• Presentation Skills
  • Skills & Tools

Presentation skills can be defined as a set of abilities that enable an individual to: interact with the audience; transmit the messages with clarity; engage the audience in the presentation; and interpret and understand the mindsets of the listeners. These skills refine the way you put forward your messages and enhance your persuasive powers.

The present era places great emphasis on good presentation skills. This is because they play an important role in convincing the clients and customers. Internally, management with good presentation skills is better able to communicate the mission and vision of the organization to the employees.

Importance of Presentation Skills

Interaction with others is a routine job of businesses in today’s world. The importance of good presentation skills is established on the basis of following points:

  • They help an individual in enhancing his own growth opportunities. In addition, it also grooms the personality of the presenter and elevates his levels of confidence.
  • In case of striking deals and gaining clients, it is essential for the business professionals to understand the audience. Good presentation skills enable an individual to mold his message according to the traits of the audience. This increases the probability of successful transmission of messages.
  • Lastly, business professionals have to arrange seminars and give presentations almost every day. Having good presentation skills not only increases an individual’s chances of success, but also enable him to add greatly to the organization.

How to Improve Presentation Skills

Development of good presentation skills requires efforts and hard work. To improve your presentation skills, you must:

  • Research the Audience before Presenting: This will enable you to better understand the traits of the audience. You can then develop messages that can be better understood by your target audience. For instance, in case of an analytical audience, you can add more facts and figures in your presentation.
  • Structure your Presentation Effectively: The best way to do this is to start with telling the audience, in the introduction, what you are going to present. Follow this by presenting the idea, and finish off the presentation by repeating the main points.
  • Do a lot of Practice: Rehearse but do not go for memorizing the presentation. Rehearsals reduce your anxiety and enable you to look confident on the presentation day. Make sure you practice out loud, as it enables you to identify and eliminate errors more efficiently. Do not memorize anything as it will make your presentation look mechanical. This can reduce the degree of audience engagement.
  • Take a Workshop: Most medium and large businesses allow their employees to take employee development courses and workshops, as well-trained employees are essential to the success of any company. You can use that opportunity to take a workshop on professional presentation skills such as those offered by Langevin Learning Services , which are useful for all business professionals, from employees to business trainers and managers.

Job profiles that require this skill

what is individual presentation in communication

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what is individual presentation in communication

How Personal Presentation plays an important role in the workplace?

What is personal presentation in the workplace and why is personal presentation important?

Personal presentation at work

What is personal presentation in the workplace?

Personal presentation is how you portray yourself to other people. Your personal presentation includes everything from the way you look , to the way you speak and move . Personal presentation is part of the communication skills, and communication is one of the five important life and work skills you need to build as a professional. Personal presentation means the way you present yourself in everyday situations, including the most stressful ones like job interviews.

Your personal presentation is made of several elements including (but not limited to) the following:

Physical appearance

Your physical appearance is a major part of your personal presentation. It includes everything we can see about you from wearing clean clothes, having clean and brushed hair and being well-groomed to the colour and style of your clothes and accessories.

Body language

Your body language plays an essential part in your personal presentation. From the way you smile to the way you shake hands and your ability to make eye contact, your non-verbal communication significantly impacts your personal presentation.

Attitudes and behaviours

We can consider that your attitudes and behaviours towards situations and people are part of your personal presentation (and your personal branding ) . The way you speak to and get along with others definitely impacts your personal presentation and what people think about you. Are you being friendly, kind and polite every time you can?

Why is personal presentation important?

With the above definition of personal presentation, it seems essential to learn how to give the right impression through how we look, what we say, and what we do .

We know that within the first few seconds, we are judged based on our appearance and body language. No matter how relevant and interesting our message is, if our personal presentation is not appropriate, people will hardly listen to our message. Working on our personal presentation is the first step to develop effective presentation skills .

Our personal presentation is helping us to fit in by following certain codes of conduct and corporate styling principles. When getting ready to facilitate a workshop, I always adapt my personal presentation to the company I visit with a focus on the company’s industry. No matter how comfortable and fashionable my workout outfit looks, it is not relevant or appropriate to my activity.

A few years back, I was helping a client getting back to the workplace as a chef. She was having a multiple of interviews, she had amazing cooking skills but still couldn't find a job. She decided to use my personal branding and image consulting services to boost her success. The first (and last) coaching session was enough to understand what was going wrong and to adjust the situation. My talented coachee came to our session dressed for interviews and I could immediately spot that her issue was based on her personal presentation. She looked beautiful but she was overdressed for the occasion. She was wearing high heels, a lot of make-up, a complicated hairstyle and fake nails. I looked at her from a recruiter’s point of view and understood why nobody would hire her! The only thing a recruiter can think is that she will be late in the morning to get ready, she will then spend hours in the bathroom to stay stunning, she will never be able to stand on those heels all day, and she might lose a nail or two in the cooking pots and plates. My client dressed like that with the best intentions, to give a positive first impression; it was just not appropriate and relevant to the situation. Together, we selected a few appropriate outfits making her look like a chef at work instead of a fashion icon. Immediately after our session, she dared to reapply to her favourite opportunity and successfully got the job. I guess the lesson here is to dress for the occasion .

How to make the most from your personal presentation?

As mentioned above, the best thing to do is to dress for the occasion. Dressing for the occasion doesn’t mean that you need to change your entire style and feel like wearing a Halloween costume every time you get out. Dressing for the occasion is about adapting your own style to the situation . It might mean being more classy, trying to look more serious or professional, or if you are evolving in a creative environment it might mean showing off your creativity.

When feeling lost about the dress code, simply observe people around you; how do people dress on such occasions, what do they wear when working in this company? It will give you some guidance to pick and choose your outfit and accessories.

Because your personal presentation isn’t only about your appearance, you will pay attention to your body language and non-verbal signals as well as your behaviours.

Maud Vanhoutte

Related articles:

Dressing for job interviews: 10 Dos and Don'ts

How to express your style when wearing a medical coat

Why first impression matters

Click to read the articles

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What It Takes to Give a Great Presentation

  • Carmine Gallo

what is individual presentation in communication

Five tips to set yourself apart.

Never underestimate the power of great communication. It can help you land the job of your dreams, attract investors to back your idea, or elevate your stature within your organization. But while there are plenty of good speakers in the world, you can set yourself apart out by being the person who can deliver something great over and over. Here are a few tips for business professionals who want to move from being good speakers to great ones: be concise (the fewer words, the better); never use bullet points (photos and images paired together are more memorable); don’t underestimate the power of your voice (raise and lower it for emphasis); give your audience something extra (unexpected moments will grab their attention); rehearse (the best speakers are the best because they practice — a lot).

I was sitting across the table from a Silicon Valley CEO who had pioneered a technology that touches many of our lives — the flash memory that stores data on smartphones, digital cameras, and computers. He was a frequent guest on CNBC and had been delivering business presentations for at least 20 years before we met. And yet, the CEO wanted to sharpen his public speaking skills.

what is individual presentation in communication

  • Carmine Gallo is a Harvard University instructor, keynote speaker, and author of 10 books translated into 40 languages. Gallo is the author of The Bezos Blueprint: Communication Secrets of the World’s Greatest Salesman  (St. Martin’s Press).

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How to Structure your Presentation, with Examples

August 3, 2018 - Dom Barnard

For many people the thought of delivering a presentation is a daunting task and brings about a  great deal of nerves . However, if you take some time to understand how effective presentations are structured and then apply this structure to your own presentation, you’ll appear much more confident and relaxed.

Here is our complete guide for structuring your presentation, with examples at the end of the article to demonstrate these points.

Why is structuring a presentation so important?

If you’ve ever sat through a great presentation, you’ll have left feeling either inspired or informed on a given topic. This isn’t because the speaker was the most knowledgeable or motivating person in the world. Instead, it’s because they know how to structure presentations – they have crafted their message in a logical and simple way that has allowed the audience can keep up with them and take away key messages.

Research has supported this, with studies showing that audiences retain structured information  40% more accurately  than unstructured information.

In fact, not only is structuring a presentation important for the benefit of the audience’s understanding, it’s also important for you as the speaker. A good structure helps you remain calm, stay on topic, and avoid any awkward silences.

What will affect your presentation structure?

Generally speaking, there is a natural flow that any decent presentation will follow which we will go into shortly. However, you should be aware that all presentation structures will be different in their own unique way and this will be due to a number of factors, including:

  • Whether you need to deliver any demonstrations
  • How  knowledgeable the audience  already is on the given subject
  • How much interaction you want from the audience
  • Any time constraints there are for your talk
  • What setting you are in
  • Your ability to use any kinds of visual assistance

Before choosing the presentation’s structure answer these questions first:

  • What is your presentation’s aim?
  • Who are the audience?
  • What are the main points your audience should remember afterwards?

When reading the points below, think critically about what things may cause your presentation structure to be slightly different. You can add in certain elements and add more focus to certain moments if that works better for your speech.

Good presentation structure is important for a presentation

What is the typical presentation structure?

This is the usual flow of a presentation, which covers all the vital sections and is a good starting point for yours. It allows your audience to easily follow along and sets out a solid structure you can add your content to.

1. Greet the audience and introduce yourself

Before you start delivering your talk, introduce yourself to the audience and clarify who you are and your relevant expertise. This does not need to be long or incredibly detailed, but will help build an immediate relationship between you and the audience. It gives you the chance to briefly clarify your expertise and why you are worth listening to. This will help establish your ethos so the audience will trust you more and think you’re credible.

Read our tips on  How to Start a Presentation Effectively

2. Introduction

In the introduction you need to explain the subject and purpose of your presentation whilst gaining the audience’s interest and confidence. It’s sometimes helpful to think of your introduction as funnel-shaped to help filter down your topic:

  • Introduce your general topic
  • Explain your topic area
  • State the issues/challenges in this area you will be exploring
  • State your presentation’s purpose – this is the basis of your presentation so ensure that you provide a statement explaining how the topic will be treated, for example, “I will argue that…” or maybe you will “compare”, “analyse”, “evaluate”, “describe” etc.
  • Provide a statement of what you’re hoping the outcome of the presentation will be, for example, “I’m hoping this will be provide you with…”
  • Show a preview of the organisation of your presentation

In this section also explain:

  • The length of the talk.
  • Signal whether you want audience interaction – some presenters prefer the audience to ask questions throughout whereas others allocate a specific section for this.
  • If it applies, inform the audience whether to take notes or whether you will be providing handouts.

The way you structure your introduction can depend on the amount of time you have been given to present: a  sales pitch  may consist of a quick presentation so you may begin with your conclusion and then provide the evidence. Conversely, a speaker presenting their idea for change in the world would be better suited to start with the evidence and then conclude what this means for the audience.

Keep in mind that the main aim of the introduction is to grab the audience’s attention and connect with them.

3. The main body of your talk

The main body of your talk needs to meet the promises you made in the introduction. Depending on the nature of your presentation, clearly segment the different topics you will be discussing, and then work your way through them one at a time – it’s important for everything to be organised logically for the audience to fully understand. There are many different ways to organise your main points, such as, by priority, theme, chronologically etc.

  • Main points should be addressed one by one with supporting evidence and examples.
  • Before moving on to the next point you should provide a mini-summary.
  • Links should be clearly stated between ideas and you must make it clear when you’re moving onto the next point.
  • Allow time for people to take relevant notes and stick to the topics you have prepared beforehand rather than straying too far off topic.

When planning your presentation write a list of main points you want to make and ask yourself “What I am telling the audience? What should they understand from this?” refining your answers this way will help you produce clear messages.

4. Conclusion

In presentations the conclusion is frequently underdeveloped and lacks purpose which is a shame as it’s the best place to reinforce your messages. Typically, your presentation has a specific goal – that could be to convert a number of the audience members into customers, lead to a certain number of enquiries to make people knowledgeable on specific key points, or to motivate them towards a shared goal.

Regardless of what that goal is, be sure to summarise your main points and their implications. This clarifies the overall purpose of your talk and reinforces your reason for being there.

Follow these steps:

  • Signal that it’s nearly the end of your presentation, for example, “As we wrap up/as we wind down the talk…”
  • Restate the topic and purpose of your presentation – “In this speech I wanted to compare…”
  • Summarise the main points, including their implications and conclusions
  • Indicate what is next/a call to action/a thought-provoking takeaway
  • Move on to the last section

5. Thank the audience and invite questions

Conclude your talk by thanking the audience for their time and invite them to  ask any questions  they may have. As mentioned earlier, personal circumstances will affect the structure of your presentation.

Many presenters prefer to make the Q&A session the key part of their talk and try to speed through the main body of the presentation. This is totally fine, but it is still best to focus on delivering some sort of initial presentation to set the tone and topics for discussion in the Q&A.

Questions being asked after a presentation

Other common presentation structures

The above was a description of a basic presentation, here are some more specific presentation layouts:


Use the demonstration structure when you have something useful to show. This is usually used when you want to show how a product works. Steve Jobs frequently used this technique in his presentations.

  • Explain why the product is valuable.
  • Describe why the product is necessary.
  • Explain what problems it can solve for the audience.
  • Demonstrate the product  to support what you’ve been saying.
  • Make suggestions of other things it can do to make the audience curious.


This structure is particularly useful in persuading the audience.

  • Briefly frame the issue.
  • Go into the issue in detail showing why it ‘s such a problem. Use logos and pathos for this – the logical and emotional appeals.
  • Provide the solution and explain why this would also help the audience.
  • Call to action – something you want the audience to do which is straightforward and pertinent to the solution.


As well as incorporating  stories in your presentation , you can organise your whole presentation as a story. There are lots of different type of story structures you can use – a popular choice is the monomyth – the hero’s journey. In a monomyth, a hero goes on a difficult journey or takes on a challenge – they move from the familiar into the unknown. After facing obstacles and ultimately succeeding the hero returns home, transformed and with newfound wisdom.

Storytelling for Business Success  webinar , where well-know storyteller Javier Bernad shares strategies for crafting compelling narratives.

Another popular choice for using a story to structure your presentation is in media ras (in the middle of thing). In this type of story you launch right into the action by providing a snippet/teaser of what’s happening and then you start explaining the events that led to that event. This is engaging because you’re starting your story at the most exciting part which will make the audience curious – they’ll want to know how you got there.

  • Great storytelling: Examples from Alibaba Founder, Jack Ma

Remaining method

The remaining method structure is good for situations where you’re presenting your perspective on a controversial topic which has split people’s opinions.

  • Go into the issue in detail showing why it’s such a problem – use logos and pathos.
  • Rebut your opponents’ solutions  – explain why their solutions could be useful because the audience will see this as fair and will therefore think you’re trustworthy, and then explain why you think these solutions are not valid.
  • After you’ve presented all the alternatives provide your solution, the remaining solution. This is very persuasive because it looks like the winning idea, especially with the audience believing that you’re fair and trustworthy.


