s Republic of China, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, and Sweden.

We learned, in other words, that Swift attracts attention: That attention amplifies things about her, even without her. Teaching the class sometimes felt like one more of Swift’s vaunted collaborations, another multimedia performance involving reporters, and students, and her. Journalists asked if Swift would visit. (She’d be welcome, but she’s got a lot going on.) They asked what I wanted students to learn. (How to think about works of art.) And they asked if Harvard resisted a course on a celebrity. (We read dead people too, like Pope and James Weldon Johnson and Willa Cather. Who were, in their own time, celebrities.)

If I had—and have—a thesis about Swift’s work as a whole, here it is: She’s excelled as a songwriter and as a performer by staying both aspirational and relatable. Swifties and casual fans see parts of ourselves in her, but we also see someone we wish we could be. Her first few albums made the pairing clear: Songs like “Fifteen” and “You Belong With Me” spoke to common high school crushes and heartbreaks. At the same time, they let listeners look up to her. Not only did she put into words what so many fans felt but could not express so crisply, she seemed lucky, even enviable, while doing it. She sang about senior boys who might stop you in hallways, “wink at you and say, ‘You know, I haven’t seen you around before,’ ” not about bullies who might shove you in bins; she wrote about feeling excluded by classmates, but also about her attentive, affectionate mother, who took her to “drive until we found a town far enough away / And we talk and window shop till I’ve forgotten all their names.” No wonder so many people—especially girls her age and younger—saw in her both a peer and an ideal.

When our class entered her pop era, her post-teenage stardom from 1989 on, my thesis hit a snag. We saw how the woman who clearly enjoyed the lights, who sang “we never go out of style” and dated Harry Styles, remained aspirational. But what made these versions of Swift relatable? One answer: Like any great writer in any medium, she has a talent for framing common emotions, for crystallizing nostalgia, lust, and regret. If we’ve felt them, she lets us feel them anew.

RFK Jr.’s Family Doesn’t Want Him to Run. Even They May Not Know His Darkest Secrets.

Another answer, though, arose on the classroom’s wood floor, or perhaps at its grand piano. Swift sings about life onstage, about her wish and even need to sparkle, bejeweled, whether or not she likes her dating life. Even when she tries to find some privacy, she can’t stop thinking that other people are watching, “drama queens taking swings” (“Call It What You Want”). Some nights she feels like a giant, or a monster, as she put it in “Anti-Hero.” She can look at the crowd but never in the mirror and knows she has to perform. She knows she needs us even more than we need her, even when she gets “tired of being known” (“Dorothea”): She’ll do many things not to feel alone. She can even do it with a broken heart.

So could we, I realized. So could I. At a college famous for being famous, in front of what—for most humanities teachers—counts as a crowd, I could layer my own need for approval, my wish that students would choose me (or my favorite writers), and my own impostor syndrome over Swift’s, and see that my dreams weren’t rare. I saw myself, not in her talents but in her anxieties, one more child for whom, as she put it lately, “growing up precocious sometimes means not growing up at all.” Some of our students, I think, could sympathize too, in the pressure chambers and dens of precocity that make up Harvard: They too might think—as songs like “Nothing New,” like “Castles Crumbling,” like “ Clara Bow ” imply—that no kudos would suffice, no A+ would be enough.

Fortunately I did not have to feel that way—much less to study Swift—on my own. Though I devised the syllabus with help from head teaching assistant MJ Cunniff, the teaching itself was a team affair: myself and MJ and nine discussion section leaders, from Harvard’s Music and American Studies departments and Harvard Law School and from Northeastern and Tufts and Brown universities. MJ gave a lecture that tied Swift to Sylvia Plath, prompting a passel of essays about her verse. Other discussion leaders explicated chord changes on guitar; explained the dialectology in “country” and “pop” voices; and unpacked the Swift–Kanye–Kim Kardashian spat, with videos.

As Swift does on her songs, we brought in guest stars too. The critic and songwriter Franklin Bruno explained why pop songs often (and folk songs almost never) have bridges. Bryan West, USA Today ’s Swift beat reporter, flew to Boston to meet us. Dani and Olivia from the great fan podcast Taylearning conducted a survey for students, then visited us in person to break down the data. Fashion historian Chloe Chapin analyzed Swift’s outfits; law school prof Rebecca Tushnet demystified copyright.