When delivering presentations it’s important for your words and ideas to flow so your audience can understand how everything links together and why it’s all relevant. This can be done  using speech transitions  which are words and phrases that allow you to smoothly move from one point to another so that your speech flows and your presentation is unified.

Transitions can be one word, a phrase or a full sentence – there are many different forms, here are some examples:

Moving from the introduction to the first point

Signify to the audience that you will now begin discussing the first main point:

  • Now that you’re aware of the overview, let’s begin with…
  • First, let’s begin with…
  • I will first cover…
  • My first point covers…
  • To get started, let’s look at…

Shifting between similar points

Move from one point to a similar one:

  • In the same way…
  • Likewise…
  • Equally…
  • This is similar to…
  • Similarly…

Internal summaries

Internal summarising consists of summarising before moving on to the next point. You must inform the audience:

  • What part of the presentation you covered – “In the first part of this speech we’ve covered…”
  • What the key points were – “Precisely how…”
  • How this links in with the overall presentation – “So that’s the context…”
  • What you’re moving on to – “Now I’d like to move on to the second part of presentation which looks at…”

Physical movement

You can move your body and your standing location when you transition to another point. The audience find it easier to follow your presentation and movement will increase their interest.

A common technique for incorporating movement into your presentation is to:

  • Start your introduction by standing in the centre of the stage.
  • For your first point you stand on the left side of the stage.
  • You discuss your second point from the centre again.
  • You stand on the right side of the stage for your third point.
  • The conclusion occurs in the centre.

Key slides for your presentation

Slides are a useful tool for most presentations: they can greatly assist in the delivery of your message and help the audience follow along with what you are saying. Key slides include:

  • An intro slide outlining your ideas
  • A  summary slide  with core points to remember
  • High quality image slides to supplement what you are saying

There are some presenters who choose not to use slides at all, though this is more of a rarity. Slides can be a powerful tool if used properly, but the problem is that many fail to do just that. Here are some golden rules to follow when using slides in a presentation:

  • Don’t over fill them  – your slides are there to assist your speech, rather than be the focal point. They should have as little information as possible, to avoid distracting people from your talk.
  • A picture says a thousand words  – instead of filling a slide with text, instead, focus on one or two images or diagrams to help support and explain the point you are discussing at that time.
  • Make them readable  – depending on the size of your audience, some may not be able to see small text or images, so make everything large enough to fill the space.
  • Don’t rush through slides  – give the audience enough time to digest each slide.

Guy Kawasaki, an entrepreneur and author, suggests that slideshows should follow a  10-20-30 rule :

  • There should be a maximum of 10 slides – people rarely remember more than one concept afterwards so there’s no point overwhelming them with unnecessary information.
  • The presentation should last no longer than 20 minutes as this will leave time for questions and discussion.
  • The font size should be a minimum of 30pt because the audience reads faster than you talk so less information on the slides means that there is less chance of the audience being distracted.

Here are some additional resources for slide design:

  • 7 design tips for effective, beautiful PowerPoint presentations
  • 11 design tips for beautiful presentations
  • 10 tips on how to make slides that communicate your idea

Group Presentations

Group presentations are structured in the same way as presentations with one speaker but usually require more rehearsal and practices.  Clean transitioning between speakers  is very important in producing a presentation that flows well. One way of doing this consists of:

  • Briefly recap on what you covered in your section: “So that was a brief introduction on what health anxiety is and how it can affect somebody”
  • Introduce the next speaker in the team and explain what they will discuss: “Now Elnaz will talk about the prevalence of health anxiety.”
  • Then end by looking at the next speaker, gesturing towards them and saying their name: “Elnaz”.
  • The next speaker should acknowledge this with a quick: “Thank you Joe.”

From this example you can see how the different sections of the presentations link which makes it easier for the audience to follow and remain engaged.

Example of great presentation structure and delivery

Having examples of great presentations will help inspire your own structures, here are a few such examples, each unique and inspiring in their own way.

How Google Works – by Eric Schmidt

This presentation by ex-Google CEO  Eric Schmidt  demonstrates some of the most important lessons he and his team have learnt with regards to working with some of the most talented individuals they hired. The simplistic yet cohesive style of all of the slides is something to be appreciated. They are relatively straightforward, yet add power and clarity to the narrative of the presentation.

Start with why – by Simon Sinek

Since being released in 2009, this presentation has been viewed almost four million times all around the world. The message itself is very powerful, however, it’s not an idea that hasn’t been heard before. What makes this presentation so powerful is the simple message he is getting across, and the straightforward and understandable manner in which he delivers it. Also note that he doesn’t use any slides, just a whiteboard where he creates a simple diagram of his opinion.

The Wisdom of a Third Grade Dropout – by Rick Rigsby

Here’s an example of a presentation given by a relatively unknown individual looking to inspire the next generation of graduates. Rick’s presentation is unique in many ways compared to the two above. Notably, he uses no visual prompts and includes a great deal of humour.

However, what is similar is the structure he uses. He first introduces his message that the wisest man he knew was a third-grade dropout. He then proceeds to deliver his main body of argument, and in the end, concludes with his message. This powerful speech keeps the viewer engaged throughout, through a mixture of heart-warming sentiment, powerful life advice and engaging humour.

As you can see from the examples above, and as it has been expressed throughout, a great presentation structure means analysing the core message of your presentation. Decide on a key message you want to impart the audience with, and then craft an engaging way of delivering it.

By preparing a solid structure, and  practising your talk  beforehand, you can walk into the presentation with confidence and deliver a meaningful message to an interested audience.

It’s important for a presentation to be well-structured so it can have the most impact on your audience. An unstructured presentation can be difficult to follow and even frustrating to listen to. The heart of your speech are your main points supported by evidence and your transitions should assist the movement between points and clarify how everything is linked.

Research suggests that the audience remember the first and last things you say so your introduction and conclusion are vital for reinforcing your points. Essentially, ensure you spend the time structuring your presentation and addressing all of the sections.

Home Blog Education Presentation Skills 101: A Guide to Presentation Success

Presentation Skills 101: A Guide to Presentation Success

Getting the perfect presentation design is just a step toward a successful presentation. For the experienced user, building presentation skills is the answer to elevating the power of your message and showing expertise on any subject. Still, one can ask: is it the same set of skills, or are they dependable on the type of presentation?

In this article, we will introduce the different types of presentations accompanied by the skillset required to master them. The purpose, as always, is to retain the audience’s interest for a long-lasting and convincing message.

cover for presentation skills guide

Table of Contents

The Importance of Presentation Skills

Persuasive presentations, instructional presentations, informative presentations, inspirational presentations, basic presentation skills, what are the main difficulties when giving a presentation, recommendations to improve your presentation skills, closing statement.

Effective communication is the answer to reaching business and academic goals. The scenarios in which we can be required to deliver a presentation are as diverse as one can imagine. Still, some core concepts apply to all presentations.

 We define presentation skills as a compendium of soft skills that directly affect your presentation performance and contribute to creating a great presentation. These are not qualities acquired by birth but skills you ought to train and master to delve into professional environments.

You may ask: is it really that evident when a presenter is not prepared? Here are some common signs people can experience during presentations:

  • Evasive body language: Not making eye contact with the audience, arms closed tightly to the body, hands in pockets all the time.
  • Lack of interest in the presenter’s voice: dull tone, not putting an effort to articulate the topics.
  • Doubting when asked to answer a question
  • Irksome mood

The list can go on about common presenter mistakes , and most certainly, it will affect the performance of any presented data if the lack of interest by the presenter is blatantly obvious.  Another element to consider is anxiety, and according to research by the National Institute of Mental Health, 73% of the population in the USA is affected by glossophobia , which is the fear of public speaking, judgment, or negative evaluation by other people.

Therefore, presentation skills training is essential for any business professional who wants to achieve effective communication . It will remove the anxiety from presentation performance and help users effectively deliver their message and connect with the audience.

Archetypes of presentations

Persuasive presentations aim to convince the audience – often in short periods – to acquire a product or service, adhere to a cause, or invest in a company. For business entrepreneurs or politicians, persuasive presentations are their tool for the trade.

Unless you aim to be perceived as an imposter, a proper persuasive presentation has the elements of facts, empathy, and logic, balanced under a well-crafted narrative. The central pillar of these presentations is to identify the single factor that gathered your audience: it could be a market need, a social cause, or a revolutionary concept for today’s society. It has to be something with enough power to gather critiques – both good and bad.

That single factor has to be backed up by facts. Research that builds your hypothesis on how to solve that problem. A deep understanding of the target audience’s needs , concerns, and social position regarding the solution your means can offer. When those elements are in place, building a pitch becomes an easy task. 

Graphics can help you introduce information in a compelling format, lowering the need for lengthy presentations. Good presentation skills for persuasive presentations go by the hand of filtering relevant data and creating the visual cues that resonate with what your audience demands.

One powerful example of a persuasive presentation is the technique known as the elevator pitch . You must introduce your idea or product convincingly to the audience in a timeframe between 30 seconds and less than 2 minutes. You have to expose:

  • What do you do 
  • What’s the problem to solve
  • Why is your solution different from others 
  • Why should the audience care about your expertise

presentation skills an elevator pitch slide

For that very purpose, using engaging graphics with contrasting colors elevates the potential power of your message. It speaks professionalism, care for details, and out-of-the-box thinking. Knowing how to end a presentation is also critical, as your CTAs should be placed with care.

Therefore, let’s resume the requirements of persuasive presentations in terms of good presentation skills:

  • Identifying problems and needs
  • Elaborating “the hook” (the element that grabs the audience’s attention)
  • Knowing how to “tie” your audience (introducing a piece of information related to the hook that causes an emotional impact)
  • Broad knowledge of body language and hand gestures to quickly convey your message
  • Being prepared to argue a defense of your point of view
  • Handling rejection
  • Having a proactive attitude to convert opportunities into new projects
  • Using humor, surprise, or personal anecdotes as elements to sympathize with the audience
  • Having confidence
  • Be able to summarize facts and information in visually appealing ways

skills required for persuasive presentations

You can learn more about persuasive presentation techniques by clicking here .

In the case of instructional presentations, we ought to differentiate two distinctive types:

  • Lecture Presentations : Presentations being held at universities or any other educative institution. Those presentations cover, topic by topic, and the contents of a syllabus and are created by the team of teachers in charge of the course.
  • Training Presentations : These presentations take place during in-company training sessions and usually comprise a good amount of content that is resumed into easy-to-take solutions. They are aimed to coach employees over certain topics relevant to their work performance. The 70-20-10 Model is frequently used to address these training situations.

Lecture presentations appeal to the gradual introduction of complex concepts, following a structure set in the course’s syllabus. These presentations often have a similar aesthetic as a group of professors or researchers created to share their knowledge about a topic. Personal experience does tell that course presentations often rely on factual data, adequately documented, and on the theoretical side.

An example of a presentation that lies under this concept is a Syllabus Presentation, used by the teaching team to introduce the subject to new students, evaluation methods, concepts to be learned, and expectations to pass the course.

using a course syllabus presentation to boost your instructional presentation skills

On the other hand, training presentations are slide decks designed to meet an organization’s specific needs in the formal education of their personnel. Commonly known as “continuous education,” plenty of companies invest resources in coaching their employees to achieve higher performance results. These presentations have the trademark of being concise since their idea is to introduce the concepts that shall be applied in practice sessions. 

Ideally, the training presentations are introduced with little text and easy-to-recognize visual cues. Since the idea is to summarize as much as possible, these are visually appealing for the audience. They must be dynamic enough to allow the presenter to convey the message.

presentation skills example of a training presentation

Those key takeaways remind employees when they revisit their learning resources and allow them to ruminate on questions that fellow workers raise. 

To sum up this point, building presentation skills for instructional presentations requires:

  • Ability to put complex concepts into simpler words
  • Patience and a constant learning mindset
  • Voice training to deliver lengthy speeches without being too dense
  • Ability to summarize points and note the key takeaways
  • Empathizing with the audience to understand their challenges in the learning process

skill requirements for instructional presentations

The informative presentations take place in business situations, such as when to present project reports from different departments to the management. Another potential usage of these presentations is in SCRUM or other Agile methodologies, when a sprint is completed, to discuss the advance of the project with the Product Owner.

As they are presentations heavily dependent on data insights, it’s common to see the usage of infographics and charts to express usually dense data in simpler terms and easy to remember. 

a SCRUM process being shown in an informative slide

Informative presentations don’t just fall into the business category. Ph.D. Dissertation and Thesis presentations are topics that belong to the informative presentations category as they condense countless research hours into manageable reports for the academic jury. 

an example of a thesis dissertation template

Since these informational presentations can be perceived as lengthy and data-filled, it is important to learn the following professional presentation skills:

  • Attention to detail
  • Be able to explain complex information in simpler terms
  • Creative thinking
  • Powerful diction
  • Working on pauses and transitions
  • Pacing the presentation, so not too much information is divulged per slide

skill requirements for informational presentations

The leading inspirational platform, TEDx, comes to mind when talking about inspirational presentations. This presentation format has the peculiarity of maximizing the engagement with the audience to divulge a message, and due to that, it has specific requirements any presenter must meet.

This presentation format usually involves a speaker on a stage, either sitting or better standing, in which the presenter engages with the audience with a storytelling format about a life experience, a job done that provided a remarkable improvement for society, etc.

using a quote slide to boost inspirational presentation skills

Empathizing with the audience is the key ingredient for these inspirational presentations. Still, creativity is what shapes the outcome of your performance as people are constantly looking for different experiences – not the same recipe rephrased with personal touches. The human factor is what matters here, way above data and research. What has your experience to offer to others? How can it motivate another human being to pursue a similar path or discover their true calling?

To achieve success in terms of communication skills presentation, these inspirational presentations have the following requirements:

  • Focus on the audience (engage, consider their interests, and make them a part of your story)
  • Putting ego aside
  • Creative communication skills
  • Storytelling skills
  • Body language knowledge to apply the correct gestures to accompany your story
  • Voice training
  • Using powerful words

skills required for inspirational presentations

After discussing the different kinds of presentations we can come across at any stage of our lives, a group of presentation skills is standard in any type of presentation. See below what makes a good presentation and which skills you must count on to succeed as a presenter.


Punctuality is a crucial aspect of giving an effective presentation. Nothing says more about respect for your audience and the organization you represent than delivering the presentation on time . Arriving last minute puts pressure on the tech team behind audiovisuals, as they don’t have enough preparation to test microphones, stage lights, and projector settings, which can lead to a less powerful presentation Even when discussing presentations hosted in small rooms for a reduced audience, testing the equipment becomes essential for an effective presentation.

A solution for this is to arrive at least 30 minutes early. Ideally, one hour is a sweet spot since the AV crew has time to check the gear and requirements for your presentation. Another benefit of this, for example, in inspirational presentations, is measuring the previous presenter’s impact on the audience. This gives insights about how to resonate with the public, and their interest, and how to accommodate your presentation for maximum impact.

Body Language

Our bodies can make emotions transparent for others, even when we are unaware of such a fact. Proper training for body language skills reduces performance anxiety, giving the audience a sense of expertise about the presented topic. 

Give your presentation and the audience the respect they deserve by watching over these potential mistakes:

  • Turning your back to the audience for extended periods : It’s okay to do so when introducing an important piece of information or explaining a graph, but it is considered rude to give your back to the audience constantly.
  • Fidgeting : We are all nervous in the presence of strangers, even more, if we are the center of attention for that moment. Instead of playing with your hair or making weird hand gestures, take a deep breath to center yourself before the presentation and remember that everything you could do to prepare is already done. Trust your instincts and give your best.
  • Intense eye contact : Have you watched a video where the presenter stared at the camera the entire time? That’s the feeling you transmit to spectators through intense eye contact. It’s a practice often used by politicians to persuade.
  • Swearing : This is a no-brainer. Even when you see influencers swearing on camera or in podcasts or live presentations, it is considered an informal and lousy practice for business and academic situations. If you have a habit to break when it comes to this point, find the humor in these situations and replace your swear words with funny alternatives (if the presentation allows for it). 

Voice Tone plays a crucial role in delivering effective presentations and knowing how to give a good presentation. Your voice is a powerful tool for exposing your ideas and feelings . Your voice can articulate the message you are telling, briefing the audience if you feel excited about what you are sharing or, in contrast, if you feel the presentation is a burden you ought to complete.

Remember, passion is a primary ingredient in convincing people. Therefore, transmitting such passion with a vibrant voice may help gather potential business partners’ interest.  

But what if you feel sick prior to the presentation? If, by chance, your throat is sore minutes before setting foot on the stage, try this: when introducing yourself, mention that you are feeling a bit under the weather. This resonates with the audience to pay more attention to your efforts. In case you don’t feel comfortable about that, ask the organizers for a cup of tea, as it will settle your throat and relax your nerves.

Tech Skills

Believe it or not, people still feel challenged by technology these days. Maybe that’s the reason why presentation giants like Tony Robbins opt not to use PowerPoint presentations . The reality is that there are plenty of elements involved in a presentation that can go wrong from the tech side:

  • A PDF not opening
  • Saving your presentation in a too-recent PowerPoint version
  • A computer not booting up
  • Mac laptops and their never-ending compatibility nightmare
  • Not knowing how to change between slides
  • Not knowing how to use a laser pointer
  • Internet not working
  • Audio not working

We can come up with a pretty long list of potential tech pitfalls, and yet more than half of them fall in presenters not being knowledgeable about technology.

If computers aren’t your thing, let the organization know about this beforehand. There is always a crew member available to help presenters switch between slides or configure the presentation for streaming. This takes the pressure off your shoulders, allowing you to concentrate on the content to present. Remember, even Bill Gates can get a BSOD during a presentation .

Presentations, while valuable for conveying information and ideas, can be daunting for many individuals. Here are some common difficulties people encounter when giving presentations:

Public Speaking Anxiety

Glossophobia, the fear of public speaking, affects a significant portion of the population. This anxiety can lead to nervousness, trembling, and forgetfulness during a presentation.

Lack of Confidence

Many presenters struggle with self-doubt, fearing that they may not be knowledgeable or skilled enough to engage their audience effectively.

Content Organization

Organizing information in a coherent and engaging manner can be challenging. Presenters often grapple with how to structure their content to make it easily digestible for the audience. Artificial Intelligence can help us significantly reduce the content arrangement time when you work with tools like our AI Presentation Maker (made for presenters by experts in presentation design). 

Audience Engagement

Keeping the audience’s attention and interest throughout the presentation can be difficult. Distractions, disengaged attendees, or lack of interaction can pose challenges.

Technical Issues

Technology glitches, such as malfunctioning equipment, incompatible file formats, or poor internet connectivity, can disrupt presentations and increase stress.

Time Management

Striking the right balance between providing enough information and staying within time limits is a common challenge. Going over or under the allotted time can affect the effectiveness of the presentation.

Handling Questions and Challenges

Responding to unexpected questions, criticism, or challenges from the audience can be difficult, especially when presenters are unprepared or lack confidence in their subject matter.

Visual Aids and Technology

Creating and effectively using visual aids like slides or multimedia can be a struggle for some presenters. Technical competence is essential in this aspect.

Language and Articulation

Poor language skills or unclear articulation can hinder effective communication. Presenters may worry about stumbling over words or failing to convey their message clearly.

Maintaining appropriate and confident body language can be challenging. Avoiding nervous habits, maintaining eye contact, and using gestures effectively requires practice.

Overcoming Impersonal Delivery

In virtual presentations, maintaining a personal connection with the audience can be difficult. The absence of face-to-face interaction can make it challenging to engage and read the audience.

Cultural and Diversity Awareness

Presenting to diverse audiences requires sensitivity to cultural differences and varying levels of familiarity with the topic.

In this section, we gathered some tips on how to improve presentation skills that can certainly make an impact if applied to your presentation skills. We believe these skills can be cultivated to transform into habits for your work routine.

Tip #1: Build a narrative

One memorable way to guarantee presentation success is by writing a story of all the points you desire to cover. This statement is based on the logic behind storytelling and its power to connect with people .

Don’t waste time memorizing slides or reading your presentation to the audience. It feels unnatural, and any question that diverts from the topic in discussion certainly puts you in jeopardy or, worse, exposes you as a fraud in the eyes of the audience. And before you ask, it is really evident when a presenter has a memorized speech. 

Build and rehearse the presentation as if telling a story to a group of interested people. Lower the language barrier by avoiding complex terms that maybe even you aren’t fully aware of their meaning. Consider the ramifications of that story, what it could lead to, and which are the opportunities to explore. Then, visualize yourself giving the presentation in a natural way.

Applying this technique makes the presentation feel like second nature to you. It broadens the spectrum in which you can show expertise over a topic or even build the basis for new interesting points of view about the project.

Tip #2: Don’t talk for more than 3 minutes per slide

It is a common practice of presenters to bombard the audience with facts and information whilst retaining the same slide on the screen. Why can this happen? It could be because the presenter condensed the talk into very few slides and preferred to talk. The reality is that your spectators won’t retain the information you are giving unless you give visual cues to help that process. 

Opt to prepare more slides and pace your speech to match the topics shown on each slide. Don’t spend more than 3 minutes per slide unless you have to introduce a complex piece of data. Use visual cues to direct the spectators about what you talk about, and summarize the principal concepts discussed at the end of each section.

Tip #3: Practice meditation daily

Anxiety is the number one enemy of professional presenters. It slowly builds without you being aware of your doubts and can hinder your performance in multiple ways: making you feel paralyzed, fidgeting, making you forget language skills or concepts, affecting your health, etc.

Meditation is an ancient practice taken from Buddhist teachings that train your mind to be here in the present. We often see the concepts of meditation and mindfulness as synonyms, whereas you should be aware that meditation is a practice that sets the blocks to reach a state of mindfulness. For presenters, being in the here and now is essential to retain focus, but meditation techniques also teach us to control our breathing and be in touch with our body signals when stress builds up. 

The customary practice of meditation has an impact on imagination and creativity but also helps to build patience – a skill much needed for connecting with your audience in instructional presentations.

Having the proper set of presentation skills can be quite subjective. It goes beyond presentation tips and deepens into how flexible we can be in our ability to communicate ideas.

Different presentations and different audiences shape the outcome of our efforts. Therefore, having a basic understanding of how to connect, raise awareness, and empathize with people can be key ingredients for your career as a presenter. A word of advice: success doesn’t happen overnight. It takes dedication and patience to build communication skills . Don’t condition your work to believe you will be ready “someday”; it’s best to practice and experience failure as part of the learning process.

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Chapter 3: Oral Presentations

Patricia Williamson

Many academic courses require students to present information to their peers and teachers in a classroom setting. Such presentations are usually in the form of a short talk, often, but not always, accompanied by visual aids such as a PowerPoint. Yet, students often become nervous at the idea of speaking in front of a group. This chapter aims to help calms those nerves.

This chapter is divided under five headings to establish a quick reference guide for oral presentations.

  • A beginner, who may have little or no experience, should read each section in full.
  • For the intermediate learner, who has some experience with oral presentations, review the sections you feel you need work on.
  • If you are an experienced presenter then you may wish to jog your memory about the basics or gain some fresh insights about technique.

The Purpose of an Oral Presentation

Generally, oral presentation is public speaking, either individually or as a group, the aim of which is to provide information, to entertain, to persuade the audience, or to educate. In an academic setting, oral presentations are often assessable tasks with a marking criteria. Therefore, students are being evaluated on two separate-but-related competencies within a set timeframe: the ability to speak and the quality of the spoken content. An oral presentation differs from a speech in that it usually has visual aids and may involve audience interaction; ideas are both shown and explained . A speech, on the other hand, is a formal verbal discourse addressing an audience, without visual aids and audience participation.

Tips for Types of Oral Presentations

Individual presentation.

  • Know your content. The number one way to have a smooth presentation is to know what you want to say and how you want to say it. Write it down and rehearse it until you feel relaxed and confident and do not have to rely heavily on notes while speaking.
  • Eliminate ‘umms’ and ‘ahhs’ from your oral presentation vocabulary. Speak slowly and clearly and pause when you need to. It is not a contest to see who can race through their presentation the fastest or fit the most content within the time limit. The average person speaks at a rate of 125 words per minute. Therefore, if you are required to speak for 10 minutes, you will need to write and practice 1250 words for speaking. Ensure you time yourself and get it right.
  • Ensure you meet the requirements of the marking criteria, including non-verbal communication skills. Make good eye contact with the audience; watch your posture; don’t fidget.
  • Know the language requirements. Check if you are permitted to use a more casual, conversational tone and first-person pronouns, or do you need to keep a more formal, academic tone?
  • Breathe. You are in control. You’ve got this!

Group Presentation

  • All of the above applies; however, you are working as part of a group. So how should you approach group work?
  • Firstly, if you are not assigned to a group by your lecturer/tutor, choose people based on their availability and accessibility. If you cannot meet face-to-face you may schedule online meetings.
  • Get to know each other. It’s easier to work with friends than strangers.
  • Consider everyone’s strengths and weaknesses. Determining strengths and weaknesses will involve a discussion that will often lead to task or role allocations within the group; however, everyone should be carrying an equal level of the workload.
  • Some group members may be more focused on getting the script written, with a different section for each team member to say. Others may be more experienced with the presentation software and skilled in editing and refining PowerPoint slides so they are appropriate for the presentation. Use one visual aid (one set of PowerPoint slides) for the whole group; you may consider using a shared cloud drive so that there is no need to integrate slides later on.
  • Be patient and tolerant with each other’s learning style and personality. Do not judge people in your group based on their personal appearance, sexual orientation, gender, age, or cultural background.
  • Rehearse as a group–more than once. Keep rehearsing until you have seamless transitions between speakers. Ensure you thank the previous speaker and introduce the one following you. If you are rehearsing online, but have to present in-person, try to schedule some face-to-face time that will allow you to physically practice using the technology and classroom space of the campus.
  • Thinking of the points above, complete the following chart and then consult with members of your group:





Writing Your Presentation

Approach the oral presentation task just as you would any other assignment. Review the available topics and then do some background reading and research to ensure you can talk about the topic for the appropriate length of time and in an informed manner. Break the question down into manageable parts .

Creating a presentation differs from writing an essay in that the information in the speech must align with the visual aid. Therefore, with each idea, concept, or new information that you write, you need to think about how this might be visually displayed through minimal text and the occasional use of images. Proceed to write your ideas in full, but consider that not all information will end up on a PowerPoint slide. Many guides, such as Marsen (2020), will suggest no more than five points per slide, with each bullet point have no more than six words (for a maximum of 30 words per slide). After all, it is you who are doing the presenting , not the PowerPoint. Your presentation skills are being evaluated, but this evaluation may include only a small percentage for the actual visual aid: check your assessment guidelines.

Using Visual Aids

To keep your audience engaged and help them to remember what you have to say, you may want to use visual aids, such as slides.

When designing slides for your presentation, make sure:

  • any text is brief, grammatically correct and easy to read. Use dot points and space between lines, plus large font size (18-20 point)
  • Resist the temptation to use dark slides with a light-coloured font; it is hard on the eyes
  • if images and graphs are used to support your main points, they should be non-intrusive on the written work

Images and Graphs

  • Your audience will respond better to slides that deliver information quickly – images and graphs are a good way to do this. However, they are not always appropriate or necessary.

When choosing images, it’s important to find images that:

  • support your presentation and aren’t just decorative
  • are high quality, however, using large HD picture files can make the PowerPoint file too large overall for submission via Turnitin
  • you have permission to use (Creative Commons license, royalty-free, own images, or purchased)
  • suggested sites for free-to-use images: Openclipart – Clipping Culture ; Beautiful Free Images & Pictures | Unsplash ; Pxfuel – Royalty free stock photos free download ; When we share, everyone wins – Creative Commons

The specific requirements for your papers may differ. Again, ensure that you read through any assignment requirements carefully and ask your lecturer or tutor if you’re unsure how to meet them.

Using Visual Aids Effectively

Too often, students make an impressive PowerPoint though do not understand how to use it effectively to enhance their presentation.

  • Rehearse with the PowerPoint.
  • Keep the slides synchronized with your presentation; change them at the appropriate time.
  • Refer to the information on the slides. Point out details; comment on images; note facts such as data.
  • Don’t let the PowerPoint just be something happening in the background while you speak.
  • Write notes in your script to indicate when to change slides or which slide number the information applies to.
  • Pace yourself so you are not spending a disproportionate amount of time on slides at the beginning of the presentation and racing through them at the end.
  • Practice, practice, practice.

Nonverbal Communication

It is clear by the name that nonverbal communication includes the ways that we communicate without speaking. You use nonverbal communication everyday–often without thinking about it. Consider meeting a friend on the street: you may say “hello”, but you may also smile, wave, offer your hand to shake, and the like. Here are a few tips that relate specifically to oral presentations.