Ours was hardly this year’s sole college class on Swift: If I teach it again—and I hope I can—I’ll compare notes first with professors of English, communication, economics, music, and more, from Ghent University in Belgium, the University of Texas at Austin, TCU, Westfield State, and the University of Kansas. I’ll also learn from the mixed reviews students gave me: A few dozen (to quote Swift’s “Cardigan”) said I was their favorite and they would gladly come back to (more courses with) me. A few dozen more students found me hard to follow (I could have used, should have used, bullet points on slides). In our final week we asked students to tell us—anonymously—their favorite and least favorite aspects of class. What did they consider the course’s best parts? Our out-of-town guests, and teaching assistants’ guest lectures. Apparently Taylor Swift and Her World reached its new heights when I sat down, shut up, and just listened. Like all classes, it didn’t belong to me; it belonged with the students who chose to be there. The artist who wrote “Long Live” for her band, who encouraged fans to make friendship bracelets, who knows how we need one another, might have approved.

More Great Stories From Vanity Fair

RFK Jr.’s Family Doesn’t Want Him to Run. Even They May Not Know His Darkest Secrets.

In the Hamptons, Wealthy Biden Donors Fear a “Dark” Future Under Trump

An Epic First Look at Gladiator II

Palace Insiders on the Monarchy’s Difficult Year

Donald Trump’s Pants-Pissingly Terrifying Plans for a Second Term

The Best Movies of 2024 , So Far

Score New VF Merch With the Fourth of July Deal at the VF Shop

Stephanie Burt

Royal watch.

By signing up you agree to our User Agreement and Privacy Policy & Cookie Statement . This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Service apply.

Radhika Jones on Kate Middleton, King Charles, and the Royal Family’s Hard Year

Anishnaabe scholars say research on education in First Nations is key to revitalizing language, culture

Postsecondary institution kenjgewin teg is increasingly carving a space for itself in the research sector.

Four women posing for a picture.

Social Sharing

Kenjgewin Teg, a post secondary institution on Manitoulin Island, recently held its first research conference. 

It's another milestone for this stand-alone Anishnaabe place of learning that initially started out as an institution offering education and training programs before obtaining the credentials required to grant certificates, diplomas and degrees in 2023.

Four researchers affiliated with Kenjgewin Teg presented the results of their work focused on education systems in that first event.

A circular diagram demonstrating Anishnaabe principles.

Melanie Manitowabi presented a thesis she wrote while pursuing her PhD at Nipissing University, exploring early learning environments in Anishnaabek communities through interviews and field work. 

She says she was inspired to research this after having spent time as an educator in Whitefish River First Nation.

"It really gave me insight as to what those early years look like for our children," she said. "And it made me want to understand what we really want for our children in those spaces." 

'The return to ourselves'

She says what came out from in-depth conversations with other educators was the need for biskaabiiyang, or the "return to ourselves", a principle that examines the effects of colonialism on the mind. 

The goal is to understand how to create an education model based on an Anishnaabe world view. Manitowabi says that includes centering the learning from where the child is at, as opposed to where the educator or the education system is at. 

It also involves incorporating land based learning and anishinaabemowin in the curriculum. 

  • Why this activist wants Anishinaabemowin to be included in a $10B treaty settlement

And that's where Manitowabi believes it boils down to policies. 

"Depending on where you work or how you are funded, sometimes policies are written in a way that might make supervisors uneasy about taking children out on the land," she said. 

She thinks broader policies on that front would help children feel connected to their environment. 

She also thinks educators and those in positions of authority or leadership should be given the resources to be more fluent in anishinaabemowin. 

"There's a lot of media focused on childcare centres, but we have to really think about it in a deeper lens of what education really means," she said. 

Developing Anishnaabek research models and paradigms

The president of Kenjgewin Teg, Beverley Roy, says research like this is needed to shape future decisions around education. 

"Language always comes at the forefront, that's a common finding in these research projects," she said. 

"We really need to think about how we're going to support that, how we're going to listen to the research findings," said Roy.

  • Ontario MPPs can now speak their own Indigenous languages at Queen's Park

Roy says the time has come to work towards developing Anishnaabek research models and paradigms. 

"I really feel like now we have a great number of scholars and thinkers and community members who, who can pull together [and do this]," she said.

HOW TO CABIN THE REALIST INDETERMINACY THESIS: ON GREEN, POSITIVISM, AND THE SOURCES OF LAW

To appear in a collection of essays on the philosophy of Leslie Green, edited by T. Adams, K. Greasley, and D. Reaume (Oxford University Press, forthcoming)

21 Pages Posted:

Brian Leiter

University of Chicago

Date Written: July 01, 2024

Leslie Green raised an important challenge to my reconstruction of the American Legal Realist (ALR) arguments for the indeterminacy of law and legal reasoning:  how can those arguments be limited, as I claim, to mostly appellate cases?  The key, I argue, is to recognize that (1) the central ALR argument for indeterminacy appeals to the existence of equally "legitimate" but conflicting ways of interpreting valid sources of law, and (2) the relevant notion of "legitimacy" is sociological (i.e., what is actually accepted by lawyers and judges).  The ALR argument for indeterminacy being most apparent at the appellate level is then an empirical claim, which the ALRs supported with extensive evidence in many areas of law.  I also consider Green's suggestion that ALR takes most sources to be "permissive sources" (in Hart's sense), and criticize some misunderstandings of both ALR and Scandinavian Realism. 

Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation

Brian Leiter (Contact Author)

University of chicago ( email ).

1111 E. 60th St. Chicago, IL 60637 United States

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics, related ejournals, jurisprudence & legal philosophy ejournal.

Subscribe to this fee journal for more curated articles on this topic

Philosophy of Law eJournal

Subscribe to this free journal for more curated articles on this topic

COMMENTS

  1. How to Write a Thesis Statement

    Step 1: Start with a question. You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis, early in the writing process. As soon as you've decided on your essay topic, you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.

  2. grammaticality

    I have an explanation of the project that follows. "I submitted a thesis on..." doesn't seem like something I can expand on. - Anirudh Ramanathan. Nov 6, 2013 at 9:35. You could follow it with, "PROJECT SUMMARY:" or a similar title and proceed with the actual summation. - Gurpreet K Sekhon.

  3. Free Thesis Checker

    Not at all. The thesis checker won't ever write the thesis for you. It will only point out possible edits and advise you on changes you need to make. You have full autonomy and can decide which changes to accept. 4.

  4. What is a thesis

    A thesis is an in-depth research study that identifies a particular topic of inquiry and presents a clear argument or perspective about that topic using evidence and logic. Writing a thesis showcases your ability of critical thinking, gathering evidence, and making a compelling argument. Integral to these competencies is thorough research ...

  5. What Is a Thesis?

    Revised on April 16, 2024. A thesis is a type of research paper based on your original research. It is usually submitted as the final step of a master's program or a capstone to a bachelor's degree. Writing a thesis can be a daunting experience. Other than a dissertation, it is one of the longest pieces of writing students typically complete.

  6. Thesis

    Thesis. Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore ...

  7. Developing A Thesis

    A good thesis has two parts. It should tell what you plan to argue, and it should "telegraph" how you plan to argue—that is, what particular support for your claim is going where in your essay. Steps in Constructing a Thesis. First, analyze your primary sources. Look for tension, interest, ambiguity, controversy, and/or complication.

  8. Thesis Statements

    A thesis statement: tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion. is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper. directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself.

  9. How to write a thesis statement + Examples

    A good thesis statement needs to do the following: Condense the main idea of your thesis into one or two sentences. Answer your project's main research question. Clearly state your position in relation to the topic. Make an argument that requires support or evidence.

  10. How to write an excellent thesis conclusion [with examples]

    A good conclusion will review the key points of the thesis and explain to the reader why the information is relevant, applicable, or related to the world as a whole. Make sure to dedicate enough of your writing time to the conclusion and do not put it off until the very last minute. Organize your papers in one place. Try Paperpile.

  11. How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Introduction

    Overview of the structure. To help guide your reader, end your introduction with an outline of the structure of the thesis or dissertation to follow. Share a brief summary of each chapter, clearly showing how each contributes to your central aims. However, be careful to keep this overview concise: 1-2 sentences should be enough.

  12. Developing a Thesis Statement

    A thesis statement . . . Makes an argumentative assertion about a topic; it states the conclusions that you have reached about your topic. Makes a promise to the reader about the scope, purpose, and direction of your paper. Is focused and specific enough to be "proven" within the boundaries of your paper. Is generally located near the end ...