Being confident and looking confident are two different things. Even if you may be nervous (which is natural), the following will help you look confident and professional:

  • Avoid slouching or leaning – standing up straight instantly gives you an air of confidence, but more importantly it allows you to breathe freely. Remember that breathing well allows you to project your voice, but it also prevents your body from experiencing extra stress.
  • If you have the space, move when appropriate. You can, for example, move to gesture to a more distant visual aid or to get closer to different part of the audience who might be answering a question.
  • If you’re someone who “speaks with their hands”, resist the urge to gesticulate constantly. Use gestures purposefully to highlight, illustrate, motion, or the like.
  • Be animated, but don’t fidget. Ask someone to watch you rehearse and identify if you have any nervous, repetitive habits you may be unaware of, such as ‘finger-combing’ your hair or touching your face.
  • Avoid ‘verbal fidgets’ such as “umm” or “ahh”; silence is ok. If you needs to cough or clear your throat, do so once then take a drink of water.
  • Avoid distractions that you can control. Put your phone on “do not disturb” or turn it off completely.
  • Keep your distance. Don’t hover over front-row audience members.
  • Have a cheerful demeaner. Remember that your audience will mirror your demeanor.
  • Maintain an engaging tone in your voice, by varying tone, pace, and emphasis. Match emotion to concept; slow when concepts might be difficult; stress important words.
  • Don’t read your presentation–present it! Internalize your script so you can speak with confidence and only occasionally refer to your notes if needed.
  • Make eye contact with your audience members so they know you are talking with them, not at them. You’re having a conversation. Watch the link below for some great speaking tips, including eye contact.

Below is a video of some great tips about public speaking from Amy Wolff at TEDx Portland [1]

  • Wolff. A. [The Oregonion]. (2016, April 9). 5 public speaking tips from TEDxPortland speaker coach [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JNOXZumCXNM&ab_channel=TheOregonian ↵

Two or more people tied by marriage, blood, adoption, or choice; living together or apart by choice or circumstance; having interaction within family roles; creating and maintaining a common culture; being characterized by economic cooperation; deciding to have or not to have children, either own or adopted; having boundaries; and claiming mutual affection.

Chapter 3: Oral Presentations Copyright © 2023 by Patricia Williamson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Group Presentations

46 How to structure your presentation

Lucinda Atwood and Christian Westin

This chapter teaches you a quick, easy way to create effective presentations. You’ll also learn how to use valid resources and avoid plagiarism.

There are lots of ways to structure a presentation, but we like this one best. It’s clear, simple and fits most presentations.

In this part of your presentation, you’ll capture the audience’s attention, tell them who you are, and give them a preview of your presentation.

  • Grabber/hook   (Goes before or after the self-introduction) A very brief and interesting statement or question that grabs the audience’s attention. See Grabber Types below for more details.
  • Self-introduction  (Goes before or after the grabber ) Tell the audience your name and credentials. For example: I’m Minh and I’ve been a professional presenter for 10 years.
  • Thesis   The main point or argument of your presentation. Be brief and precise, not general or vague. For example: I’m going to show you how practicing your presentation 10 times will improve your grade by 20%.
  • Overview of main points  Briefly outline the main points that you’ll cover in your presentation. To help your audience, do list these in same order that you’ll deliver them later on. For example: First, we’ll talk about what makes presentations great, then I’ll share some data on how practice affects your confidence and performance, and finally we’ll look at how to practice.

In this part of your presentation, you’ll deliver the detailed information of your presentation.

  • Key point 1   A major point that supports your thesis and may have supporting sub-points
  • Key point 2   Another major point that supports your thesis and may have supporting sub-points
  • Key point 3   The final major point that supports your thesis and may have supporting sub-points

In this part you’ll remind the audience of what you told them, and tell them what to do next.

  • Summary of main points   (Can be merged with your conclusion) Clearly restate your three main points in the same order you delivered them. It’s the same as your overview but in past tense. First, I described what makes presentations great, then I shared data on how practice affects confidence and performance, and finally we looked at how to practice.
  • Conclusion   Restate your thesis in past tense. For example: I’m showed you that practicing your presentation 10 times will improve your grade by 20%.
  • Call to action   Give your audience clear, active and compelling direction, based on what you told them. For example: Practice your presentations ten times and start collecting those A-plusses!

Grabber types

Remember that the grabber’s job is grabbing the audience’s attention, so it must be surprising, fascinating or intriguing. It must also be related to your presentation’s topic. Here are some descriptions and examples:

You can also mix and match grabbers. For example, you could show an image and ask the audience to guess what it is.

The length of your grabber is relative to your total presentation time. For a 2-minute presentation, it should be quite brief – maybe one sentence. For a 16-minute team presentation, a 45-60 second grabber would be appropriate.

Outline your presentation

The fastest way to create a successful presentation is to start with an outline. Y ou’ll need two outlines: a preparation outline, and a speaking outline.

Preparation outlines are comprehensive outlines that include all of the information in your presentation. Our presentation outline will consist of the content of what the audience will see and hear. Eventually, you will move away from this outline as you develop your materials and practice your presentation.

Your speaking outline will contain notes to guide you and is usually not shared with your audience. It will summarize the full preparation outline down to more usable notes. You should create a set of abbreviated notes for the actual delivery.

Use an outline, not a script; this will allow you to be more natural and let you look at the audience or camera. Reading is a guaranteed way to make your presentation boring.

The easiest way to create your outline is to work in this order:

  • Determine your thesis and write this as a full sentence
  • Determine your 3 Main Points
  • Add key supporting points for each of your Main Points
  • Complete the other parts – introduction, grabber, call to action, etc.

Working in this order is fast because it’s easier to create the conclusion and grabber when you’ve already decided on the content. Also, after you have the main structure it’s easy to add details, examples, and stories that make your presentation interesting and convincing.

You can use your presentation outline as a starting point to developing your speaking outline. It’s a good idea to make speaking notes to align with your main points and visuals in each section.

UNC Libraries Presentation Planning Worksheet

Using Examples and Scenarios

Presenters will often use examples and scenarios to help illustrate the their message. The main difference between examples and scenarios is that while both help “show” the audience what you mean, an example is the “thing” itself, while a scenario would include more detail about the sequence or development of events. Scenarios also tend to be longer and more nuanced.

An ‘example’ of a sales target might be: to sell 500 units in 30 days. A ‘scenario’ might be described as: Company A is selling vacuums to the Atlantic Canada region. They are trying to increase their sales, and so have set a target of 500 units in the region in 30 days, using a sales incentive program for employees and promoting a sale at local stores.

A Word About Storytelling

Storytelling can be an effective way to convey your message to your audience. Stories are a fundamental part of the human experience, and, if well-told, can resonate with listeners. Some of the most inspiring TEDTalks speakers use storytelling effectively in their presentations. You can find out more about how to incorporate storytelling techniques into presentations from the TEDTAlk speakers directly.

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Read the following blog post from Nayomi Chibana (2015).


 Test your knowledge 

How to structure your presentation Copyright © by Lucinda Atwood and Christian Westin is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Lesson 16. individual & group presentations.

Current course

Oral Presentations

Presentation basics, key elements of good presentations.

what is individual presentation in communication

There are three key elements of good presentations: Content, Organization, Delivery.  Your audience needs interesting and appropriate content in order to pay attention, especially at the start of a presentation.  Logical organization helps retain your audience’s attention – they need to be able to follow your train of thought and predict where you are going with your ideas.  Delivery also is important, as your own engagement with the information helps your audience engage.

Content deals with the substance of your presentation. Your ideas and information should be original and significant.  Use accepted and relevant sources in your research, and reference those sources as needed.  Offer a clear analysis that’s comprehensive and concise at the same time – strive for the right amount of information for your audience’s needs and the allotted presentation time. Make sure that your content is relevant to your audience, so that they understand immediately why they should pay attention to your presentation.

Garr Reynolds, in his book Presentation Zen: Simple Ideas on Presentation Design and Delivery , identifies characteristics of presentation content that create what he calls SUCCES(s): [1]

  • Simplicity – reduce information to key points and essential meanings
  • Unexpectedness – pose questions, offer interesting statistics, “make the audience aware that they have a gap in their knowledge and then fill that gap”
  • Concreteness – use specific language, provide real-life examples
  • Credibility – use sources, facts, statistics to back up your content; deliver information confidently; know your information well
  • Emotions – engage your audience to feel something about your content
  • Stories – use examples and illustrations to create a “story element” to the presentation

Finally, to make your content effective, repeat key information throughout your presentation. A memory research pioneer, German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, found that we forget approximately 50 percent of new information within 18 minutes, with retention falling to 35 percent after a week. However, Ebbinghaus also discovered that repetition of the new information at key intervals can change this trajectory, a discovery known as the spacing effect. The lesson for presenters: work repetition into your presentation content.


Good organization requires a clear beginning, middle, and end. Link your ideas logically throughout the presentation to lead to an ending that resolves the problem or summarizes the situation you presented at the start. If you’re presenting based on a formal report or proposal, you may want to follow the order of the longer written document, but you don’t have to; as long as you include main ideas, it’s up to you to determine your presentation’s organization based on your audience and purpose. Strive for clear transitions between individual points, slides, and topics.

what is individual presentation in communication

Delivery involves a range of factors from body language and word choice to vocal variety. A good presenter has a passion for the subject and an ability to convey and perhaps elicit that emotion in the audience. Audience engagement through eye contact, facial expression, gestures, and/or vocal tone contributes to an effective presentation. Delivery also deals with the confidence and professionalism with which you deliver the presentation.  Hesitations, “ums,” and other types of vocal fumbling will distract your audience, while a clear, confident presentation helps to engage them.

Content, organization, and delivery work together and are equally important aspects of presentations.

The following two videos provide basic tips for creating effective presentations in terms of content, organization, and delivery.  As you view them, consider their similarity of information and dissimilarity in presentation style. What can you infer about the presenter and intended audience of each presentation?  Which video resonates more fully with you personally, and why?  In terms of conveying information to a general audience, which video do you think is most effective, and why?

Planning Presentations

As you can see based on the video examples, presentations always require a situational analysis in the planning stage.  Identify your audience, purpose, context, and all of the communication variables that you need to consider in order to make choices that will result in an effective presentation for your purpose and audience. For example, your purpose – the one, main idea that you want to convey through your presentation – can influence your content, organization, delivery, and overall approach.  Identifying your audience can help you with what may be the most critical aspect of your presentation, making your information relevant to your audience.  Analyzing communication variables for your presentation also will help you determine if you need supplemental materials or handouts, how to arrange a room for an in-person presentation, how best to structure a virtual presentation, and more.

Even if you are creating a presentation based on a formal report or proposal for which you have already done a situational analysis, do another situational analysis for your presentation, as your audience, organization, language, and overall approach may differ based on the different communication mode.

Planning Online Presentations

In addition to doing a situational analysis, online presentations may require some additional planning time in terms of how you present information.  A real-time, in-person audience may pay attention to your presentation simply because you are present, and you may be able to adapt your presentation to audience reaction.  However, it’s more difficult to capture the attention of a virtual audience, either real-time or asynchronous, so online presentations need to be thought through very deliberately in terms of their content, organization, look, and approach.

The following video, while written for online instructors, nonetheless offers important points to consider for any type of virtual, online presentation.

Understanding Presentation Audiences

Audiences are egocentric, meaning that they operate under the principle of WIIFM: what’s in it for them. Don’t expect your audience to meet you where you are; meet them where they are and then take them where you want to go together. According to Lucas, audiences “pay closest attention to messages that affect their own values, beliefs, and well being. Listeners approach speeches with one question uppermost in mind: ‘Why is this important to me?’ … What do these psychological principles mean to you as a speaker?  First, they mean that your listeners will hear and judge what you say on the basis of what they already know and believe.  Second, they mean you must relate your message to your listeners–show how it pertains to them, explain why they should care about it as much as you do.” [2]

Also, audiences have relatively short attention spans, and often decide whether or not to give you their attention within the first minute or so of a presentation. Various research studies indicate a five – twenty minute attention span for any type of presentation (note that results of studies vary). An article titled “ Neuroscience Proves You Should Follow TED’s 18-Minute Rule to Win Your Pitch ” discusses the concept of “cognitve backlog,” or the idea that the more information you provide, the more information your audience will tune out and not remember. [3]

what is individual presentation in communication

These audience characteristics lay the groundwork for presentation strategies identified in the videos, strategies such as starting with and continuing a story, engaging attention with an interesting statistic, and more.  The point to remember is that you need to make conscious, reasoned decisions about ways to engage your audience.  Keeping audience attention span and egocentrism in mind, strive for the following presentation basics:

  • Conciseness
  • Connection with audience

Expectations for Presentations

The 10/20/30 rule, generally attributed to venture capitalist Guy Kawasaki, is a good guideline to help you achieve a “just right” balance in your presentations. Geared for entrepreneurs pitching their business, his advice is a discipline that would improve the quality—and, effectiveness—of most presentations. In brief, 10/20/30 translates to a maximum of 10 slides, a maximum of 20 minutes and a minimum of 30 point font. [4]

A visual representation of the 10/20/30 rule as described in the text.

While this rule is a good starting point, it does not overrule your audience analysis or understanding of your purpose. Sometimes, you may need more slides or have a more involved purpose—like training people in new software or presenting the results of a research study—that takes more than 30 minutes to address. In that case, go with what your audience needs and what will make your presentation most effective. The concept behind the 10/20/30 rule—to make new learning easy for your audience to take in, process and remember—should still be your guide even if you don’t follow the rule exactly.

One last way to gauge presentations is to consider most audiences’ expectations for good presentations:

  • main ideas are compelling and relevant
  • information is organized with a clear beginning, middle, and end; audience can follow where the ideas are leading
  • delivery shows the presenter’s enthusiasm and engagement
  • visuals apply good design practices
  • presentation length is appropriate for audience, purpose, and context

The following video summarizes characteristics that create effective presentations.

[1] Reynolds, Garr. (2012) Presentation Zen: Simple Ideas on Presentation Design and Delivery. 2nd ed. New Riders, Pearson Education. Information from pages 78- 81. http://ptgmedia.pearsoncmg.com/images/9780321811981/samplepages/0321811984.pdf

[2] Lucas, Stephen E. (2020) The Art of Public Speaking (13th edition).

[3]  Gallo, Carmine. “Neuroscience  Proves You Should Follow TED’s 18-Minute Rule to Win Your Pitch.”   Inc. ,  https://www.inc.com/theupsstore/small-biz-ings.html

[4] Kawasaki, Guy.  The 10/20/30 Rule of PowerPoint . December 2005.  ↵

  • Presentation Basics, original material and material adapted from Business Communication Skills for Managers, see attributions below. Authored by : Susan Oaks. Project : Communications for Professionals. License : CC BY-NC: Attribution-NonCommercial
  • Making a Presentation for a Meeting. Authored by : Nina Burokas. Provided by : Lumen Learning. Located at : https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wmopen-businesscommunicationmgrs/chapter/making-a-presentation-for-a-meeting/ . Project : Business Communication Skills for Managers. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • image of professional making a presentation. Authored by : rawpixel. Provided by : Pixabay. Located at : https://pixabay.com/photos/agreement-brainstorming-business-3408113/ . License : CC0: No Rights Reserved
  • video Create an Effective Business Presentation. Authored by : Nick Morgan. Provided by : Harvard Business Review. Located at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HTRt0zkD73M . License : Other . License Terms : YouTube video
  • video How to Give a Great Presentation - 7 Presentation Skills and Tips to Leave an Impression. Provided by : Practical Psychology. Located at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MnIPpUiTcRc . License : Other . License Terms : YouTube video
  • video Teaching Tip: Designing Online Lectures and Recorded Presentations. Authored by : Greg Steinke and Jill Zimmerman. Provided by : CCAPS Teaching Tips, University of Minnesota. Located at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCAaRZJFJAU . License : Other . License Terms : YouTube video
  • image of businesswoman presenting to an audience. Authored by : rawpixel. Provided by : Pixabay. Located at : https://pixabay.com/photos/analyzing-audience-board-3565815/ . License : CC0: No Rights Reserved
  • Visual Aids. Authored by : Nina Burokas. Provided by : Lumen Learning. Located at : https://courses.lumenlearning.com/wmopen-businesscommunicationmgrs/chapter/visual-aids/ . Project : Business Communication Skills for Managers. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • video Five Simple Rules for Creating World Changing Presentations. Authored by : Nancy Duarte. Provided by : Duarte Inc.. Located at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hT9GGmundag . License : Other . License Terms : YouTube video

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What is a Presentation? Objectives, Elements, Important skills, Four Ps

  • Post last modified: 4 June 2023
  • Reading time: 19 mins read
  • Post category: Business Communication

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What is a Presentation?

A presentation communicates a message, an idea or information to a group. It is similar to a report, but with a key difference–the human element. A presentation conveys the speaker’s personality and enables immediate interaction among all participants.

Table of Content

  • 1 What is a Presentation?
  • 2.1 To Inform
  • 2.2 To Train
  • 2.3 To Persuade
  • 2.4 To Motivate
  • 2.5 To Entertain
  • 3 Main Elements of Presentation
  • 4.1 Analytical ability
  • 4.2 Effective communication ability
  • 4.3 Creative ability
  • 4.4 Good interpersonal skill
  • 4.5 Sound time management
  • 4.6 Problem-solving ability
  • 4.7 A sense of humour
  • 5 Evaluation Wheel
  • 6.1 Prepare
  • 6.2 Practice
  • 6.3 Present
  • 7.1 Know Yourself
  • 7.2 Know Your Material
  • 7.3 Know Your Purpose
  • 7.4 Know Your Audience

Objectives of Presentation

The main objectives of a presentation are:

To Persuade

To motivate, to entertain.

A presentation is created to convey some information to a group of people. For example, a presentation may display an organisation’s quarterly performance.

Most training programmes in organisations are done through the presentation mode. Such instructional presentations convey a lot of information and are created with instructional design principles to keep the audience engaged for a long period.

Some presentations are used to convince a group of people to accept a particular idea and/or make a certain choice.

The growing popularity of TED Talks indicates how a presentation can be a powerful motivation tool. These presentations trigger emotions and inspire people to act.

Presentations can also be used to celebrate an event. For example, a farewell presentation of a colleague can be used to narrate the story of his/her overall tenure, experiences and achievement in the organisation.

Main Elements of Presentation

A presentation is said to be effective if it has three main elements, which are as follows:

  • Specific content : This refers to the information that a presentation will comprise. The information must be conveyed effectively so that it is absorbed by the audience in one sitting. It should be relevant and meaningful to them.
  • Audience : A presentation should be targeted for a specific group of audience who share the same purpose and have a similar level of pre-knowledge.
  • Presenter: The presenter should act as the advocate of the information. If his/her conviction and passion in the message are clearly articulated, the audience will also pay attention to the subject.

Important Presentation Skills

In today’s business environment, presentation skills are requisite in almost every professional arena. Employees are often required to give presentations on the targets achieved by them. A presentation can be effective if it is carefully planned and prepared.

However, delivering presentations is not always easy for every individual. Some people take presenting as a probable opportunity to showcase skills, while others find it a challenging task. To provide an effective presentation, a presenter must possess some abilities.

Some of them are explained as follows:

Analytical ability

Effective communication ability, creative ability, good interpersonal skill, sound time management, problem-solving ability, a sense of humour.

It refers to a calibre which empowers an individual to collect, organise, visualise and comprehend data. Such skills enable a person to look at related patterns, draw conclusions and find solutions to problems. In addition, sound analytical skills also enable an individual to forecast future trends using various techniques such as brainstorming, forecasting, data mining and metrics interpretation.

Communication entails much more than mere talking to the audience. To communicate effectively during a presentation, one ought to showcase information lucidly. During a presentation, a person should not just have a good set of slides together; rather he needs to engage and strike a chord with the audience to transmit the intended message.

It refers to the ability to present things in a creative way that have not been explored earlier. Creative skills in presentation enable an individual to invent or develop something path-breaking, such as a new concept, unique way out from a problem, a method, a work of art or new machinery, etc.

It encompasses how an individual portrays or presents himself to the audience and builds a rapport with the audience. During a presentation, sound interpersonal skills empower a speaker to interact, communicate and collaborate with the audience effectively.

Interpersonal skills are prevalent across all personal and professional interactions between people. Interpersonal skills entail empathy, active listening and emotional intelligence.

While delivering a presentation, a person should manage time effectively, set a presentation schedule and end a presentation within a stipulated time. If a presentation is long, there are chances the audience may lose interest and the message may not be delivered.

A speaker cannot expect audience to actively listen to the presentation for hours. At the start of presentation, a speaker should aim to grab audience’s attention and allocate time for questions and answers at the end.

Problem-solving is a requisite skill for a presentation. During a presentation, the audience may ask the speaker any kind of questions. On the other hand, it is important for the speaker to provide an appropriate answer to the audience to make the presentation successful.

A sense of humour is crucial to deliver a quality presentation to make the environment light and engaging. Appropriate usage of light jokes relieves stress and holds the attention of an audience, which makes the presentation a memorable experience for both the speaker and the audience.

Evaluation Wheel

Evaluation wheel is a creative and effective tool that accumulates information on outcomes in a simple and accessible manner. A presenter can opt for the evaluation wheel tool to show the outcomes of the research or reports. This tool is used to provide various types of information and journeys of change within the organisation.

It offers a visual representation of progression and results in the form of a spider diagram. The evaluation wheel measures the exact outcomes for a programme at the start and end. It also helps educators, designers to comprehend information systematically. Figure shows an example of evaluation wheel:

Figure states the scale questionnaire in a circle form wherein respondents will analyse the instances from their discretion and experience and give rating on a scale of 1 to 5.

For instance, service users are appropriately involved. In this case, if the respondent strongly agrees, he/she will give 5 rating and if he/she does not agree, he/she will give 1 rating. The centre of the circle is for 1 and as the respondent agrees, they reach out to edge for 5 rating.

Ps of Presentation

Even the most powerful presentation may fail if the presenter comes unprepared. A presentation is both a mental and a physical effort. There are Ps of presentation that provide a checklist to the presenter for ensuring that the presentation is well-constructed and clear so that the audience gets the message. These four Ps are explained as follows:

A thoroughly prepared presentation captivates the interests of the audience. The topic or content of the presentation must be thoroughly researched. No one would develop interest in a vague or equivocal presentation. A speaker can make use of stories or relatable examples and quote references to give more depth to the presentation and make it intriguing.

Apart from that, it should be ensured that only important points are highlighted in bullets or using other graphical elements. Providing too much of theory or full sentences can create boredom for the audience.

While preparing for a presentation, the presenter should include the following sections:

  • Introduction : This section includes the name of the topic and the purpose of the presentation.
  • Body : This section contains the main content of the presentation; thus, it must be prepared in a well-organised manner.
  • Summary : It provides a recap of the content of the presentation. It outlines the most important points of the presentation to ensure the key message is retained by the audience.

Practice will make a man perfect is an adage that is appropriate across all spheres of life. It helps a speaker become familiar with his/her own voice, words and phrases and adjust accordingly. By practising thoroughly, a speaker can explore how to fit different pieces of information together and practise transition.

Also, a speaker should make notes wherever required as a part of presentation support. Using an index card is a common form of note-taking that provides a quick glimpse of important points.

While delivering a presentation, the speaker needs to demonstrate confidence in front of the audience. The speaker must be polite, but not apologetic in situations, such as if the session is running overtime or the microphone has stopped working.

Instead he/she should expect and ask for discipline and attention. It is important for a speaker to engage with the audience during the presentation in order to assure them that he/she is genuinely interested in talking to them. 4. Pace, pitch and pause: A presenter should deliver the presentation in an easy-to-follow pace and try changing the pace to enliven the presentation.

For example, pauses can be taken intentionally between main points to reinforce them. Along with pace, pitch is equally important. Just as pace varies in normal conversations, it should be used effectively during presentations too. For example, when asking a question, the presenter can raise the pitch and can lower it down when explaining a point.

Four Cornerstones of Making Memorable Presentations

The most crucial aspect of delivering an effective presentation is that the speaker should appear confident and the speech should look effortless. Presentations are a source of anxiety for many individuals. However, getting well-prepared before delivering a presentation can reduce this feeling considerably and ease apprehension.

There are a number of ways to overcome feelings of anxiety, stress and stage fright before the presentation in order to appear confident in front of the audience. The four cornerstones of making a memorable presentation are provided in the upcoming sections.

Know Yourself

Know your material, know your purpose, know your audience.

A presenter should acknowledge his/her strengths and weaknesses. Accordingly, he/she should decide the style of delivering a presentation. For instance, if a presenter has a great sense of humour and can use it comfortably in the speech, he/she can make the presentation more engaging and interesting.

On the other hand, if the speaker who is an introvert and prefers to talk or engage less, he/she can add visuals in the presentation. Therefore, the trick is whosoever is delivering the presentation should feel comfortable.

Knowing the topic thoroughly is the most important step in preparing and delivering a presentation. A presenter with well-versed knowledge of the topic is bound to feel more confident. One should perform extensive research of the topic using credible websites and surveys.

A presenter with minimal information about the topic will not be able to deliver a memorable presentation; rather, it would create a negative image in front of the audience. A good presentation is one that is centred around the main theme, presents relevant information and stimulates thought.

It is crucial to know the purpose of the presentation. A presenter should be aware of whether the purpose is to create awareness or to build new skills or to change attitudes. For instance, professional firms or businesses use presentations for various purposes such as to create awareness, educate, motivate and persuade internal and external audiences.

Therefore, to prepare a presentation, identify its objective/purpose, determine the method of delivery, formulate a structure, include visual aids and rehearse.

One should know the type of audience and what is their purpose of attending the presentation. For instance, whether they are there for gaining knowledge or learning new skills, etc. The age, culture and knowledge base of the audience help a presenter in designing and delivering his/her presentation effectively and in a manner in which audience can easily understand and relate to.

A well-designed presentation uses visual aids effectively to reinforce the main points and enhance the audience’s level of understanding.

Business Communication Notes

( Click on Topic to Read )

  • What is Business Communication?
  • What is Communication?
  • Types of Communication
  • 7 C of Communication
  • Barriers To Business Communication
  • Oral Communication
  • Types Of Non Verbal Communication
  • What is Written Communication?
  • What are Soft Skills?
  • Interpersonal vs Intrapersonal communication
  • Barriers to Communication
  • Importance of Communication Skills
  • Listening in Communication
  • Causes of Miscommunication
  • What is Johari Window?
  • What is Presentation?

Communication Styles

  • Channels of Communication

Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural Differences and Benett’s Stages of Intercultural Sensitivity

Organisational communication.

  • Horizontal C ommunication
  • Grapevine Communication
  • Downward Communication
  • Verbal Communication Skills
  • Upward Communication
  • Flow of Communication
  • What is Emotional Intelligence?
  • What is Public Speaking?
  • Upward vs Downward Communication
  • Internal vs External Communication
  • What is Group Discussion?
  • What is Interview?
  • What is Negotiation?
  • What is Digital Communication?
  • What is Letter Writing?