  13. I realize I made a huge mistake in my thesis and am not sure what to do

    Hi guys, yea, I was able to correct my thesis and send it to my chair via an all-nighter. I'm sure they were annoyed, but they reviewed it and suggested some wording changes here and there.I can't imagine that my thesis is anything remotely like a dissertation, but it's still been challenging due to ADHD (I overlook details all of the time ...

  14. Thesis Generator

    A good thesis statement acknowledges that there is always another side to the argument. So, include an opposing viewpoint (a counterargument) to your opinion. Basically, write down what a person who disagrees with your position might say about your topic. television can be educational. GENERATE YOUR THESIS.

  15. grammar

    My thesis' focus is on... grammar; sentence-structure; Share. Improve this question. Follow asked Jul 1, 2019 at 11:54. Mary Mary. 127 1 1 gold badge 1 1 silver badge 8 8 bronze badges. 1. 2 "My thesis focuses on..." is probably better than the two above - Gamora.

  16. Is it normal to hate my thesis and feel like it is going to ...

    doing an SLR is invaluable. idk if this is common practice but once I proposed my thesis, my advisor had me do an SLR on the subject and it put so much of my problem space into context. finally, it's ok if your final thesis isn't much like your proposal. I'm sure the degree of this depends on your advisor or committee, but don't stress yourself ...

  17. When can a thesis get rejected or asked for a major revision?

    Yes, a good examiner will read the thesis line by line. There are five possible outcomes from the examination of a thesis. Accepted without corrections. Minor corrections - generally textual changes only - 3 month time limit. Major corrections - might involve some reanalysis, but no new experiments - 6 month time limit.

  18. What My Thesis Means to Me

    Eventually, I settled on a topic. A year of research, ups, and downs later and, on March 17th, I finally submitted a behemoth 163-page thesis titled, "'The Broken Bridge of Literacy': Assessing Inequitable Responses to Mississippi's 2013 Literacy-Based Promotion Act.". In my paper, I explore a major educational reform in my home state.

  19. When someone says "I wrote my thesis on this topic", does ...

    A thesis is a document submitted for consideration for a degree. In a lot of US colleges, thesis has been replaced with capstone for many bachelor's degree (where a project is completed instead of a paper) but in graduate programs for masters and doctorates, the thesis (also called a dissertation in some contexts) remains the standard.

  20. My thesis is due in two months. If I do not submit in this ...

    I loved my thesis project, but I had a massive mental health roadblock hit me head on while I was working on it, and of course, I attempted to power my way through rather than handling it at the onset. So 2 weeks before my thesis was due, I had a vague outline and nothing else - I was even missing some key sources.

  21. Micron Technologies: Profits Are Soaring And The Stock Is Likely

    If my thesis is correct and the market maintains a favorable outlook on HBM sales, my earnings multiple range could equate to an intrinsic value range of $169 to $188.

  22. I Taught the Taylor Swift Class at Harvard. Here's My Thesis

    (Most of my work is poetry-related; ... When our class entered her pop era, her post-teenage stardom from 1989 on, my thesis hit a snag. We saw how the woman who clearly enjoyed the lights, who ...

  23. Onnit Alpha Brain Review

    Both are good products, but Thesis addresses my personal needs better than Alpha Brain. Alpha Brain vs. Sports Research L-Theanine Sports Research L-theanine is a simple, single-ingredient nootropic.

  24. PDF Thesis

    Thesis Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore needs

  25. [epub] read] How to Write a Master?s Thesis by Yvonne N. Bui ...

    Listen to this episode from My Blog » Farrah Salas on Spotify. Download EPub How to Write a Master?s Thesis by Yvonne N. Bui on Mac Full Pages read ePub How to Write a Master?s Thesis by Yvonne N. Bui is a great book to read and thats why I recommend reading or downloading ebook How to Write a Master?s Thesis for free in any format with visit the link button below.

  26. Anishnaabe scholars say research on education in First Nations is key

    Melanie Manitowabi presented a thesis she wrote while pursuing her PhD at Nipissing University, exploring early learning environments in Anishnaabek communities through interviews and field work.

  27. How to Cabin the Realist Indeterminacy Thesis: on Green ...

    Leslie Green raised an important challenge to my reconstruction of the American Legal Realist (ALR) arguments for the indeterminacy of law and legal reasoning:& ... HOW TO CABIN THE REALIST INDETERMINACY THESIS: ON GREEN, POSITIVISM, AND THE SOURCES OF LAW (July 01, 2024). To appear in a collection of essays on the philosophy of Leslie ...