Resume and Covering Letter

  • What is Report Writing?
  • What is Business Meeting?
  • What is Public Relations?
  • What Is Market Segmentation?
  • What Is Marketing Mix?
  • Marketing Concept
  • Marketing Management Process
  • What Is Marketing Environment?
  • What Is Consumer Behaviour?
  • Business Buyer Behaviour
  • Demand Forecasting
  • 7 Stages Of New Product Development
  • Methods Of Pricing
  • What Is Public Relations?
  • What Is Marketing Management?
  • What Is Sales Promotion?
  • Types Of Sales Promotion
  • Techniques Of Sales Promotion
  • What Is Personal Selling?
  • What Is Advertising?
  • Market Entry Strategy
  • What Is Marketing Planning?
  • Segmentation Targeting And Positioning
  • Brand Building Process
  • Kotler Five Product Level Model
  • Classification Of Products
  • Types Of Logistics
  • What Is Consumer Research?
  • What Is DAGMAR?
  • Consumer Behaviour Models
  • What Is Green Marketing?
  • What Is Electronic Commerce?
  • Agricultural Cooperative Marketing
  • What Is Marketing Control?
  • What Is Marketing Communication?
  • What Is Pricing?
  • Models Of Communication
  • What is Sales Management?
  • Objectives of Sales Management
  • Responsibilities and Skills of Sales Manager
  • Theories of Personal Selling
  • What is Sales Forecasting?
  • Methods of Sales Forecasting
  • Purpose of Sales Budgeting
  • Methods of Sales Budgeting
  • Types of Sales Budgeting
  • Sales Budgeting Process
  • What is Sales Quotas?
  • What is Selling by Objectives (SBO) ?
  • What is Sales Organisation?
  • Types of Sales Force Structure
  • Recruiting and Selecting Sales Personnel
  • Training and Development of Salesforce
  • Compensating the Sales Force
  • Time and Territory Management
  • What Is Logistics?
  • What Is Logistics System?
  • Technologies in Logistics
  • What Is Distribution Management?
  • What Is Marketing Intermediaries?
  • Conventional Distribution System
  • Functions of Distribution Channels
  • What is Channel Design?
  • Types of Wholesalers and Retailers
  • What is Vertical Marketing Systems?
  • What i s Marketing?
  • What i s A BCG Matrix?
  • 5 M’S Of Advertising
  • What i s Direct Marketing?
  • Marketing Mix For Services
  • What Market Intelligence System?
  • What i s Trade Union?
  • What Is International Marketing?
  • World Trade Organization (WTO)
  • What i s International Marketing Research?
  • What is Exporting?
  • What is Licensing?
  • What is Franchising?
  • What is Joint Venture?
  • What is Turnkey Projects?
  • What is Management Contracts?
  • What is Foreign Direct Investment?
  • Factors That Influence Entry Mode Choice In Foreign Markets
  • What is Price Escalations?
  • What is Transfer Pricing?
  • Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)
  • What is Promotion Mix?
  • Factors Affecting Promotion Mix
  • Functions & Role Of Advertising
  • What is Database Marketing?
  • What is Advertising Budget?
  • What is Advertising Agency?
  • What is Market Intelligence?
  • What is Industrial Marketing?
  • What is Customer Value
  • What is Consumer Behaviour?
  • What Is Personality?
  • What Is Perception?
  • What Is Learning?
  • What Is Attitude?
  • What Is Motivation?
  • Consumer Imagery
  • Consumer Attitude Formation
  • What Is Culture?
  • Consumer Decision Making Process
  • Applications of Consumer Behaviour in Marketing
  • Motivational Research
  • Theoretical Approaches to Study of Consumer Behaviour
  • Consumer Involvement
  • Consumer Lifestyle
  • Theories of Personality
  • Outlet Selection
  • Organizational Buying Behaviour
  • Reference Groups
  • Consumer Protection Act, 1986
  • Diffusion of Innovation
  • Opinion Leaders
  • What is Business Law?
  • Indian Contract Act 1872
  • Essential Elements of a Valid Contract
  • Types of Contract
  • What is Discharge of Contract?
  • Performance of Contract
  • Sales of Goods Act 1930
  • Goods & Price: Contract of Sale
  • Conditions and Warranties
  • Doctrine of Caveat Emptor
  • Transfer of Property
  • Rights of Unpaid Seller
  • Negotiable Instruments Act 1881
  • Types of Negotiable Instruments
  • Types of Endorsement
  • What is Promissory Note?
  • What is Cheque?
  • What is Crossing of Cheque?
  • What is Bill of Exchange?
  • What is Offer?
  • Limited Liability Partnership Act 2008
  • Memorandum of Association
  • Articles of Association
  • What is Director?
  • Trade Unions Act, 1926
  • Industrial Disputes Act 1947
  • Employee State Insurance Act 1948
  • Payment of Wages Act 1936
  • Payment of Bonus Act 1965
  • Labour Law in India
  • What is Brand Management?
  • 4 Steps of Strategic Brand Management Process
  • Customer Based Brand Equity
  • What is Brand Equity?

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Business Jargons

A Business Encyclopedia


Definition : A presentation is a form of communication in which the speaker conveys information to the audience. In an organization presentations are used in various scenarios like talking to a group, addressing a meeting, demonstrating or introducing a new product, or briefing a team. It involves presenting a particular subject or issue or new ideas/thoughts to a group of people.

It is considered as the most effective form of communication because of two main reasons:

  • Use of non-verbal cues.
  • Facilitates instant feedback.


Business Presentations are a tool to influence people toward an intended thought or action.

Parts of Presentation


  • Introduction : It is meant to make the listeners ready to receive the message and draw their interest. For that, the speaker can narrate some story or a humorous piece of joke, an interesting fact, a question, stating a problem, and so forth. They can also use some surprising statistics.
  • Body : It is the essence of the presentation. It requires the sequencing of facts in a logical order. This is the part where the speaker explains the topic and relevant information. It has to be critically arranged, as the audience must be able to grasp what the speaker presents.
  • Conclusion : It needs to be short and precise. It should sum up or outline the key points that you have presented. It could also contain what the audience should have gained out of the presentation.

Purpose of Presentation

  • To inform : Organizations can use presentations to inform the audience about new schemes, products or proposals. The aim is to inform the new entrant about the policies and procedures of the organization.
  • To persuade : Presentations are also given to persuade the audience to take the intended action.
  • To build goodwill : They can also help in building a good reputation

Factors Affecting Presentation


Audience Analysis

Communication environment, personal appearance, use of visuals, opening and closing presentation, organization of presentation, language and words, voice quality, body language, answering questions, a word from business jargons.

Presentation is a mode of conveying information to a selected group of people live. An ideal presentation is one that identifies and matches the needs, interests and understanding level of the audience. It also represents the facts, and figures in the form of tables, charts, and graphs and uses multiple colours.

Related terms:

  • Verbal Communication
  • Visual Communication
  • Non-Verbal Communication
  • Communication
  • 7 C’s of Communication

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10 Slides to use in a Personal Presentation

  • Personal branding /
  • Presentation design /
  • Public speaking

Featured image for “10 Slides to use in a Personal Presentation”

We have encountered so far two uses of personal presentation. One of them became more common in the past years, as the freelancing scene is burgeoning. 

As you guessed, the personal presentation is used by freelancers as an extended business card. It includes the services the freelancers provide, their work process, recommendations, and any relevant information they want to share with potential clients. But we will discuss this in a further article. 

what is individual presentation in communication

In this article, we will cover the other use of the Personal Presentation, also known as the Interview Presentation, as a part of the hiring process for middle – senior positions. You reached a point in your career when a simple interview or CV is not enough to fully convey your potential. So, this is where a personal presentation comes in. 

Giving a presentation will let you showcase your public speaking skills, knowledge about the position you are applying for, and the field you are working in. This will also help potential employers to better understand the value you are to bring to the company. 

Reaching this level in your career comes with high expectations, and the classic PowerPoint templates won’t do you good. There is always the option of going with solid white background and standard font, but take into consideration the aesthetics of the organization. Or choose to work with a specialist that will highlight your attributes and channel your personality. 

1. Cover slide

The first impression matters and we are not talking only about your physical appearance, but also your digital one. No one is judging you for how you look or how you dress, it all varies from company to company. Yes, you do need to give your best professional appearance and your presentation alike. 

Employers can tell from the cover slide how much interest you put in the presentation. Make a first impression that lasts, get their attention from the beginning, and don’t let go. 

what is individual presentation in communication

You can also download some cover slide templates from here: 

Cover slide templates

2. About me (similar to CV, the most important info)

Your audience has already seen your application, and your CV, they probably went through your social accounts such as Linkedin. This is the time to paint them a picture of yourself, and how you want them to see you from now on, both on a professional and personal level. 

In a middle-senior position, some personal details are essential to creating a bond, as the employer is looking for someone that they can work with, that they can bring into the team. 

Don’t go into specific details in this part, you are going to talk about your career, achievements, and skills later. 

what is individual presentation in communication

3. Career (where have you worked and what have you done there)

As in a CV, there is no need to present all the jobs you had had. Choose those who are relevant to the job you are applying and if you are specifically fond of one, you can mention it. 

Pick 3 or 4 previous positions, mention the company you worked for, and from there you can extend to your main responsibilities and key learnings. It is important to present them as part of your story, not just bullets on the slide and we also recommend making a connection between those positions and the one you are applying for. 

what is individual presentation in communication

4. Achievements and Training

This can be a slide or two slides sections. To differentiate yourself from other candidates, ensure the achievements you are listing focus on the results rather than your duties. Quantify your achievements through specific situations and the results you gained.

You don’t need to brag about yourself, but most people forget that they also need to sell themselves (their results and their knowledge) in this personal presentation. Put out those achievements that would apply to the job and can even enter scenarios on how those situations can help you in the new job. 

what is individual presentation in communication

5. Skill Set

This is about you, about the skills that you worked to get. Again, it’s not about just listing the skills you have, bringing out examples, and experience, and telling on how you acquired that skill. 

Before making out this list, research a few things about the company, what are they looking for in employees, what the job will require of you and what are the values of the company. This way it will come easier when presenting the skills that you have and that will help you with the new position.  

what is individual presentation in communication

6. Experience in the position applying 

It’s not just the previous jobs you have, it’s the experiences you got from them. So rather than presenting the old jobs, talk about specific projects/situations that would apply to this one. 

Talk about what happened, how you handled it, what were the results, and what have you learned from there. Ask yourself first how will this help me in the position that I am applying for. When you figured that out, the presentation will go smoother.  

what is individual presentation in communication

7. Your added value to the company

With all the experience you have and the research done on the company and the job, this is the time to tell your interviewers what is your vision of the company. 

Using the skills you presented, explain how can you be an asset to them and what value will you add to the company. 

what is individual presentation in communication

8. First actions on the job

All the stories have built up the person standing right now in front of the committee. What they want to know now is what actions you would take if you got the position. Don’t go after some revolutionary actions, keep your feet on the ground and analyze what are the needs of the company and what can you do about them.

For every action you put on the presentation, think of the small steps and the resources you need to do that action. As a follow-up to this slide, have prepared a few notes with the results you are expecting from them. 

what is individual presentation in communication

9.  Final statement 

The final statement needs to be a strong selling point, you can point out some of the skills and experience. Put all of this in a way that will bring benefits to the company.  

Why you are the best candidate for this position and how will that bring value to the company? 

what is individual presentation in communication

10. References & Contact Info

Ask a previous employer for a short recommendation, remember to mention the name and the position of the author. The other references can be on your CV, and in this slide have just one written recommendation that is relevant for the job. 

You arrived at the final slide, inviting your audience to a small Q&A while the reference is still displayed. They already have your contact info, but it’s recommended to put it on the final slide. Have the presentation ready to be sent to the committee if necessary. 

what is individual presentation in communication

Before preparing or delivering a personal presentation, consider these tips:

  • As you have seen in the article, we mention a lot that the information you put in the presentation is relevant to the job you are applying for; 
  • Research the company and the job;
  • Keep in mind that your physical and digital appearance can denote how much you have prepared for this interview and how much you want the position;
  • You don’t need to be a presentation designer, you can always keep it simple. Though, avoid using regular templates, and personalize the presentation to your aspect;
  • Have the presentation ready to be delivered before the interview.

We can always help you prepare the specific presentation and you can take your time to prepare for the interview. Send us a message and let’s talk about you!

For more tips on preparing presentations and free templates subscribe to our newsletter. 

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Read MBA, BBA, B.COM Notes

Individual Presentations and Group Presentations

Individual Presentations are structured talks or speeches delivered by a single person to an audience, aiming to inform, persuade, or entertain. These presentations typically involve the speaker sharing their knowledge, ideas, or findings on a specific topic, often supported by visual aids such as slides, charts, or videos. The format allows the presenter to showcase their expertise, communication skills, and ability to engage the audience. Individual presentations are common in academic settings, professional environments, and conferences, serving purposes such as presenting research, pitching business ideas, or providing training. Effective individual presentations require thorough preparation, clear organization, and confident delivery to ensure the message is conveyed effectively and the audience remains engaged.

Features of Individual Presentations:

Single Speaker Focus :

The presentation is delivered by one person, allowing for a clear, singular narrative and focused delivery. This ensures a consistent message and style throughout.

Personal Expertise :

The presenter showcases their own knowledge, skills, and insights on the topic, establishing credibility and authority. This personal touch can make the content more engaging and persuasive.

Structured Format :

Individual presentations are typically well-organized with a clear introduction, body, and conclusion. This structure helps the audience follow the content and understand the key points being made.

Visual Aids :

The use of slides, charts, graphs, videos, and other visual aids enhances understanding and retention of information. These tools support the verbal message and can make complex information more accessible.

Audience Engagement :

Effective individual presentations involve engaging the audience through questions, interactive elements, and dynamic delivery techniques. This interaction keeps the audience interested and involved.

Personalized Delivery :

The presenter’s unique style, body language, and vocal tone contribute to the overall impact. A confident and enthusiastic delivery can significantly enhance the presentation’s effectiveness.

Flexibility and Adaptability :

The presenter can adapt the content and delivery in real-time based on audience reactions and feedback. This flexibility allows for a more responsive and tailored presentation experience.

Group Presentations

Group presentations are collaborative efforts where multiple individuals jointly deliver a talk or presentation to an audience. Each member of the group typically contributes to the preparation and delivery, covering different aspects of the overall topic. This format allows for a comprehensive exploration of the subject, as different perspectives and expertise are shared. Group presentations are common in educational settings, corporate environments, and professional conferences, facilitating teamwork, communication, and coordination among participants. Effective group presentations require clear division of responsibilities, cohesive organization, and seamless transitions between speakers. The collaborative nature of group presentations not only enriches the content but also showcases the ability of the team to work together harmoniously to achieve a common goal.

Features of Group Presentations:

Collaborative Effort :

Group presentations involve multiple speakers working together to deliver a cohesive presentation. Each member contributes their expertise and perspectives on the topic.

Division of Responsibilities :

Team members typically divide tasks such as research, content creation, slide preparation, and delivery. This division ensures comprehensive coverage of the topic and efficient use of team resources.

Diverse Perspectives :

Group presentations benefit from diverse viewpoints and insights from team members with different backgrounds, experiences, and expertise. This diversity enriches the content and provides a holistic view of the subject.

Interactive Elements :

Groups often incorporate interactive elements such as Q&A sessions, panel discussions, or group activities into their presentations. These elements engage the audience and encourage participation.

Structured Organization :

Like individual presentations, group presentations are well-structured with a clear introduction, main points, supporting details, and conclusion. This structure helps maintain coherence and clarity.

Enhanced Visuals :

Groups can utilize a variety of visual aids including slides, videos, infographics, and demonstrations. These visuals enhance understanding, illustrate key points, and make the presentation more compelling.

Teamwork and Coordination :

Effective group presentations demonstrate teamwork, coordination, and communication among team members. Smooth transitions between speakers, consistent messaging, and shared goals are evident.

Key differences between Individual Presentations and Group Presentations






Entirely on one person

Divided among team members

One viewpoint

Multiple viewpoints

Limited audience interaction

Audience interaction encouraged



Sole responsibility

Shared responsibility

Individual perspective

Collective perspective

Deeper exploration not possible

Comprehensive exploration

Internal conflict not present

Requires conflict resolution





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How can you make a good presentation even more effective?

This page draws on published advice from expert presenters around the world, which will help to take your presentations from merely ‘good’ to ‘great’.

By bringing together advice from a wide range of people, the aim is to cover a whole range of areas.

Whether you are an experienced presenter, or just starting out, there should be ideas here to help you to improve.

1. Show your Passion and Connect with your Audience

It’s hard to be relaxed and be yourself when you’re nervous.

But time and again, the great presenters say that the most important thing is to connect with your audience, and the best way to do that is to let your passion for the subject shine through.

Be honest with the audience about what is important to you and why it matters.

Be enthusiastic and honest, and the audience will respond.

2. Focus on your Audience’s Needs

Your presentation needs to be built around what your audience is going to get out of the presentation.

As you prepare the presentation, you always need to bear in mind what the audience needs and wants to know, not what you can tell them.

While you’re giving the presentation, you also need to remain focused on your audience’s response, and react to that.

You need to make it easy for your audience to understand and respond.

3. Keep it Simple: Concentrate on your Core Message

When planning your presentation, you should always keep in mind the question:

What is the key message (or three key points) for my audience to take away?

You should be able to communicate that key message very briefly.

Some experts recommend a 30-second ‘elevator summary’, others that you can write it on the back of a business card, or say it in no more than 15 words.

Whichever rule you choose, the important thing is to keep your core message focused and brief.

And if what you are planning to say doesn’t contribute to that core message, don’t say it.

4. Smile and Make Eye Contact with your Audience

This sounds very easy, but a surprisingly large number of presenters fail to do it.

If you smile and make eye contact, you are building rapport , which helps the audience to connect with you and your subject. It also helps you to feel less nervous, because you are talking to individuals, not to a great mass of unknown people.

To help you with this, make sure that you don’t turn down all the lights so that only the slide screen is visible. Your audience needs to see you as well as your slides.

5. Start Strongly

The beginning of your presentation is crucial. You need to grab your audience’s attention and hold it.

They will give you a few minutes’ grace in which to entertain them, before they start to switch off if you’re dull. So don’t waste that on explaining who you are. Start by entertaining them.

Try a story (see tip 7 below), or an attention-grabbing (but useful) image on a slide.

6. Remember the 10-20-30 Rule for Slideshows

This is a tip from Guy Kawasaki of Apple. He suggests that slideshows should:

  • Contain no more than 10 slides;
  • Last no more than 20 minutes; and
  • Use a font size of no less than 30 point.

This last is particularly important as it stops you trying to put too much information on any one slide. This whole approach avoids the dreaded ‘Death by PowerPoint’.

As a general rule, slides should be the sideshow to you, the presenter. A good set of slides should be no use without the presenter, and they should definitely contain less, rather than more, information, expressed simply.

If you need to provide more information, create a bespoke handout and give it out after your presentation.

7. Tell Stories

Human beings are programmed to respond to stories.

Stories help us to pay attention, and also to remember things. If you can use stories in your presentation, your audience is more likely to engage and to remember your points afterwards. It is a good idea to start with a story, but there is a wider point too: you need your presentation to act like a story.

Think about what story you are trying to tell your audience, and create your presentation to tell it.

Finding The Story Behind Your Presentation

To effectively tell a story, focus on using at least one of the two most basic storytelling mechanics in your presentation:

Focusing On Characters – People have stories; things, data, and objects do not. So ask yourself “who” is directly involved in your topic that you can use as the focal point of your story.

For example, instead of talking about cars (your company’s products), you could focus on specific characters like:

  • The drivers the car is intended for – people looking for speed and adventure
  • The engineers who went out of their way to design the most cost-effective car imaginable

A Changing Dynamic – A story needs something to change along the way. So ask yourself “What is not as it should be?” and answer with what you are going to do about it (or what you did about it).

For example…

  • Did hazardous road conditions inspire you to build a rugged, all-terrain jeep that any family could afford?
  • Did a complicated and confusing food labelling system lead you to establish a colour-coded nutritional index so that anybody could easily understand it?

To see 15 more actionable storytelling tips, see Nuts & Bolts Speed Training’s post on Storytelling Tips .

8. Use your Voice Effectively

The spoken word is actually a pretty inefficient means of communication, because it uses only one of your audience’s five senses. That’s why presenters tend to use visual aids, too. But you can help to make the spoken word better by using your voice effectively.

Varying the speed at which you talk, and emphasising changes in pitch and tone all help to make your voice more interesting and hold your audience’s attention.

For more about this, see our page on Effective Speaking .

9. Use your Body Too

It has been estimated that more than three quarters of communication is non-verbal.

That means that as well as your tone of voice, your body language is crucial to getting your message across. Make sure that you are giving the right messages: body language to avoid includes crossed arms, hands held behind your back or in your pockets, and pacing the stage.

Make your gestures open and confident, and move naturally around the stage, and among the audience too, if possible.

10. Relax, Breathe and Enjoy

If you find presenting difficult, it can be hard to be calm and relaxed about doing it.

One option is to start by concentrating on your breathing. Slow it down, and make sure that you’re breathing fully. Make sure that you continue to pause for breath occasionally during your presentation too.

For more ideas, see our page on Coping with Presentation Nerves .

If you can bring yourself to relax, you will almost certainly present better. If you can actually start to enjoy yourself, your audience will respond to that, and engage better. Your presentations will improve exponentially, and so will your confidence. It’s well worth a try.

Improve your Presentation Skills

Follow our guide to boost your presentation skills learning about preparation, delivery, questions and all other aspects of giving effective presentations.

Start with: What is a Presentation?

Continue to: How to Give a Speech Self Presentation

See also: Five Ways You Can Do Visual Marketing on a Budget Can Presentation Science Improve Your Presentation? Typography – It’s All About the Message in Your Slides

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Role of Communication in Presentation and Speech

To deliver an effective presentation or speech, an individual has to take care of his communication and it has to be really impressive and effective. No one will really take the pains to listen to your ideas unless and until your communication is effective and impressive.

Only speaking is not the solution, how you deliver your presentation or speech is more important and thus should be taken good care of.

Before delivering any presentation, make it a habit to read your presentation aloud once or twice as it will definitely give you the needed confidence . You must be clear with each and every slide.

Never deliver your presentation in a noisy area as it would distract the audience and they would never be able to concentrate on your presentation and thus nullifying its effect. Prefer a conference room or the board room with pin drop silence for the same. It is the prime responsibility of every member in the audience as well as the speaker to keep their mobiles in the silent mode.

The speaker must also be very careful about his dressing. Your dress code must be formal with light colours. Wear a formal tie, shoes must be polished and avoid wearing bracelets or any other jewellery as the clattering sound can act as a disturbing element. Never be shabby or adopt a casual approach. Look your best on the day of the presentation.

Speak clearly and convincingly and do take care of your accent . Communicate in the most convincing and impressive way. Carefully convert your thoughts into content. The content has to be very sensible, related to the topic and above all convey your information in the best possible way.

Your words have to instantly hit the audience and have a long and a lasting impression on them. Take care how you speak. Don’t keep half of your words in your mouth or stammer. Don’t forget to take pauses in between slides. You can also include some light jokes in between to break the monotony.

The best possible way to keep the last bench audience awake is to reach out to them also. Don’t just speak for the person sitting under your nose. The tone has to be loud enough so that everyone is able to hear you properly and above all understand you well.

Speak slowly with the desired expressions. Don’t rush. Keep your presentation interactive and ask lots of questions from the audience - a very simple way to find out whether they are attentive or not. The pie charts, graphs, tables might be very simple for you, but can be complicated for the others. Make it a point to explain the pictorial representations properly preferably with the aid of a scale or a pointer .

It is not only the verbal communication which is important but also the non verbal communication which should never be ignored.

Your facial expressions must be in tune with the content. If your slides indicate that you have overachieved your target a particular month, smile. Never smile if there is a dip in your performance in the next slide. Look positive and promising. Learn how to keep a check on your emotions.

Take care of your postures, hand movements as well. Stand straight and never fiddle with a pen or play with your tie. It reflects your nervousness and works against you. Don’t chew nails in between or yawn. It is a strict NO-NO in presentations or any formal meetings. Maintain an eye contact with your audience for that BANGON Effect.

Always keep some time for the question answer round in the end . The listeners must also not jump in between with their questions as it can spoil the momentum of the presentation. Wait for the right moment. You must appreciate the hard work the speaker has put in preparing the presentation.

Jot down your questions and always ask them once the presentation is over. The speaker must not ignore the smallest detail before the presentation, but if he is unable to answer any question he should handle the situation very smartly. Don’t start sweating, be confident and answer them later. The listeners should also never criticize or make fun of the speaker. He is also a human being and can make mistakes. Give the speaker a proper feedback and do applaud him once he is through with his presentation. He will feel elated.

The content and your communication skills go hand in hand to create an effective presentation. Don’t be too conscious, just be yourself, practice well and give your best and you will never fail to create wonders.

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Mastering internal communication: The key to business success

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Anete Ezera June 28, 2024

So, what is internal communication? It’s an essential part of any successful organization. It’s about the way a company shares information and builds relations. It ensures everyone is moving in the same direction while achieving business goals. High-quality internal communication ensures that staff members remain knowledgeable and are involved in the company’s progress. 

There are many ways to share information within a company, such as emails, newsletters, presentations, and collaboration tools. Prezi offers several options for successful internal communication , and, in this article, we’re here to show you how to make the most of them.

Student presenting project on tablet, to group of co-students in classroom

The role of internal communication in business success

Internal communication plays a critical role in business success. Explore the following key areas that are impacted the most.

Enhancing employee engagement

Engagement is critical. When employees are kept in the loop and feel involved, their motivation and dedication to their work often increase.

Improving productivity

Clear communication is essential because it can decrease misinterpretations and mistakes. When staff members are equipped with the necessary details, they can work in a more organized way, resulting in increased output.

Boosting morale

When employees feel valued and heard, their morale improves. Consistent communication and feedback can significantly change how employees view their roles and the company. Ultimately, good internal communication creates a positive work environment for all.

Facilitating change management

In any organization, change is inevitable. Whether it’s new policies, technologies, or strategies, effective communication plays a critical role in managing these transitions well. It helps to keep resistance and confusion low while ensuring that every member is included in the decision-making process.

Building trust

Building trust is essential for a healthy work environment. Clear and consistent communication helps create trust between employees and leaders.

Strengthening team collaboration

When executed properly, internal communication has the power to significantly improve teamwork through integration. If every team member stays informed, there are fewer misunderstandings. Open and regular sharing of information fosters cooperation in problem-solving tasks, ultimately leading to more advanced and innovative solutions that can bring the team closer together.

Businesswoman giving presentation to colleagues in meeting room. Business person discussing on data analytics dashboard in meeting room. Shot of a young businesswoman delivering a presentation at a conference.

Improving employee retention

When staff members feel appreciated and are actively involved through receiving regular information, they’re more likely to remain committed to the organization. Additionally, good internal communication can help identify issues at an early stage and map out clear career paths for employees, making them feel integral to the company.

Supporting organizational culture

Good internal communication helps to articulate the company’s values, mission, and goals, making them a part of everyday operations. Regularly sharing success stories, recognizing employee achievements, and discussing company milestones can strengthen the cultural fabric of the organization.

These aspects clearly demonstrate how important internal communication is for any business’s success, and that effective internal communication lays the foundation for a thriving workplace. 

The role of leadership in internal communication

Effective internal communication starts with leadership. Leaders set the tone and culture for how information is shared within an organization. When leaders prioritize clear and open communication, it encourages a culture where information flows smoothly and effectively throughout the company.

Leading by example

Communicating expectations is one thing, but effectively modeling the desired behavior is another. With that in mind, leaders need to model the communication behaviors they expect from their employees. This means being transparent, approachable, and consistent in their messaging. Open communication about company goals, challenges, and successes helps build trust and encourages similar behavior across all levels of the organization.

Encouraging open dialogue

Building on the previous point, a healthy organizational culture thrives on open communication. However, this openness doesn’t extend to every detail or unfiltered language. Instead, the focus should be on transparency and sharing key information freely. This can be promoted by leaders through regular one-on-one meetings, anonymous suggestion boxes, and open-door policies. When employees are sure their views are appreciated, it promotes a culture of mutual respect and collaboration.

Businesswoman explaining presentation to colleagues in office

Providing clarity and direction

One of the primary duties of a leader when it comes to internal communication is to give clear directions and purposes. Communicating vividly and distinctly what the company’s vision, goals, and expectations are helps employees see the big picture and their part in it, which can drive motivation – ensuring that employee objectives are aligned with those of the organization.

Recognizing and celebrating success

The use of internal communication for acknowledging and celebrating the achievements of employees is a great way to heighten spirits and positive behavior. It sets an example for others by appreciating individual and team accomplishments on a regular basis. This will go a long way in fostering a culture of recognition and appreciation within the organization.

Leveraging communication tools like Prezi

To reach all employees effectively, leaders must be adept at using various communication tools. This can include using platforms like Prezi for creating and sharing engaging presentations, using video conferencing tools for virtual meetings, and making sure that important messages are accessible on mobile devices. By using a range of tools, managers can ensure their communication is inclusive and reaches every corner of the organization.

Woman giving branding presentation.

Best practices for effective internal communication

To ensure your internal communications have maximum effect, we’ve put together some key tips for you to explore. Let’s dive in!

Develop a comprehensive communication plan

The core of good internal communication is a strong communication plan. First, establish specific goals: what do you want to accomplish through your internal communication? Then, identify your audience segments. Different departments within the organization may need tailored messages and communication channels.

Outline the primary information that aligns with your company’s interests and then choose the most efficient channels for communication. Continuously review and update this plan to ensure it remains relevant as you experience changes in your business or organization. This approach will keep your communication efforts focused and make them more result-oriented.

Use a variety of channels

Communication is not a ‘one size fits all’ concept. Different employees have different preferences for getting information. While some might find emails easy, others might like instant messaging apps or physical meetings. That’s why it’s important to use multiple channels— like newsletters, video conferences, presentations, and collaboration platforms— so that your message can reach everyone in the way they prefer. This not only improves the chance of effective internal communication but also accommodates different working styles and schedules. 

Internal communication example: Young modern woman having Video Conference at home

Foster two-way communication

Effective internal communication is about more than just passing information along; it’s also about fostering an environment where employees feel comfortable sharing their thoughts and opinions. You can do this by using surveys to gather feedback, setting up anonymous suggestion boxes for confidential input, and holding regular meetings to discuss concerns and ideas openly.

When employees see that their voices are heard and taken into account in decision-making, they feel more valued and engaged. This two-way communication not only boosts morale but also provides leadership with crucial insights into what the workforce is thinking and what they need, helping to shape better strategies for the future.

Keep messages clear and concise

Effective communication is built on clarity. Jargon and complex language have no place as they only serve to confuse your audience. Instead, be sure to deliver your message directly and to the point. When handling complex information, consider using visual aids such as infographics, presentations, or videos. They help in breaking down the information into smaller, more digestible parts. 

In addition, visuals can highlight important points that you want to get across— making your communication more interesting and memorable. Always remember — simplicity and accuracy are key in ensuring your messages are understood.

Always measure and improve

An evolving communication is an effective communication. Continually assess your feedback by collecting employee engagement data—such as the number of people who replied to an email and the number of people who read it—and the feedback itself. Use measures like participation rates in surveys, meeting attendance, and the general tone and sentiment from feedback to evaluate the effectiveness of your strategies in driving internal communication. Scrutinize this information for areas that can be improved based on understanding, and act on them by making the necessary changes. This approach guarantees constant evolution towards better strategies for internal communication.

By adopting these best practices, you can construct a solid core of internal communication that keeps employees updated and involved, leading to business success.

Discover more useful techniques in our blog article on internal communication best practices and tips .

Common mistakes that can sabotage internal communication

Even with the best intentions, communication internally can sometimes miss the mark. Here are some common mistakes to avoid to ensure your strategy is effective:

Lack of clarity

An error that can be made in internal communication is a lack of clarity. Jargon, complex language, or vague messages can easily lead to confusion among employees— which in turn paves the way for misunderstandings. Always strive for easy and straightforward communication by simplifying the ideas into terms that everyone can easily understand.

One-way communication

Another frequent mistake is one-way communication— when messages flow from top to bottom without promoting feedback. Effective communication should be a two-way street. Encourage the workforce to communicate their thoughts, feedback, and suggestions through various channels such as surveys and periodic meetings.

Image of large or medium group of people sitting in conference hall, and listening to lecturer or professor, actively participating in the class by raising hands, clapping, voting or discussing. Image taken with Nikon D800 and 50 or 85mm lens, developed from RAW. Location: Europe

Inconsistent messaging

Inconsistent messaging can also sabotage internal communication. When different leaders communicate conflicting information, it creates confusion and distrust. Ensure consistency by aligning all communication with the company’s values, goals, and current initiatives, and regularly updating your leadership team.

Overloading employees with information

Bombarding employees with too much information at once or sending frequent, lengthy communications can overwhelm them. Prioritize and space out your messages, using concise updates and visual aids to highlight the most important points.

Ignoring feedback

Ignoring employee feedback is a critical mistake. It can lead to disengagement and a lack of trust. Show that you value feedback by acknowledging it and taking appropriate actions, and communicate any changes made based on employee suggestions.

Neglecting non-verbal communication

Relying solely on written communication and ignoring the power of visual and face-to-face interactions can limit engagement. Incorporate a mix of communication methods, including video updates and visual presentations to make your messages more engaging.

Lack of follow-up

Sending out important messages without following up can lead to a lack of understanding and implementation. Always follow up on critical communications with meetings or reminder emails to check on progress and address any questions.

Young casual businessman wearing glasses is sitting in front of his notebook holding his head pondering over his work. Office equipment and another computer is in front of him.

Overlooking cultural differences

Don’t overlook the diverse cultural backgrounds of your employees. Misunderstandings and feelings of alienation can have critical consequences. Communication should be inclusive and sensitive to these differences, with training on cultural competence provided when necessary to ensure respect for all cultures involved.

How Prezi can transform your internal communication

Prezi is an excellent tool for internal communication. Whether you’re planning a team meeting or sharing information through a pre-recorded presentation, Prezi offers many ways to relay information effectively across your team.

Prezi’s open-space canvas

Boring and limiting are two words often used to describe traditional presentations. Prezi’s open-space canvas introduces a new way of creating presentations—conversational and non-linear—making the information much more memorable. The open canvas is especially useful for companies, as it fosters increased engagement without requiring a lot of effort from the creator. It enables easy navigation through topics discussed during meetings and allows for detailed discussion points from different perspectives. 

This approach ensures employees remain attentive and retain more information. Moreover, it simplifies sharing presentations through entire organizations, keeping everyone informed and up-to-date, which is crucial for those working remotely or as part of hybrid teams.

Creating visual aids for internal communication often consumes a lot of time, as attention to detail is essential for them to be both informative and visually appealing. Prezi AI simplifies this process, reducing it to just a few clicks, and enabling you to produce professional presentation designs quickly and easily. This tool is especially useful for preparing internal reports, training materials, and company updates, ensuring that your content is engaging yet straightforward.

With Prezi AI , creating presentations is easier than ever. You don’t have to worry about the difficulty of design because it offers smart templates and user-friendly tools that let you focus on your content. This ensures your presentations look professional and high-quality with minimum effort.

Prezi Video

Virtual meetings can be challenging, especially in remote and hybrid work environments , where keeping participants engaged is often difficult. Prezi Video transforms the experience by allowing you to appear alongside your content, creating a more dynamic and interactive presentation. This feature ensures that the audience remains focused, as it feels more like a conversation rather than a traditional, one-dimensional presentation. 

Prezi Video

By integrating your presence with your visual materials, Prezi Video improves understanding and retention of information, making your meetings more productive and impactful. Additionally, this tool supports various multimedia elements, adding further depth to your presentations and keeping viewers actively involved throughout the session. For more valuable information, read our article on how to boost engagement with internal communication videos .

Plus, Prezi makes it easy to share these visual materials across your organization, so everyone gets consistent and clear information. This improves the effectiveness of your internal communications, keeping all employees well-informed and up-to-date with the company’s progress.

What Prezi can do:

  • Customizable templates: Choose from a variety of professionally designed templates .
  • User-friendly tools: Enjoy easy-to-use features that simplify the creation process.
  • High-quality presentations: Ensure your presentations look polished and professional.
  • Easy sharing: Effortlessly distribute visual materials across your organization.
  • Maintain brand identity: Maintain clear and uniform messaging for all staff by integrating branding elements into the visuals.

With Prezi, you can transform your internal communication, making it more efficient and effective.

Why presentations are key for good internal communication

Presentations are a standout method for internal communications because they offer a visually engaging way to share information, making it easier for employees to understand and remember key points. Unlike lengthy emails or text-heavy documents, presentations break down information into digestible chunks using visuals like charts, graphs, and images. This not only captures attention but also aids in better understanding.

Prezi Video elevates this experience by allowing presenters to appear alongside their content, adding a personal touch that other methods lack. This makes the communication feel more direct and engaging, especially important in remote and hybrid work environments where maintaining connection and focus can be challenging. 

Furthermore, unlike static slides, Prezi’s interactive format allows for a more dynamic presentation, helping to keep the audience engaged from start to finish. By combining visual appeal with the presenter’s presence, Prezi Video ensures that messages are delivered more effectively, making it an ideal tool for internal communications in any company.

Internal communication presentation examples 

Experience how interactive and engaging Prezi presentations are and get inspired by the following examples to create your own!

Effective onboarding for PM’s 

This is a great presentation example to use in internal communication because it provides a clear, structured, and interesting approach to onboarding. It highlights the importance of the onboarding phase, breaks down complex information into manageable sections (Product, Process, People), and offers specific, actionable steps. The interactive and visual format ensures that new PMs can easily understand and retain crucial information, fostering better engagement and alignment with company goals.

Parental leave policies in financial services

This Prezi effectively conveys critical information through a clear, structured narrative. It highlights real-life scenarios and survey data to show the importance and current challenges of parental leave policies. This approach not only informs but also engages the audience by presenting relatable stories and concrete statistics. By zooming in on specific data and sections, it draws attention to the most important elements, keeping the audience focused and making the presentation more interesting to watch. 

Stunning talent has no borders

This Prezi on remote work demonstrates how to effectively highlight key benefits, such as increased productivity and environmental impact, using clear data and real-life examples. For your internal communications, draw inspiration from its approach by focusing on the positive impacts of your message, supported by relevant statistics. The simple design and consistent layout of the presentation make it easy to absorb the information, emphasizing the importance of a clean and coherent format to enhance understanding and retention.

How to fix your underperforming team before it’s too late

This presentation on fixing underperforming teams offers valuable inspiration for internal communications by emphasizing storytelling and clear, actionable steps for improvement. The simple design and consistent layout make the information easy to absorb and follow. Additionally, the use of relatable scenarios, like Joey’s story, and concrete strategies for leadership, such as setting standards and fostering accountability, ensure that the audience remains engaged and retains the key messages. 

Do all employees need to have equal benefit plans? 

This Prezi on employee benefits serves as an excellent source of inspiration due to its clear, structured layout and use of data visualization to convey complex information. It simplifies intricate topics like self-insured arrangements and IRS nondiscrimination tests, making them accessible and easy-to-understand. This style of presentation is particularly useful for HR departments, financial services firms, or any organization needing to explain detailed policy information to employees or stakeholders. 

Boost your internal communications with Prezi

We hope this article has helped clarify the internal communication meaning as well as its importance. Remember, the method you choose to communicate is crucial.

Diversity in work team using internet on phones and digital tablet for teamwork growth in the office. Professional staff work with 5g technology to match work schedule online the company website

Creating interactive meetings with tools like Prezi can truly maximize your internal communication efforts. By making your presentations more engaging and interactive, you ensure that your employees stay informed, engaged, and aligned with your company’s goals. 

Don’t settle for generic methods when you can elevate your communication further. Boost your internal communications with Prezi and witness the positive impact on your organization’s productivity and morale. Start enriching your communication strategy today!

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York College of Pennsylvania

Biological Sciences Associate Degree

Student working in a biology lab.

The department's overall mission is to provide students with a solid and rigorous foundation in biology. While attempting to find order in life through comparisons and classifications, the biologist looks at the underlying principles involved in energy transformation, evolutionary mechanisms, and regulatory forces. How is each individual unique, and how does it function as part of a larger population in a community of different species? In the broadest sense, biologists take a worldview of living organisms and their roles in the global ecosystem.

Towards this end, it is imperative that students be subjected to scientific diversity and realize the far-reaching implications of this field of study.  It is equally critical for students to develop strong communication and presentation skills if they are to succeed.  Therefore, the Biology program provides students exposure to many specific areas of study that can subsequently enable them to pursue an unlimited number of vocational directions.  Moreover, the Biology curriculum is designed to cultivate effective communication and presentation skills.

Biological Sciences Courses

Your class schedule will include core courses for your program, Gen Next general education classes, and electives. 

Course NameCourse CodeCredits
Molecules, Genes and CellsBIO 1424 Credits
Evolution, Ecology and DiversityBIO 1524 Credits
GeneticsBIO 2404 Credits
General Chemistry ICHM 1344 Credits
Organic Chemistry ICHM 2344 Credits

Related Programs

Biology, b.s..

A degree in Biology opens up career possibilities in a wide range of industries: laboratory research, healthcare, environmental conservation, and more. At York College, our bachelor of science in Biology serves as an opportunity for you to explore your options with guidance from faculty experts—whether you come in knowing exactly which branch of biology interests you, or need some time to figure it out. 

Premedical Sciences

If you aspire to pursue a career in medicine, this premed major program offers a comprehensive education in the essential sciences and the foundation necessary for the rigors of medical school, dental school, PA school, pharmacy school, and more.


Through a student-centered approach to learning, Biochemistry majors at York College prepare to enter the field as trained chemists or pursue further education backed by internships and research experience. You’ll be ready to tackle your career prospects in one of the top regions for employers in the biochemical and biomedical industries.

Social Construction and Self-presentation

  • First Online: 28 June 2024

Cite this chapter

what is individual presentation in communication

  • Jonathan Matusitz 9 &
  • Jayvyn Dacas 9  

Part of the book series: Signals and Communication Technology ((SCT))

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In this chapter, the focus is on the social construction of meaning, perceptions of physical reality, communication norms, and self-identity within the metaverse. A key idea is that discourse remains socially constructed in virtual reality (VR), offering insights into language dynamics across various contexts. Toward the chapter’s conclusion, attention is given to self-presentation tactics utilized by metaverse users to shape their identities, encompassing methods such as impression management and avatar customization.

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Matusitz, J., Dacas, J. (2024). Social Construction and Self-presentation. In: Communication in the Metaverse. Signals and Communication Technology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-63485-7_4

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The only good reason to add busy, cluttered slides to your presentation.

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The 2022 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference at the Apple Park in Cupertino, California. (Photo by ... [+] Wu Xiaoling/Xinhua via Getty Images)

We’ve all seen cringe-worthy PowerPoint slides so cluttered with information that they’re nearly impossible to read. You know the ones. The text is reduced to 9-point or 12-point font to squeeze everything in.

Busy slides frustrate the audience because of a concept called ‘cognitive load.’ Too much text, too many numbers, and too many graphs overwhelm our ability to process and retain information.

Effective presenters avoid text-heavy slides. Instead, they favor clean, minimalist designs that are attractive and easy to read. However, there is one reason—and one reason only—to include a busy slide in a persuasive presentation:

Add a busy slide to a presentation only when you intend to overwhelm your audience.

In other words, a slide could contain a mountain of information because it is not meant to be read, consumed, and digested. It’s there to stress a point.

For example, in March, the National Association of Realtors agreed to a massive $418 million settlement over commissions that home buyers and sellers pay to real estate agents in the U.S. Since the settlement might convince prospective home buyers to negotiate lower commissions, real estate agents have had to turn up their persuasive skills to articulate the value they provide.

Recently, Realtor.com launched a digital and print campaign to demonstrate the value agents bring to the transaction. One ad fills the entire length of a standard newspaper. The headline reads:

So, you’re ready to buy a home. Here’s the next 111 to-dos.

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Realtor.com advertisement

Good luck reading the remaining text (on left). It is purposely written in tiny font to squeeze in the dizzying number of details that buyer’s agents navigate to facilitate a home buying transaction

The point of the ad is that home buyers need support. The implication is that you can try to accomplish all the tasks yourself—researching, preparing financial documents, making offers, and considering legal protections. Or you can make just one decision: find a buyer’s agent.

Realtors making presentations to win over clients would be well served to include such a slide—one that's so dense it's almost illegible without a magnifying glass.

There are times when the intentional use of busy slides supports the argument.

Take Apple, for example. The company’s product launches are notable for minimalist and visually appealing slides that contain more photos and images than text.

However, in June, when Apple unveiled new products, features and plans to put artificial intelligence in every corner of its iPhone, the company's speakers intentionally broke the mold by including strategically cluttered slides.

For example, after one speaker highlighted notable updates in macOS Sonoma, the Mac's latest operating system, he projected a slide filled with boxes highlighting dozens of other features: updates to Apple’s browser, Safari, new gaming titles, iPhone mirroring on the desktop, and much more.

The slide only stayed up for 20 seconds. It was far too little time to read everything, but that’s the point—it was intentionally cluttered to put an exclamation point on the product announcement.

The intentional use of clutter is as much of an art as the deliberate use of white space. So get busy, but only when the time is right.

Carmine Gallo

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